PhotoLexicon, Volume 26, nr. 41 ( September 2009) (en)

Richard Tepe

Christiane Kuhlmann

Mattie Boom


Richard Tepe was one of the most important nature photographers of the Netherlands at the start of the twentieth century. He photographed birds and nests, but also plants, flowers, farmland, and landscapes in a variety of locations. Judging from birding handbooks, Tepe is certain to have taken more than 8,600 photographs. The period in which he worked was one marked by the strong growth of the nature movement in the Netherlands. Tepe’s legacy—in the condition in which it was retrieved—comprises approximately 400 high-quality prints and more than 3,250 negatives, conveying not only an interest in ornithology, but also a substantial talent in the field of photography.




Richard August Joseph Maria (Richard) Tepe is born on 28 August at Herengracht 24 in Amsterdam. He comes from a large German Catholic family that has settled in then Netherlands. Richard’s mother, Ernestina Elisabeth Frederika Anna Savels, was born in Münster in the region of Westphalia, Germany. His father, Josephus Franciscus Richard Tepe, was born and raised in Amsterdam. Both parents die in the same year that Richard was born. He grows up in Amsterdam in the house of his grandfather, Fredericus Antonius Tepe, owner of the textile wholesale company F. Tepe & Co. Richard’s grandfather lives with his second wife, Maria Sterneberg, daughter of a wealthy banker and textile manufacturer from Münster, at Keizersgracht 365 (now No. 65).


Tepe attends the Jesuit school ‘Katwijk de Breul’, near Zeist.


Tepe again attends the same Jesuit school and completes his school education.


Richard’s grandfather dies. His son, the architect Alfred Tepe, becomes Richard’s official guardian. Richard moves into his uncle’s home in Rijsenburg, in the vicinity of Utrecht.


Tepe is initially registered as a farmer. In Tepe’s biography in Karel H. Voous’ In de ban van vogels (‘Under the Spell of Birds’, 1995), this is described as a tenant farm in Maarssen. There exist notarial acts that indeed cite Tepe as the owner of a farm. In the family, there is also talk concerning the bankruptcy of a farming business.


According to a family account, in this year Tepe establishes a mineral water factory in Loenen. However, there is no evidence of such an enterprise to be found in the archives of the Utrecht Chamber of Commerce.


On 31 May 1892, Tepe weds Gijsbertha Maria C. de Bruijn in Rijsenburg. Both are twenty-seven years of age at the time. The couple never has any children.


The Utrechtsch Nieuwsblad mentions various entries and awards (Kippen met Haan, ‘Chickens with Rooster’) in Richard Tepe’s name at the poultry and rabbit exhibitions hosted by the association ‘Ornithophilia’.


On 11 November 1897, Tepe moves to Alexanderplein 11 I in Amsterdam (arriving from Maarssen). His profession in the Amsterdam population register is stated as ‘landbouwer’ (‘farmer’). On 12 June 1899, Tepe subsequently moves to Watergraafsmeer, where he initially resides at Linnaeusstraat 3, and later, at Middenweg 58. In Watergraafsmeer, his profession is listed as ‘manufacturer of minerals’.


Tepe takes photographs of his outings with Jac. P. Thijsse in the vicinity of the Naardermeer Lake and in Amsterdam.


Richard Tepe is a co-founder of the NOV (Nederlandsche Ornithologische Vereniging, ‘Netherlands Ornithological Association’).


Tepe becomes a member of the NAFV (Nederlandse Amateur Fotografen Vereniging, ‘Netherlands Amateur Photographers Association’) in Amsterdam. He participates for the first time in a photography exhibition, entitled Tentoonstelling van photographieën van in het wild levende Nederlandsche vogels, hun eieren en nesten (‘Exhibition of Photographs of Dutch Birds Living in the Wild, their Eggs and Nests’). This exhibition—a competition hosted by the newspaper Algemeen Handelsblad under the motto ‘Vogels in ‘t vrije’ (‘Birds in the Open Air’)—takes place in the hall of the Nieuwsblad voor Nederland (‘Newspaper for the Netherlands’) in Amsterdam. At the exhibition, Tepe displays thirty-three photos and is awarded second and third prize. First prize is awarded to Paul Louis Steenhuizen. Tepe’s earliest preserved print, featuring a shot of a nest, as well dates from this year.


Tepe moves to the ‘Villa Mayflower’ in Bloemendaal.


A photograph taken by Tepe is published for the first time in the magazine De Levende Natuur (‘Living Nature’).


In 1905, the Vereniging tot Behoud van Natuurmonumenten (‘Association for the Conservation of Natural Monuments’) is founded. One aim of this organisation is the conservation of the Naardermeer Lake and its surroundings, which the association manages to purchase on 3 September 1906, thereby establishing the first nature reserve in the Netherlands. Shortly prior to this, in August 1906, Tepe makes photographs at the Naardermeer. Starting in 1907, the association fights hard to protect bird-nesting sites in the De Muy dune area on the island of Texel. Tepe also photographs here.


Jac P. Thijsse publishes Het intieme leven der vogels (‘The Intimate Life of Birds’). On the title page, Tepe is named as the photographer.


The first issue of the magazine Buiten (‘Outdoors’) appears on 18 May 1907. The cover photagraph is taken by Tepe, depicting spoonbills in the area of the Naardermeer Lake. For years to come, Tepe publishes his photographs and articles in this magazine.


Work by Tepe is shown at the Internationale Tentoonstelling van Foto-Kunst (‘International Exhibition of Photographic Art’), held at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.


Tepe’s first book is published, entitled De jacht met de camera (‘The Hunt with the Camera’). In this same year, the sequel to Jac. P. Thijsse’s Het intieme leven der vogels is published by Vincent Loosjes in Haarlem, bearing the title Omgang met planten (‘Handling Plants’), this time illustrated with plant photographs taken by Tepe.


Tepe participates in the Exposition universelle et internationale de Bruxelles (‘Universal and International Exhibition of Brussels’) with photographs of flowers, plants, and birds. In the pavilion of the Netherlands, aquarium photographs by August Vogt are also exhibited. Tepe receives the Diplôme de Grand Prix (‘Grand Prize Diploma’). In this same year, the AFV (Amateur Fotografen Vereniging, ‘Amateur Photographers Association’) exhibition is held at the association’s own hall in Amsterdam.

Tepe and his wife move to Apeldoorn. It is likely that in this year Tepe publishes a portfolio of twenty-five photos with the bookseller P. Stins. A surviving title page with summary heralds the photos as follows: ‘Photographs. Nature Shots by R. Tepe. With captions by J. Daalder DZ. 25 Photos in Portfolio’.


Tepe becomes a member of the Club van Nederlandsche Vogelkundigen (‘Club of Netherlands Ornithologists’).


Tepe is a member of the NFPV (Nederlandse Fotografen Patroonsvereeniging, ‘Netherlands Photographers Guild’).


Tepe donates a green-velvet album with twenty-five photographs of his ‘Nature Photography’ to the Dutch Royal House. In 1973, the Royal House Archive transfers this album to the Leiden University Print Room.


Tepe’s wife, Gijsbertha, dies on 9 January.


Tepe spends the final years of his life in relative isolation. He dies on 16 May in Apeldoorn. In his possession at this time are 8,600 glass negatives, 3,000 lantern slide plates, and a collection of stuffed birds and eggs. Following his death, Tepe’s archive is bequeathed to the Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging (‘Royal Netherlands Association of Natural History’) in Apeldoorn.


On 16 November of this year, the collector Willem Diepraam purchases photographs and glass negatives at the De Zon auction house, possibly from the inheritance of the taxidermist J. Roeleveld. A portion of this material is currently preserved in the collections of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam and the University Library in Leiden. The Rijksmuseum has transferred 3,250 negatives—as well originally purchased by Diepraam at an auction—to the Netherlands Photo Museum in Rotterdam.


Richard Tepe’s family ties are complex. Both of his parents died in the year he was born. The young Richard therefore grew up in the home of his grandfather, Fredericus Antonius Tepe, a textile merchant in Amsterdam who had married his first wife’s sister from the same family Sterneberg. Richard lived in their house on the Keizersgracht in Amsterdam, together with the children from this second marriage. The family was of German origin. The Sternebergs were bankers and owners of textile companies who maintained trade contacts with Amsterdam. Great-grandfather Franz Joseph Sterneberg was a hunter and an ornithologist.

The interests of Richard’s family members extended as well to other areas. Richard’s uncle, Alfred Tepe, was a renowned architect that had done work on Cologne Cathedral. He was also active in church construction in the Netherlands, designing buildings such as the Amsterdam church called the ‘Krijtberg’. While the family had lived in the Netherlands already for quite some time, they still maintained contact with family and friends in Germany. Richard was therefore raised bilingual. The family was Roman Catholic by origin. Richard studied at the Jesuit school ‘Katwijk de Breul’. The Ornithologisch biografisch woordenboek (‘Ornithological Biographical Dictionary’) by Karel H. Voous describes Richard Tepe as a ‘descendant of an old merchant family (the ‘store of Sinkel!)’, who was financially independent throughout his life resulting from the early death of his parents. Tepe is also thought to have been the owner of a large tenant farm in Maarssen.

In 1904, Tepe moved to Bloemendaal. How and when he developed an interest in photography is not entirely clear. But in the period around 1900, about which time he became active in this area, amateur photography became very popular. With hand-held cameras that were easy to operate, day-to-day life could be captured in snapshots, especially by the middle and upper classes. The camera was present at family events on a more frequent basis. This is certain to have also been the case with the Tepe family: combining the one hobby (photography) with the other (ornithology and poultry) is then simply a matter of time. Tepe was a farmer and a member of the poultry association. In 1892 and 1896, he was awarded prizes on various occasions for his roosters and chickens at the national poultry and so-called ‘small animal’ exhibitions that were held on an annual basis at the ‘Jaarbeurs’ (‘Annual Trade Fair’) in Utrecht. It is likely that a number of proud owners at this fair had already started taking photographs of their prize-winning animals. Without doubt, photography was likewise of service to ornithologists. True-to-life images of various bird sorts—with all of the ornate detail that they offered—are certain to have been a much sought-after object, as they helped to classify and determine the specimens that one observed. Shortly after 1900, Tepe and Paul Steenhuizen were the first to evolve themselves as specialists in the area of bird photography. Tepe went from being an amateur to a professional photographer, possessing all of the professional equipment and technical knowledge in this field. For Tepe, photography was perhaps the most important of his two passions, as suggested by the telling title of his first book De jacht met de camera (‘The Hunt with the Camera’). His primary goal in hunting birds was to acquire a good shot. The numerous articles that he wrote for both domestic and foreign magazines show precisely how he proceeded in his work.

It is strange that Tepe’s name is nowhere mentioned in the biography on Jac. P. Thijsse published several years ago: in fact, Tepe was Thijsse’s companion and counterpart. Just as Thijsse popularised and publicised people’s interest in nature in the Netherlands, Tepe did the same through photography. As early as 1898, Tepe started taking photos in the area of the Naardermeer Lake during his hikes with Thijsse. It was the goal of both men to raise the Dutch public’s awareness regarding the necessity of conserving such areas. Through their efforts, they were at the forefront of the Vereniging tot behoud van Natuurmonumenten (‘Association for the Conservation of Natural Monuments’) in the Netherlands and played an active role therein.

Tepe’s earliest surviving print, a photograph of a nest, dates from 1902. By this time, he is certain to have been active as a photographer for at least four years. For the period 1898 to 1902, however, no prints or negatives have been recovered. A review written by Thijsse in Lux (1902) informs us that Tepe submitted thirty-three photos of birds, eggs and a nest to a competition/exhibition hosted by the newspaper Algemeen Handelsblad: ‘Except for the enlargements, Mr. Tepe expanded his entry even more by presenting prints on various kinds of paper and then specifically on Celloidin Hallohmat and Van Bosch paper. It is extremely interesting, how different colours are best suited to different subjects.’ After Steenhuizen (fifty works), Tepe was the most important participant. The photographs he exhibited all date from about May 1902. They were made on the island of Texel, around the Naardermeer, and in Sint Maartensdijk. Between 1902 and 1910, Tepe therefore had a productive starting period. He worked from his home in Bloemendaal, named the ‘Villa Mayflower’, located directly behind the dunes in surroundings heavily populated with birds.

For Tepe, photography is certain to have served as a kind of classification: he collected his images of birds just as a traditional ornithologist records his observations. In the same discussion of 1902 in Lux, Thijsse worded this as follows: ‘(…) of how much use can photography be in this case (…) the creation of a collection of photographs of birds, their nests, eggs and young is much more practical and less costly than the gathering of nests, egg shells, and stuffed birds, some better than others, without having to sacrifice the life of a single bird in the process.’ It was in fact ‘birding’ with pictures. Tepe furnished each photo with precise annotations on the reverse side, both in German and in Dutch: the ‘Red-Backed Shrike D’, the ‘Robin D’, etc. As early as 1906, fifty photographs were published in Jac. P. Thijsse’s Het intieme leven der vogels (‘The Intimate Life of Birds’). This book was a popular-scientific work that included numerous anecdotes. It was reprinted into the 1960s. Just prior to this, in 1906, Thijsse had also turned in his text for the first ‘Verkade album’. Het Vogeljaar (‘The Year of the Bird’) of 1904 was another of his works that was reprinted for years, featuring coloured drawings. Tepe’s photographs made a difference, as Eli Heimans observed in De Amsterdammer, because they elicited interesting observations on Thijsse’s part, ‘especially when he himself has been out to look, he himself has pointed out the nest or the bird (…) without this bird photographer, the bird literator would not have written this book.’ In the book’s introduction, Thijsse emphasised the importance of bird conservation: it could be solved only by total insight into the lives of birds. Shortly hereafter, in 1909, Thijsse called on Tepe once again, this time for the book Omgang met planten (‘Tending to Plants’). The report of the AFV’s meeting on 6 April 1910—in the same space that Tepe was holding a one-man exhibition—provides an adequate description of how these photos were viewed at the time, specifically, as an ‘instructive collection’. During this meeting, Tepe provided explanatory information, ‘and taking us along dune and forest, field and lake (…) Numerous new shots have enriched the collection, affirming that Mr. Tepe never sits still (…) In a pleasant and engaging manner, the speaker tells about the lives of birds and how he photographs them. Following a short break, the speaker continues with stunning photographs of flowers and plants, whereby the way of life is conveyed again in a clear manner.’ For the first time, the artistic quality of Tepe’s work is also discussed explicitly, i.e. that ‘besides the nature shot, Mr. Tepe does not forget the good photo as well and is not just satisfied with the image of the bird itself, but at the same time, attempts to take a shot that meets the artistic requirements.’

Because of the large public he managed to reach, Tepe may perhaps be considered as a founding father of bird photography in the Netherlands. Abroad, however, he was best known for his plant photography and nature shots. In 1910, Lux affirmatively quoted a statement made in a German magazine: ‘Tepe may be called the best natural history photographer of the Continent.’ At the Internationale Tentoonstelling van Foto-Kunst (‘International Exhibition of Photographic Art’), held at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam in 1908, Tepe showed only plant studies and landscapes. In 1909, he exhibited fifty-eight plant studies in the form of lantern slide plates in Dresden. In 1910, photos of flowers and plants were exhibited at the Exposition universelle et internationale de Bruxelles (‘Universal and International Exhibition of Brussels’), in addition to other photos of birds. His entries to exhibitions therefore indicate that photography encompassed more than just ‘birding’ for him. In 1910, Tepe received his own exhibition at the AFV in Amsterdam. It was here that he showed his winterscapes for the first time. In these photos, however, there is hardly any of the pretention or affectation that one commonly encounters during this period in the work of the Pictorialists. Tepe’s photos—whether landscapes, plants or nests—had an almost objectivist leaning: the image was clear and precise, and nowhere calculating or suggestive.

Various conclusions can be drawn from Tepe’s articles and books with respect to his working procedure. As mentioned before, he occasionally worked from his own home and photographed birds, for instance, from the railing of his balcony. Beside this, most of his photos were taken at locations frequented by birders, ranging from the De Muy on Texel to the dune-rich surroundings of his home in Bloemendaal. Bird photography is certain to have been quite intensive and cumbersome. Patience and endurance were most important, as Tepe wrote in Focus in 1919. In addition, the bird photographer had to be prepared to withstand numerous inconveniences and disappointments. The costs involved were also high. Without a thorough (fore-) knowledge of nature, one might just as well forget even trying. In return, however, there was much to be gained. As Jac. P. Thijsse stated in the introduction of Het intieme leven, it was a ‘refined’ hunt: the binoculars and camera were the weapon, the photos and negatives the prey.

This was certain to have been a more static form of photography than a comparison with hunting suggests, as Tepe’s camera was not readily manoeuvred: it was always set up on a tripod, placed in the vicinity of the animal or nest, covered by a kind of tent or camouflaged. He left the camera standing for a night, so that the animals could get used to its presence. Sometimes he even planted a fake camera for a couple of days. He would then stand at a distance, using his binoculars to see what would happen. He then simply proceeded to wait. When taking a shot, he then used a remote control in the form of a cable or a rope. In order to approach birds in a tree, he made an extended tripod. Tepe also worked with assistants, leaving one man behind in the tent, while the other walked away: birds are unable to count and consequently assume there are no others around. When photographing, Tepe always used a fast, wide-aperture lens, and preferably, a camera with a silent shutter-release. Coincidence always played a role. It was photography based on feeling and experience, often with little opportunity to use the viewfinder. With this approach, Tepe took approximately three photos each day. Upon returning home, he could assess whether the photos had been successful.

In a recent article on bird and nest photographers of the past, the ornithologist Ruud Vlek examines the background factors of this hobby extensively, as well as the more controversial aspects of hunting with a camera. Also mentioned in the article is Richard Tepe, who, as it turns out, did not shy away from employing ‘hard-handed’ tactics—on occasion asking one of his assistants to remove a nest from a tree so it could be photographed. Photographic production was always linked to bird season, i.e. spring through fall. In other seasons, Tepe devoted his time to the aforementioned plant studies, landscapes and winterscapes.

Technically speaking, Tepe was well grounded as a photographer. He worked with plate cameras on a tripod, on glass negatives of 9×12, 13×8, and 18×24 cm. He worked without a telephoto lens until 1907, at which time one came into his possession. We do not know the brands of the cameras and lenses with which he worked. His prints are of a fine quality, with different versions of the same photo on matte, glossy, and semi-glossy paper. For any given series, we do not encounter different negative formats, which might have indicated that he worked with two cameras for just that one series, e.g. as was indeed the case with the photo of the bird on the balcony railing of the Villa Mayflower, which he photographed on 9×12, but also 13×18 cm. The dimensions of the prints are often irregular, indicating that Tepe trimmed and cropped his photos as he saw fit. His decision regarding what the print was supposed to look like was deliberate. Tepe is certain to have spent long periods of time in the darkroom. Various kinds of paper can be distinguished, such as the matte albumen paper advertised by the German company Trapp & Münchs in the 1910s and ’20s. All of Tepe’s photos are contact prints. Among the hundreds of prints found in his legacy, there remains only one enlargement.

At the onset of the twentieth century, there were also other nature photographers active in the Netherlands. Paul Louis Steenhuizen and Adolphe Burdet worked in this same period and were from the same generation as Tepe. They all possessed the same hobby and were members of the same associations. Tepe was also highly knowledgeable when it came to bird photography outside the Netherlands. He published in the Deutscher Camera Almanach (‘German Camera Almanac’). The introduction to his small book De jacht met de camera confirms that he was familiar with foreign books featuring bird photos taken by the brothers Cherry and Richard Kearton, and the photography of H. Meerwarth. Tepe’s own book was a take-off of Georg E.F. Schulz’s Natur-Urkunden (‘Nature Documents’), published in Berlin in 1908. Photographers such as these—whose interest was focussed on birds and nature and whose orientation was an objective registration—had very little in common with the artistic photography circuit. Tepe’s systematic and objectivist photography is also reminiscent of the album by the British photographer/horticulturist Charles Jones. In the decade 1910 to 1920, Jones photographed his newly cultivated fruits and vegetables in a manner that was just as systematic and objective as Tepe: pears, apples, leeks, turnips, etc. While one can safely rule out any possibility that Tepe ever saw Jones’ album, the two men’s objectivist approach is the same. At the 2005 exhibition devoted to animal photography held at the Folkwang Museum in Essen, Germany, entitled Nützlich, süß und museal (‘Useful, Sweet and Museological’), Tepe’s work was shown again for the first time, alongside other examples of photography dating from the last 170 years, both German and international.

The photos of birds and nests form a majority of Tepe’s legacy, but as was already mentioned, this type of photography was season-related. The localisation and photographing of nests was a separate category and required a specific expertise. Tepe devoted his time as well to studies of flowers and plants. This was sometimes outdoors, but also indoors in the form of plant and flower still lifes. In 1915, Tepe published an extensive essay in the magazine Camera on how to photograph flowers. In his legacy, there are also several exceptional still lifes featuring rows of apples and pears. He took photos in the greenhouses at Het Loo Palace, but also landscape shots in the surrounding forests. In the town of Bunschoten, he photographed on people’s private estates, as well capturing splendid scenes of children with animals and a genre image of a local woman standing next to a cradle. On the island of Texel, he portrayed the gamekeeper; in Apeldoorn, the forest ranger with his family. Landscape is a recurring theme, ranging from the Naardermeer Lake to the winterscape on the Voorst estate in Gelderland, where he also made studies of trees. Here, too, Tepe approaches a classification inherent to the biologist’s field. One that as well provided an intimate glimpse into nature: from very close up, highly specific, and down to the very last detail. There is a clear distinction between bird photography, the ‘living’ material, and the other categories. There is also a distinction between the photos he constructed and those that were directly from nature. The rabbits, guinea pigs, and other animals that Tepe portrayed resting on a table are curious: almost exact drawings, where one can almost feel the fur. Evidently, it was Tepe’s aim to capture their textural feel.

Richard Tepe made submissions to publications throughout his life, both texts and images. A random edition of the magazine Buiten comprises extensive articles by Tepe, written on topics as varied as lilacs, apricots, wasps, tits, and wild rabbits. The photos featured in this beautifully illustrated magazine are virtually always accompanied by author citation, as was the case with all that he published. Tepe wrote and photographed for very first issue of Buiten in 1907, and continued to do so until he turned seventy. He was not alone: similar contributions made by e.g. Eli Heimans, Burdet, and Steenhuizen are also found in the magazine. Other magazines that include numerous photos by Tepe are De Levende Natuur (‘Living Nature’), De Prins (‘The Prince’), and Opgang. His photos were also used in works published by other bird experts and nature-lovers, including those by Rinke Tolman, and Jan Vriends’ book, Met kijker, camera en loupe (‘With Binoculars, Camera, and Magnifying Glass’). Most frequently published are Tepe’s photos of birds. These photos lived a long life and were occasionally reprinted elsewhere some ten, twenty, or thirty years after they had been taken. A life that comprised approximately forty years of taking photographs has turned up a colossal inventory of images. Yet the question of whether Tepe as well made his living with this work is a matter that remains unclear. Although Tepe is thought to have been financially independent based on his inheritance—as is observed by his biographer in In de ban van vogels­—he was by no means rich. Membership fees for the various photography associations, apportioned according to ability, attest to Tepe’s relative poverty. As a photographer for magazines such as Buiten and De Levende Natuur, he was probably paid nothing, instead receiving a small compensation for material costs. Tepe is likely to have led a modest existence; he presumably continued to earn a living by working as a farmer. Photography was not simply an expensive hobby, it also brought fulfilment to his life.

In the history of photography, the work of nature photographers such as Tepe forms a forgotten, but intriguing niche. It is an area of photography that parallels the concern for the conservation of natural monuments and birds in the Netherlands, which is certain to have emerged with people’s interest in ornithology and so-called ‘birding’. In Tepe’s case, however, photography gradually became most important. On the one hand, this involved the activity of taking photographs in itself. In articles published on the topic, it was frequently compared to hunting—with the photo seen as the hunting trophy. Such photos were analogous to the title of Schulz’s book Natur-Urkunden—’evidence’ derived directly from nature. On the other hand, Tepe was a master in the darkroom. His prints have a clarity and precision that are thought to have been discovered in photography only later on. Tepe lived the life of a hermit, as Brouwer wrote in his overview of the earliest ornithologists in the Netherlands. He produced more than forty years of photography that possesses a timeless quality, as Kuhlmann wrote in her recent photo-historical discussion of Tepe the photographer. The timeless nature of his subject perhaps also explains how Tepe managed to find his own style at such an early stage and why he saw little need to adapt. It is this which has led to a surprising and objective photographic approach in the work of a minor master—a man averse to all movements or art—that falls somewhere between tradition and modernity. Tepe’s sparrow on the wall is reminiscent of Carel Fabritius’ Goldfinch, and no photographer prior to this time had ever perceived a row of pears in such a manner. His photographic series appear to stand on their own, not fitting into any one category. Tepe’s photos are realistic to the extreme and comparable to the approach of Charles Jones, a contemporary and a horticulturist. The focused devotion of these two men to their material can also be found in the work of present-day photographers such as Roni Horn, who is currently making detailed studies of bird nests. In the case of Tepe, a curiosity for nature evolved almost inadvertently into a form of ‘new photography’.


Primary bibliography

{eigen publicaties: tekst, eventueel met foto’s, maar ook fotoboeken e.d.)

Jac. P. Thijsse, Het intieme leven der vogels, geïllustreerd met vijftig reproducties van natuuropnamen van R. Tepe. Haarlem (Vincent Loosjes) 1906.

R. Tepe, Naturaufhahmen frei lebender Vogel, in Deutscher Camera Almanach 3 (1907), p. 192-203 (met foto’s),

Richard Tepe, Ornithologische, tevens fotografische excursies, in “Lux”. Geïllustreerd tijdschrift voor fotografie 18 (1 oktober 1907) 19, p. 424.

Richard Tepe, Natuurfotografie, in Elsevier’s geïllustreerd Maandschrift 18 (1908) 36, p. 383-390.

Richard Tepe, De jacht met de camera, Nijmegen (P.A. Geurts) 1909.

Jac. P. Thijsse, Omgang met planten, geïllustreerd met vijftig reproducties van natuuropnamen van R. Tepe, Haarlem (Vincent Loosjes) 1909.

R. Tepe en J. Daalder, Photographieën. Natuuropnamen door R. Tepe. Met bijschrift van J. Daalder DZ. 25 Photo’s in Portefeuille, Apeldoorn (P. Stins) zj. [ca. 1910].

Richard Tepe, Natuurfotografie -I, in De Camera 6 (1914) 16, p. 157-158.

Richard Tepe, Natuurfotografie – II, in De. Camera 6 (1914) 17, p. 168-169.

Richard Tepe, Natuurfotografie – III, in De Camera 6 (1914) 19, p. 191-192, bijlage na p. 191, bijlage na p. 195 (met foto’s).

Richard Tepe, Natuurfotografie – IV, in De Camera 6 (1914) 22, p. 220-221.

Richard Tepe, Het fotografeeren van bloemen, in De Camera 7 (1915), p. 81-83.

Richard Tepe, Vogel-album [album voor sigarettenplaatjes], Amsterdam (Herm. Oldenkott & Zoonen Tabakskerverij) 1917-1922.

Richard Tepe, Het fotografeeren van in vrijheid levende vogels en andere dieren, in Focus 6 (28 juli 1919) 9, p. 187-190.

Rinke Tolman, Vogelkens van allerlei vleugel. Met fotografieën naar de natuur door R. Tepe, Leiden (A.W. Sijthoff) z.j. [1928].

R. Tepe, Bij de rotganzenvangers op Wieringen, in De Nederlandsche jager 37 (30 april 1932) 44, p. 526-529.

R. Tepe, Bij de rotganzenvangers op Wieringen. II, in De Nederlandsche jager 37 (7 mei 1932) 44, p. 538-542.


Richard Tepe, in Buiten:

Vogelfotografie, 1 (18 mei 1907) 1, omslag, p. 5-7 (met foto’s).

Meezen, 10(13 mei 1916) 20, p. 236-237 (met foto’s).

Seringen, 10 (20 mei 1916) 21, p. 248-249 (met foto’s).

Meezen, 10 (10 juni 1916) 24, p. 285- 287 (met foto’s).

Meezen (Slot), 10 (24 Juni 1916) 26, p. 307-308 (met foto’s).

Roodstaartjes, 10 (15 juli 1916) 29, p. 345-347 (met foto).

Wilde konijnen. 10 (2 september 1916) 36, p. 430-432 (met foto’s).

De abrikoos (Prunus armeniaca), 10 (16 september 1916) 38. p. 454-455 (met foto’s).

De gaai, 11 (5 mei 1917) 18, p. 213-214 (met foto’s).

Een wespennest, 11 (1 september 1917) 36, p. 417 (met foto’s).

De sperwer (Accipiter nisus, Nisus. L), 12 (6 april 1918) 14, p. 166-168 (met foto’s).

De torenvalk, 12 (6 juli 1918) 27, p. 322-323 (met foto’s).

De ekster, 12 (27 juli 1918) 30. p. 358-359.

Bloeiende vruchtboomen, 16 (13 mei 1922) 19, p. 225-226 (met foto’s).

Bloeiende vruchtboomen (Slot), 16 (20 mei 1922) 20, p. 236-239 (met foto’s).

De boomvalk (Falco Subbetio Subbuter) (L.), 17 (2 juni 1923) 22, p. 257-259 (met foto’s).

Pauwen, 17 (21 juli 1923) 29, p. 344-346 (mei foto’s).

Vogelfotografie op het eiland Texel, 22 (21 april 1928) 16, p. 189-191 (met foto’s).

Vogelfotografie op het eiland Texel (Vervolg), 22 (28 april 1928) 17, p. 201-203 (met foto’s).

Vogelfotografie op het eiland Texel (Slot), 22 (5 mei 1928) 18, p. 213-215 (met foto’s).

Meezen-vertrouwen. 24 (8 februari 1930) 6, p. 68-69 (met foto’s).

Onze bedreigde baardmeezen op het Kampereiland, 28 (21 april 1934) 16, p. 190-191.

De winterkoning, 28 (22 december 1934) 51, p. 609-611 (met foto’s).


Richard Tepe, in Opgang. Geïllustreerd weekblad voor godsdienst, wetenschap, kunst, staatkunde, economie, techniek, handel, industrie:

Het paapje (ratincola rubekra rubekra) (L),4 (7 juni 1924) 173, p. 561-562.

Een wespennest, 4 (12 juli 1924) 178, p. 679-681.

Het Koninklijk Paleis en het Koninklijk Park “Het Loo” te Het Loo bij Apeldoorn I, 4 (23 augustus 1924) 184, p. 810-819.

Het Koninklijk Paleis en het Koninklijk Park “Het Loo” te Het Loo bij Apeldoorn II 4 (30 augustus 1924) 185, p. 841-848.

Appeltjes van oranje, 4 (6 december 1924) 199, p. 1184-1187.

Crocus, 5 (7 februari 1925) 208, p. 122-1 24.

Een fraaie sierheester, 5 (28 februari 1925) 211, p. 210-211.

Seringen, 5(21 maart 1925) 214, p. 278-280.

Tulpen, 5 (25 april 1925) 219, p. 404-407, De zwarte lijster of merel, turdus merula merula (L), 5 (23 mei 1925) 223, p. 490-492,

Sneeuwballen, 5 (30 mei 1925) 224, p. 529-531.

De kers (Prunus Avium), 5 (6 juni 1925) 225, p. 554-556 (met foto’s).

Het korenveld, 5 (27 juni 1925) 228, p. 610-615 (met foto’s).

De vliegend-hert-kever, 5 (14 november 1925) 248, p. 1105-1106 (met foto’s).

Wintergroen I, 5 (12 december 1925) 252, p. 1191-1193 (met foto’s).

Wintergroen I, 6 (2 januari 1926) 255, p. 19-20.


(foto’s in boeken, tijdschriften en ander drukwerk)

De Levende Natuur 9 (januari 1905) 10, p. 195-199. 201-204, 206.

De Levende Natuur 9 (maart 1905) 12, p. 244.

De Levende Natuur 10 (mei 1905) 2, p. 28-29.

De Levende Natuur 10 (juli 1905) 4, p. 70-71.

De Levende. Natuur 10 (december 1905) 9, p. 170.

“Lux”. Geïllustreerd tijdschrift voor fotografie 17 (1906), na p. 184.

De Levende Natuur 10 (januari 1906) 10, p. 192-194.

De Levende Natuur 10 (februari 1906) 11, p. 210-212.

De Levende Natuur 12 (mei 1907) 2, p. 22-23.

J. E. Rombouts, Handboek der practische fotografie, Utrecht (Honig) 1909, 2de herz. dr., p. 57.

“Lux”. Foto-tïjdschrift 24 (1909), p. 17.

De Prins der geillustreerde bladen 25 maart 1911, p. 147.

Jac. P. Thijsse, Het vogeljaar, Amsterdam (Versluys) 1913, 2de dr., p. 232, 314, 316, 318, 325, 333, 365, 371, 413, 415, 417, 543, 545, 547.

“Lux”. Foto-tijdschrift 24 (15 november 1913) 22, p. 514.

De Camera 6 (1914) 5, bijlage.

Fotografisch Maandschrift 9 (1 januari 1914), na p. 74.

Anoniem, Nederland, z.p. (Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Staatsspoorwegen) 1915, ongepag.

De Camera 8 (1915/1916), p. 80.

De Prins der geïllustreerde bladen 15 (24 juli 1915, 4, p. 38

De Prins der geïllustreerde bladen, 15 (14 augustus 1915) 7, p. 78.

De Prins der geïllustreerde bladen 15 (20 november 1915) 21, p. 243.

De Prins der geïllustreerde bladen 17 (13 Januari 1917), p. 23.

De Prins der geïllustreerde bladen 17 (14 juli 1917), p. 18.

De Prins der geïllustreerde bladen 17 (1 december 1917), p. 258.

Focus 6 (30 juni 1919) 7, p. 150-153.

Jac. P. Thijsse, Het vogeljaar, Amsterdam (Versluys) 1923, 3e dr., p. 12-13, 15, 60, 108-109, 111, 121, 127, 154, l78, 186-187, 285-287, 297-298.

Rinke Tolman (tekst) en Richard Tepe (foto’s). Onder Holland’s hemelen, Utrecht (Leijdenroth van Boekhoven) 1923.

Focus 11 (30 oktober 1924) 22. p. 590.

Focus 17 (2 augustus 1930) 16, p. 42G.

De Nederlandsche jager 37 (28 mei 1932) 48, p. 575.

Jan Vriends, Met kijker, camera en loupe. Vreedzame strooptochen in de dieren- en plantenwereld, Amsterdam (Blitz) 1934, na p. 32, na p. 164.

Herman Löns, Mein grünes Buch- Tierund Jagdgeschichten. Erzählungen und Schilderungen, Bad Pyrmont (Gersbach) 1936, p. 113-114, 186.

Arthur Berger en Josef Schmid, Das Reich der Tiere. Das Tier in seinem Lebensraum. Erster Band. Die Tiere des Wassers und der Polarwelt. Berlijn (Ullstein) 1937, p. 478, 493.

Arthur Berger en Josef Schmid, Das Reich der Tiere. Das Tier in seinem Lebensraum. Dritter Band. Wüsten und Gebirge, Berlijn (Ullstein) 1937. p. 304, na p. 306, p. 309, 327, 355, 370-371.

Jac. P. Thijsse (medew.), Bos en hei, Amsterdam (Contact) 1937, p. 25 (serie: De schoonheid van ons land, deel III.)

Jac. P. Thijsse, Het vogeljaar. Nederlandse vogels in hun leven geschetst. Deel 1. Bij huis en hof, Laren (Schoonderbeek) 1939, 4de dr., p. 12-13, 16, 88, 181-182, 185, 187, 202, 204, 215, 219-220, 249, 260, 266-267, 276, 278, 312.

Jac. P. Thijsse. Het vogeljaar. Nederlandse vogels in bun leven geschetst. Deel 2. In wijder kring. Laren (Schoonderbeek) 1940, 4de dr., p. 14, 20, 22, 225, 227, 229, 244-245. 247.

Het Parool 26 januari 2001.

Ludy Giebels, Hollands water. Het hoogheemraadschap van Rijnland na 1857, Utrecht (Matrijs) 2002, p. 106


in Buiten:

1 (18 mei 1907) 1, p. 8-9.

1 (1 juni 1907) 3, p. 32.

4 (15 oktober 1910) 42, p. 499.

5 (28 januari 1911) 4, p. 42.

5 (18 maart 1911) 11, p. 131-132.

5 (8 april 1911) 14, p. 166-167.

5 (6 mei 1911] 18. omslag, p. 211-212.

5 (8 juli 1911) 27, p. 322.

5 {22 juli 1911) 29, p. 345.

5 (29 Juli 1911) 30, p. 359-360.

5 (5 augustus 1911) 31, p. 368-369.

5 (26 augustus 1911) 34, p. 404.

5 (16 september 1911) 37, omslag.

5 {23 september 1911) 38, p. 453.

5 (7 oktober 1911) 40, p. 477.

5 (18 november 1911) 46, p. 550-551.

5 (2 december 1911) 48, p. 573.

6 (20 januari 1912) 3, p. 35.

6 (27 januari 1912) 4, p. 50.

6 (3 februari 1912) 5, omslag.

6 (2 maart 1912) 9, p. 102-103

6 (9 maart 1912) 10, p. 120.

6 (6 april 1912) 14, omslag, p. 166.

6 (27 april 1912) 17, p. 202.

6 (11 mei 1912) 19, p. 228-230.

6 (18 mei 1912) 20, p. 236-237.

6 (25 mei 1912) 21, p. 254.

6 (22juni 1912) 22, p.301.

6 (l3 juli 1912) 28, p. 336, 338.

6 (27 juli 1912) 30, p. 356-357.

6 (3 augustus 1912) 31, p. 372-373.

6 (17 augustus 1912) 33, p. 395-397′

6 (24 augustus 1912) 34, p. 402-407.

6 (31 augustus 1912) 35, p. 421.

6 (7 september 1912) 36, p. 433.

6 (28 september 1912) 39, p. 469.

6 (12 oktober 1912) 41, p. 490, 492-493.

6 (9 november 1912) 45, p. 542.

6 (7 december 1912) 49, p. 589.

7 (8 februari 1913) 6, p. 71.

7 (15 februari 1913) 7, p. 86.

7 (22 maart 1913) 12, p. 142-143.

7 (29 maart 1913) 13, p. 154, 158.

7 (5 april 1913) 14, p. 165-166.

7 (12 april 1913) 15, p. 175, 179.

7 (26 april 1913) 17, p. 200-201.

7 (21 juni 1913) 25, p. 296-298.

7 (5 juli 1913) 27, p. 328.

7 (2 augustus 1913) 31, p. 374.

7 (27 september 1913) 39, p. 468.

8 (10 januari 1914) 2, p. 19.

8 (14 maart 1914) 11, p. 129.

8 (2 mei 1914) 18, p. 213-214.

8 (9 mei 1914) 19, p. 229.

8 (13 juni 1914) 24, p. 290.

8 (1 augustus 1914) 31, p. 375.

8 (8 augustus 1914) 32, p. 383-385.

8 (15 augustus 1914) 33, p. 398-399.

8 (29 augustus 1914) 35, p. 421.

8 (10 oktober 1914) 41, p. 494-495.

8 (17 oktober 1914) 42, p. 504, 506-507.

8 (24 oktober 1914) 43, p. 515.

8 (31 oktober 1914) 44, p. 531.

8 (28 november 1914) 48, omslag.

8 (5 december 1914) 49, omslag.

9 (3 april 1915) 14, p. 165.

9 (8 mei 1915) 19, p. 226-227.

9 (15 mei 1915) 20, p. 235-237.

9 (3 juli 1915) 27, p. 321.

9 (10 juli 1915) 28, p. 333,

9 (31juli 1915) 31, p. 368.

9 (14 augustus 1915) 33, p. 394-395.

9 (4 september 1915) 36, p.430-431.

9 (6 november 1915) 45, p. 537.

9 (27 november 1915) 48, p. 573.

10 (13mei 1916) 20, p. 236.

10 (17 juni 1916) 26, p. 298.

12 (16 februari 1918) 7, p. 84.

22 (31 maart 1928) 13, p. 153.

23 (31 augustus 1929) 35, omslag, p. 417.

24 (8 maart 1930) 10, p. 119.

24 (13 september 1930) 37, p. 441-442.

24 (4 oktober 1930) 40, p. 475.

24 (18 oktober 1930) 42, p. 496.

25 (17januari 1931)3, p. 31.

28 (28 april 1934) 17, p. 199-200.

28 (6 oktober 1934) 40, p. 475. 477.

28 (13 oktober 1934) 41, p. 485.

29 (8 juni 1935) 23, p. 273.

Secondary bibliography

(publicaties over de fotograaf en/of zijn werk )

Jac. P. Thijsse, De tentoonstelling van fotografieën van in het wild levende Nederlandsche vogels, hun eieren en nesten, in “Lux”. Geïllustreerd tijdschrift voor fotografie 13 (1902), p- 944-948.

Anoniem, Het fotografeeren van vogels in de natuur, in De Prins der geïllustreerde bladen 3 (27 mei 1904) 48, p. 571-572.

Anoniem, Fotografeeren van in Holland in het wild levende dieren, in “Lux”. Geïllustreerd tijdschrift voor fotografie 16 (1 mei 1905) 9, p. 183.

J.R.A. Schouten, Dierenleven in de vrije natuur, in “Lux”. Geïllustreerd tijdschrift voor fotografie 17(1 februari 1906) 3, p. 51-59.

S., Boekbeoordeling, Het intieme leven der vogels door Jac. P. Thijsse, in “Lux”, Geïllustreerd tijdschrift voor fotografie 18 (1907), p. 30.

E. Heimans, Uit de natuur. CC1V. Boeken, in De Amsterdammer. Weekblad voor Nederland 13 januari 1907, p. 7.

Catalogus der Internationale Tentoonstelling van Foto-Kunst, Amsterdam (Stedelijk Museum) 1908, p. 39.

Offizieller Katalog der Internationalen Photographischen Ausstellung Dresden 1909. Dresden (Wilhelm Baensch) 1909, p. 53, 57.

A., Van alles en nog wat, in “Lux”. Geïllustreerd tijdschrift, voor fotografie 20 (1 juni 1909) 11, p. 280-283.

Anoniem, Boekbespreking. De jacht met de camera, in “Lux” Geïllustreerd tijdschrift voor fotografie 20 (15 juni 1909) 12, p. 308.

Anoniem, Boekbespreking. Omgang met planten door Jac. P. Thijsse, in “Lux” Geïllustreerd tijdschrift, voor fotografie 20 (15 december 1909) 24, p. 629.

B.Z., De Eén-persoons-tentoonstellingen der A.-F.-V. te Amsterdam. 5. R. Tepe, in Lux. Foto-tijdschrift 21 (1 mei 1910) 9. p. 231-232.

A. van Dijk, Extract Notulen der Algemeene Vergadering van 6 April 1910, in Lux. Foto-tijdschrift 21 (15 mei 1910) 10, p. 257.

v.Z., Internationale Algemeene Tentoonstelling Brussel 1910. in Lux. Foto-tijdschrift 21 (1 juni 1910) 11, p. 290-391.

CJ. Veth, de jaarlijksche Nationale Tentoonstelling van Fotowerken, in Lux. Foto-tijdschrift 24 (15 november 1913) 22, p. 505-511.

Anoniem, Onze platen, in Focus 6 (30 juni 1919) 7, p. 140.

Anoniem, Prijsvragen “gedachte” en “aan den arbeid”, in Focus 8 (1 december 1921) 24, p. 525-527.

Anoniem, Gekozen lantaarnplaatjes, in Focus 9 (9 februari 1922) 3, p. 49.

Anoniem, Aan H.H. Secretarissen van fotoclubs, in Focus 9 (23 maart 1922) 6, p. 126.

Anoniem, De Technische Fotosalon te Delft, in Focus 11 (20 maart 1924) 6, p. 170-171.

A.B., “Focus” prijsvraag, vrije onderwerpen sept. klasse juniores, in Focus 11 (30 oktober 1924) 22, p. 581-584.

Josef Kettler, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Familie Sterneberg, Munster (Aschendorff) 1925, p. 53.

Anoniem, Projectievoordracht R. Tepe, te Hannover, in Focus 17 (18 januari 1930) 2, p. 35.

Anoniem, Bij de platen, in Focus 17 (2 augustus 1930} l6, p. 411-412.

A.B. Wigman, In memoriam R. Tepe, in Limosa. Orgaan der Club van Nederlandsche Vogelkundigen 25 (1952), p. 92.

Gerrit Anton Brouwer, Historische gegevens over onze vroegere ornithologen en over de avifauna van Nederland, Leiden (Brill) 1954, p. 126-127, 134.

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1839-1920, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978, p. 106.

Veilingcatalogus Dutch and Flemish vintage photographs 1860-1992. Veiling zondag 23 mei 1993 (etc). Den Haag (Glerum) 1993,lot 145-148.

Karel H. Voous, In de ban van vogels. Geschiedenis van de beoefening van de ornithologie in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw. Tevens ornithologisch biografisch woordenboek, Amsterdam (Scheffers) 1995, p. 484-485.

Hans Rooseboom, Nature photography, in Sheila D. Muller (red.), Dutch Art. An Encyclopedia, New York/ Londen (Garland Publishers) 1997, p. 354.

Veilingcatalogus Dutch photography 1900-2000, maandag 27 november 2000, Amsterdam (Glerum Auctioneers) 2000, lot 5-7.

Piet Meeuse, Als je haar maar goed zit, in De Gids. De Foto Gids, Amsterdam (Meulenhoff) 2001, p. 116-119.

Hans den Hartog Jager, Rembrandt is nergens, in NRC Handelsblad 13 februari 2001.

Peter Henk Steenhuis, Een loopjongen, een witkiel, een heer en een vrouw. Literatuur en Fotografie, in Trouw 22 januari 2001.

Loes van Harrevelt, Vrije vogels, Natuurfotografie in de collectie van het Nederlands Fotoarchief, in Nieuwsbrief Nederlands Fotogenootschap (april 2001) 32, p. 10-13.

Naomi Boas, Natuur en fotografie! Eene genotvolle combinatie. Richard Tepe, pionier, in Nieuwsbrief Nederlands Fotogenootschap (april 2001) 32, p. 14-15 (met foto’s).

Naomi Boas, Richard Tepe, in Wim van Sinderen, Fotografen in Nederland. Een anthologie 1852-2002, Amsterdam/ Gent/ Den Haag/ (Ludion/ Fotomuseum Den Haag) 2002, p. 378-379 (met foto’s).

Ute Eskildsen en Hans-Jürgen Lechtreck (red.), Nützlich, süss und museal. Das fotografierte Tier = The photographed animal. Useful, cute and collected, Essen/ Góttingen (Folkwang Museum/Steidl) 2005, p. 131, 313, 328, bijlage Exponatenliste und Kurzbiografien zur Ausstellung, p. 9.

Naorni Boas, Pioniers van de natuurfotografie, in Flip Bool e.a. (red.), Nieuwe geschiedenis van de fotografie. Dutch Eyes, Zwolle (Waanders) 2007, p. 196-199.

Marga Coesèl, joop Schaminée en Lodewijk van Duuren, De natuur als bondgenoot. De wereld van Heimans en Thijsse in historisch perspectief, Zeist/ Amsterdam (KNNV/ Heimans en Thijsse Stichting/ IVN) 2007, p. 69-72, 112, 147.

Christiane Kuhlmann, Richard Tepe: Photography of Nature in the Netherlands 1900-1940, Amsterdam 2007 (serie: Rijksmuseum Studies in Photography, volume I).

Ruud Vlek, Vogelfotografie en -bescherming: van de pioniers tot de activisten, in Frank Saris (samenstelling), Een eeuw vogels beschermen, Zeist (KNNV) 2007, p. 188-195 (met foto’s).


Nederlandsche Amateur-Fotografen-Vereeniging, vanaf 1902.

Nederlandse Fotografen Patroons Vereniging 1919.


1902 Tweede en derde prijs, wedstrijd uitgeschreven door het Algemeen Handelsblad met als motto ‘Vogels in ‘t vrije’.

1910 Diplóme de Grand Prix, Exposilion universelle et internationale de Bruxelles.

1913 Frs. 100, De Groote Internationale Wedstrijd om geldprijzen en medailles uitgeschreven door de fabriek van fotografische papieren en films van de Firma L. Gevaert & Go, Antwerpen.

1921 Derde prijs, Focusprijsvraag “Aan den arbeid”.

1924 Bronzen plaquette (klasse juniores), Focus-prijsvraag (september) ‘Vrije Onderwerpen’.

1930 Eervolle vermelding, Focusprijsvraag ‘Vrije onderwerpen juli’.

1931 Eervolle vermelding, Focusprijsvraag ‘Boerenbedrijf.

1931 Eervolle vermelding, Focusprijsvraag ‘Genrebeelden’.

1931 Eervolle vermelding, Focusprijsvraag ‘Vrije onderwerpen’.


1902 (g) Amsterdam, Gebouw Velox, Internationale tentoonstelling van fotografie, en aanverwante vakken.

1902 (g) Amsterdam, Zaal Nieuwsblad voor Nederland, Tentoonstelling van fotografieën van in het wild levende Nederlandsche vogels, hun eieren en nesten [expositie n.a.v. wedstrijd uitgeschreven door het Algemeen Handelsblad met als motto ‘Vogels in ‘t vrije’].

1908 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Internationale Tentoonstelling van Foto-Kunst.

1909 (g) Dresden, Ausstellungspalast, Internationale Photographische Ausstellung.

1910 (e) Amsterdam, Zaal der AFV, [AFV-tentoonstelling].

1910 (g) Brussel, Nederlands Paviljoen, Exposilion universelle. et internationale de Bruxelles.

1913 {g) Amsterdam, Gebouw “Lux”, Jaarlijksche Tentoonstelling van Fotowerken.

1924 (g) Delft, Bibliotheek der Technische Hoogeschool, Technische Fotosalon.

1932 (g) Amsterdam, RAI, Klank en beeld.

2001 (g) Amsterdam, Huis Marseille, Foto ‘s uit. de Rijksmuseum Collectie.

2005/2006 (g) Essen, Museum Folkwang, Nützlich, süss und museal. Das fotografierte Tier.

2007 (g) Rotterdam, Nederlands Fotomuseum, Dutch Eyes. Een nieuwe geschiedenis van de fotografie in Nederland.


Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (documentatie).

Amsterdam, Stadsarchief.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.

Rotterdam, Nederlands Fotomuseum.


Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Rijksprentenkabinet.

Apeldoorn, Gemeentearchief.

Apeldoorn, Paleis Het Loo Apeldoorn.

Den Haag, Nationaal Archief.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden.

Minneapolis (Minnesota), The Minneapolis Institute of Arts.

Rotterdam, Nederlands Fotomuseum (negatievenarchief).