W.C. van Dijk
Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf
From the 1930s on, W.C. van Dijk was known as the Leica specialist of the Netherlands. Van Dijk also built a reputation as a writer of books and articles on technical, 35 mm, and colour photography, as well as mini cameras. In Van Dijk’s straightforward corporate reportages and clearly defined product photos, one recognises the work of a professional who chose photography as his field at a time when New Objectivist photography was at its peak: the 1930s. In the 1950s, Van Dijk played a leading role in the introduction and popularisation of mini cameras.
Willem Cornelis (Wim) van Dijk is born on 7 August in Utrecht as the first and only son of Cornelis Willem van Dijk and Edith Appeldoorn. His father is a teacher.
Van Dijk’s parents divorce in 1917.
Van Dijk lives temporarily with his mother and her second husband, the herbalist Adriaan van de Vijsel, along with Van de Vijsel’s son from a previous marriage, at ‘Huize Bolensteyn’ in Breukelen (owned by Van de Vijsel’s timber company on the Overtoom in Amsterdam). From 1918 on, Van Dijk lives in a house built by his stepfather in Den Dolder.
Van Dijk receives a box camera from his parents. Photography becomes his passion. He sets up a darkroom in his home, immerses himself thoroughly in the trade literature, and teaches himself how to develop film and make prints.
After obtaining his diploma at the Rijks-HBS (National Hogere Burgerschool, an upper-level secondary school) in Utrecht, Van Dijk finds work as an apprentice editor for the Amsterdams Effectenblad (‘Amsterdam Stocks Magazine’), published by an uncle on his mother’s side, S.G. (Sam) Appeldoorn. The financial world, however, is not to Van Dijk’s liking.
Van Dijk purchases an empty building in Bilthoven, suitable for setting up a photography business. Van Dijk’s store for cameras and photographic attributes is successful from the very start. Van Dijk adds the Leica to his camera assortment. From this time forward, Van Dijk is a promoter of this 35 mm camera.
On 13 August, Van Dijk weds won of his regular clients, Johanna Lambertha de Vos.
Van Dijk and his wife produce three daughters: Edith (1932), Sonja (1936) en Annelize (1945).
Van Dijk purchases a building at Emmaplein 14-16 in Bilthoven, which provides both living and working space. A store is set up for the sale of cameras, film, and accessories. Behind the store is a workspace, where Van Dijk develops negatives and makes prints for his customers. In the same space, he also works as an optician. The family lives upstairs.
Jo Jansen from Amersfoort assists Van Dijk with the running of his business. In the late 1930s, Jansen moves to Naaldwijk, where he becomes the head of photography at the Proeftuin (a station for testing [greenhouse] cultivation of green produce).
After Jansen, Cis van den Heuvel is hired as a live-in assistant in the business. Van den Heuvel leaves the business in 1942. (After the war, Van den Heuvel establishes herself as an independent photographer in ‘s-Hertogenbosch).
Starting in December, Van Dijk is a contributor to the magazine Kleinbeeld-foto (’35 mm Photo’).
Van Dijk clears space for a portrait studio on the second floor above the business.
Van Dijk writes about cameras and photographic technique for the popular Kosmos series Weten en kunnen (‘Knowing and Doing’).
Through his mother and step-father—who were both members of the NSB (Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging, ‘National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands) since its founding in 1931—Van Dijk is seen by those at NSB headquarters as a suitable candidate for the organisation’s ‘fotodienst’ (‘photo department’). Faced with no other choice, in June 1942 Van Dijk accepts his appointment as the head of the fotodienst’s technical department at NSB headquarters on the Maliebaan in Utrecht. In July 1943, Van Dijk lays down this function, as he can no longer endure the situation. For the remainder of the German occupation, Van Dijk works chiefly as an optician.
On 29 November 1944, Van Dijk’s home and business on the Emmaplein are destroyed by a bomb dropped by Allied forces, intended for the German headquarters on the Bilderdijklaan in Bilthoven. Van Dijk’s family and the residents of the adjacent properties on the Emmaplein are assigned abandoned residences on the Prins Hendriklaan. During the Hunger Winter, Van Dijk works from this house as an optician. He also paints for a hobby.
On 8 May 1945, Van Dijk is arrested and taken to an internment camp: initially in Millingen, and from January 1947, in Wezep. During this period, his family is forced to leave the house they had been assigned on the Prins Hendriklaan, because the original occupants are returning. The Van Dijk family finds temporary housing in the villa of a Rotterdam ship-owner on the same street. On 30 October 1947, Van Dijk appears before the tribunal and is immediately released, in part because the court feels he has already served for too long a period of time.
In late 1947, Van Dijk takes over the business and residence of the portrait photographer Herman J. Hahndiek (who emigrates to South Africa) at Utrechtseweg 290 in De Bilt, with the financial assistance of his parents. Van Dijk sets up a studio for corporate photography in this building.
Siegfried Fuyt Jr. works as Van Dijk’s assistant. Circa 1957, Fuyt departs for South Limburg, where he photographs for the Staatsmijnen (‘State Mines’) and other clients.
From May to December, Theo-Ton van Diejen is Van Dijk’s assistant.
After having fulfilled his military service obligations, Theo-Ton van Diejen returns to work for Van Dijk for several months in order to re-establish his routine in the field of photography.
In the late 1950s, Van Dijk starts testing out mini cameras available on the market. Starting in 1961, he produces a series of articles reporting on these cameras for the magazine Focus.
Van Dijk enters a business partnership with Theo-Ton van Diejen, who has honed his skills in photography by working as a lab technician and assistant during the years 1961-’62 at the ‘Rotogravure’ photo studio in Leiden, under the direction of Meinard Woldringh.
Van Dijk leaves his out-of-door photo assignments chiefly over to his business partner and devotes most of his time to writing about photography.
On 27 February, Wim van Dijk dies of a heart attack, while on his way from the Genootschap Kunstliefde (‘Art Lover’s Society’) in Utrecht to his home in De Bilt. Theo-Ton van Diejen keeps the business running until it is shut down at the end of the year.
Van Dijk’s last article—entitled ‘Van 13×18 cm tot 8×11 mm ofwel: De terreur van het formaat’ (‘From 13×18 cm to 8×11 mm or rather: The Terror of the Format’)—is published posthumously in the 24 April issue of Focus. Also published posthumously are three new volumes in the Kosmos publishing company’s series Weten en kunnen: Welke camera en waarom (‘Which Camera and Why’); De opname, het hoe en waarom (‘The Shot, the How and Why’); and Pakkende foto’s van elk onderwerp (‘Striking Photos for Every Subject’). Following Van Dijk’s death, his widow sells many of his negatives to his original clients and customers, in part out of financial necessity, but also because she feels they no longer hold any significance for her.
Wim van Dijk’s outlook on life was this: you have to accept what comes on your path as it is, want nothing more than what is feasible, and never give up if something proves unsuccessful. Together with this view, Van Dijk maintained the discipline required to fulfil every task to the best of his ability, even when the odds were occasionally against him. The creative arts played a major role in his life, including his own music-making, photography, drawing, and painting, as well as listening, looking, and enjoying the arts at exhibitions and concerts. In the 6 July 1940 issue of Focus, he wrote: ‘Why does one then compose, paint, photograph? Only to express an inner urge to create, even when the form is still so very primitive. But there is no guarantee that something that comes from within will find a foothold in material interpretation’. For years, Van Dijk played the German flute, but because he judged his own level of playing to be insufficiently high, he quit. He later went on to play cello and enjoyed making music together with other amateurs. When wanting to learn to draw and paint in order to complement to his photography, Van Dijk took a class in which he was able to meticulously incorporate—just as he was—all of his ability and creativity into the assignments he was given. In the final years of his life, Van Dijk travelled once a week to Utrecht in order to paint at the Genootschap Kunstliefde (‘Art Lover’s Society’).
In photography, Van Dijk was an autodidact, obtaining his knowledge from books and magazines. Long before he made the decision to become a photographer, he built his own darkroom on the basis of a hobby. Here he was able to quickly develop his skills through experimentation and experience. Because Van Dijk ran a store specialised in the sale of cameras, film, optical instruments, photo papers, and other photographic accessories for several years, he acquired a great deal of knowledge about materials and brands. This would come to good use in his work as a professional. Van Dijk also built up experience in the areas of developing, printing, and finishing of his customers’ film. His knowledge of lenses and optics had grown through his activities as an optician. Whenever his expertise was lacking in a given area, Van Dijk turned to Adriaan Boer in the form of a written letter. This led to an almost daily correspondence between the two men in the beginning phase of his photography business.
The developing and printing of his customers’ film ensured Van Dijk a steady income, particularly in the summer during tourist season. For a man of his ambition, however, this was debilitating work. He got much more satisfaction when venturing out on his own, equipped with his camera, to shoot photos of forest views and townscapes intended for the picture postcards of the neighbouring office supply store, or to produce a series of architectural shots in Bilthoven for a local real estate agency.
In the late 1930s, Van Dijk set up a portrait studio in the living area above the store, where he took portrait and passport photos. He also shot family portraits in private homes and photographed their interiors. By having people pose naturally and hanging a flash in the lampshade of a table light present in a room, he gave these photos a special atmosphere.
Besides the work he did for his clients, Van Dijk continued to experiment with 35 mm photography in order to increase his knowledge. His interest in small cameras was derived in part from a practical problem: because of mild heart issues arising at the age of eighteen, he preferred to avoid lifting heavy equipment. For the architectural photos shot on assignment, Van Dijk initially used a 13×18 travel camera with a Goerz Dagor photographic objective. He soon traded in this camera for a 10×15 Nettel. Upon seeing the small Leica camera in a catalogue, Van Dijk fell immediately ‘in love’, and had one sent to his business, despite the high price of Dfl. 150 (including one cartridge). When necessary, he worked with a 35 mm on a tripod. Surprisingly, Van Dijk was firm believer in the potential of 35 mm photography, in spite of his striving for perfection. This was initially an impossible combination. Van Dijk saw that the Leica was built with the highest degree of precision possible. This was true of both the camera housing and the objective. Yet for some time there were still issues with the various kinds of 35 mm film available, as they had to be fine-grain and thin-layered (multi-layered film gives a greater diffusion of light, and accordingly, reduced sharpness). The industry worked hard at finding a solution: furnishing 35 mm film with a perforation already improved the horizontal positioning, while the development of methods involving the application of thinner layers to the film, and eventually a single layer, finally led to a major breakthrough.
In the 1930s, Van Dijk evolved to become the Leica specialist in the Netherlands. He did a great deal for the popularisation of this camera. The Dutch importer was the company Odin, managed by the company’s founder and owner L.J. Dupree. Van Dijk’s enthusiasm for 35 mm photography even went so far that he was prepared to be the technical man for the ‘Stichtse Kleinbeeldclub’ (’35 mm Club’) in Utrecht. In actuality, he was no fan of photography associations.
In 1941, Van Dijk was approached by the headquarters of the NSB (Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging, ‘National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands) on the Maliebaan in Utrecht, where an employee was being sought for the movement’s ‘fotodienst’ (‘photography service’). The position they were offering was to head the service’s technical department. Due to a lack of inventory, Van Dijk was barely able to keep his store and studio up and running. Faced with the need to support his family, he decided to accept the job. With his appointment came the requirement that he become a member of the NSB. Van Dijk nevertheless had no interest in politics. The only positive aspect of this work, in his view, was that it would allow him to raise the level of technical quality found in photographic material for government publications, e.g. for the Dutch railways and the ‘vereniging voor vreemdelingenverkeer’ (‘association of foreigner relations’). Van Dijk was appointed in June 1942, but quit one year later, due to a working atmosphere he described as ‘unbearable’. Van Dijk’s wife was doing her best to keep the store on the Emmaplein in Bilthoven up and running, but with a shortage of inventory, there was very little turnover.
For the remainder of the German occupation, Van Dijk worked chiefly as an optician. After the bombardment in November 1944 during which his house was destroyed, he managed to rescue his grinding machine—driven by the underframe of a treadle sewing machine—from the rubble, thus enabling him to continue repairing people’s eyeglasses through that last winter of the war.
As a consequence of the work he did on the Maliebaan, Van Dijk was arrested immediately after the war. He was imprisoned for more than two years at two military bases in Millingen and Wezep, where internment camps had been set up. At Millingen, Van Dijk was given the opportunity to carry on with his optician’s work for all of the camps in the Netherlands. In addition, he spent his time taking notes and recording observations about future developments in photography. He wrote everything down in notebooks, as well making detailed drawings of improvements to cameras, which he himself had conceived.
During his trial in November 1947, it became apparent that Van Dijk had a reputation for being an inadequate member of the NSB, i.e. someone who had done nothing on the movement’s behalf. Because there were also a sufficient number of witness accounts in his favour coming from ‘good’ citizens in the town of Bilthoven—including Van Dijk’s doctor, and even a member of the Resistance—Van Dijk’s sentence not only gave him his freedom back, but also his right to vote as well as his right to fulfil civil functions, as compensation for the long duration of his imprisonment.
By the end of 1947, Van Dijk was able to start rebuilding his life. Following the bombardment of the family’s house in 1944, he and his wife had decided not to open a new store. Instead, Van Dijk took over the photo studio of Herman Hahndiek, a fellow photographer. Instead of continuing Hahndiek’s portrait work, he established a company for commercial product photography and corporate reportages. To fortify his financial basis—corporate photography had to be built from the ground up—for a brief period Van Dijk combined this with working for a photographer in Breda, whose identity is unknown. Van Dijk acquired his clientele by various means, through his own circle of acquaintances, or by word of mouth among the owners and directors of companies located in Bilthoven and its environs. Another group was made up of amateur photographers who read Van Dijk’s articles in Focus and came to him for advice.
The list of Van Dijk’s clientele began to grow steadily. Among his clients were numerous regional companies and institutions, including: Fibo beeldonderwijs (‘visual education’) in Zeist, Huize Doorn (a manor house), Meubelfabriek ‘Koekoek’ in Rhenen (a furniture factory), Bouwbedrijf Van Laar (a construction firm), Laboratorium De Sphinx (a dental institute) in Utrecht, a timber company in Leerdam, and the ‘Burgers’ laundry company in Zeist. Van Dijk’s biggest clients, however, were the original Iglo factory (frozen foods) in Utrecht, the paint and wallpaper manufacturer ‘Rath en Doodeheefver’ in Duivendrecht, the Liga factory in Roosendaal (biscuits and bakery goods manufacturer, opened in 1953), the Persil factory (a laundry detergent manufacturer) in Jutphaas, Demka Steel manufacturers in Utrecht, and the Werkspoor machine manufacturing company in Utrecht.
Van Dijk’s efforts on behalf of these different companies included photo reportages on the work floor, interior and exterior shots of the buildings, the products, and the manufacturing processes. For the Liga factory, he photographed various aspects of the company, e.g. the building’s facade, the production hall (with its eighty-meter-long ovens), and the machines. Unique to this specific case was the fact that all of the machines required in the manufacturing process had been designed by the factory owners themselves, varying from the machine for pulverising the grain to the apparatus for making the dough. Van Dijk covered every aspect, including the only manual work being done: women packaging biscuits at the end of the conveyor belt. He also photographed topics related to work contracted out to other companies having ties to the production process, e.g. images taken in 1958 that showed the grain fields in the province of Limburg that were being cultivated for the Liga factory. Van Dijk shot these photos together with his assistant, Theo-Ton van Diejen.
For Persil, a detergent manufacturer, Van Dijk photographed the exterior of the building, during the day and at night. He also shot photos of the production hall with its steel silos as well as the products themselves.
For Demka Steel, Van Dijk shot photos at the iron foundry, including images depicting the pouring of fluid materials and the emptying of the melting furnace. For the same client, he also travelled to the Delta Works, where he photographed the on-going construction, including the concrete reinforcement and the positioning of various building elements. Van Dijk worked for Demka from circa 1958 up until his death in 1964. Shortly thereafter, the company was taken over by Hoogovens Steel.
Besides being a professional photographer working for a corporate clientele, Van Dijk was also an obsessed hobbyist, unable to resist shooting photos even in his free time. Cityscapes and landscapes, flowers, still lifes, and children were his preferred subjects. The difference in approach between Van Dijk’s autonomous photography and his corporate photography is striking. The autonomous work is more romantic and less objective. This is partially to be observed in the technical finishing, e.g. prints that were made applying special techniques such as the bromoil printing process. Van Dijk also took soft-focus shots with an Imagon photographic objective, originally designed by Dr. Heinrich Kühn (1868-1944) and introduced on the market as Kühn’s Anachromat in 1928. Rodenstock has been producing this lens as ‘Imagon’ since 1931. According to Van Dijk, it was a unique lens that operated precisely. Besides an unparalleled depth effect, the Imagon also gave a magical atmospheric light: ‘The distinctive character of a good soft-focus photo is the twinkling of light, supported by a suppression of emerging details and a heightened effect of depth, accompanied by a toning down of the background.’
In Van Dijk’s view, both the shot itself and the finishing of a photo were equally important: a perfect location, bathed in the most beautiful light, never led to a good photo if one was unable to develop and print in an optimal manner. Lively contrasts were critical for the final product, well defined in both the highlights and shadowy areas. When this was not the case, a photo became flat and boring.
Van Dijk won awards at various competitions with his photos. As the labels on the reverse of his photos clearly indicate, he submitted them to exhibitions around the world, from Tokyo to Chicago, as well as photo salons in various European cities.
In no way did the small Leica camera oblige Van Dijk to work in a manner that was different from operating larger cameras. In his view, a fast working pace and responding to anything that arose unexpectedly would never lead to artistic photography. Deliberating in advance what was to be photographed, identifying appropriate locations, preferably returning to the same place at different times before taking the actual photo, calmly waiting for the best light, and ideally with no people in the image: this was and would always be Van Dijk’s working approach. For him, the artistic added value of a photo lay in finding stillness and transcending the ordinary. Van Dijk felt no affinity with the new mode of observing that came with the New Photography of the 1930s, with its diagonal angles of view, close-ups, and disorienting perspective effects. Whereas, in fact, the 35 mm camera had functioned as a stimulus for a re-evaluation of photographic observation: ‘To describe the old designated time exposure as static and the modern instantaneous image as dynamic, is a major, widely disseminated aberration. In a certain sense, a photographic image can in essence actually be nothing other than static, because otherwise, it becomes unstable. (…) In my view, dynamic in a photo lies in the composition, and movement in the calm, which is what results from all movement.’ Van Dijk was aware of the criticism regarding his stance and knew that his preference for having no people in his photos was seen by many as being unworthy of the Leica. In no way did this stop him from persisting in his viewpoint, which was also in line with his conviction that the Leica was the best conceivable camera in virtually every area.
Van Dijk enjoyed sharing his knowledge with others and was glad to help out talented amateurs with advice. Whenever amateurs sought their refuge in the latest cameras, new types of film, or film papers, without these leading to improvements in their work, Van Dijk would draw their attention to better shooting techniques. Mastering technique as opposed to being mastered by technique: this was Van Dijk’s credo.
Van Dijk’s desire to share what he knew was what inspired him to write about photography. He was on good terms with Adriaan Boer, the publisher of the photo magazines Focus and Bedrijfsfotografie (‘Corporate Photography’), who was happy to have Van Dijk contribute to his publications as an author. For the Kosmos series Weten en kunnen (‘Knowing and Doing’), Van Dijk wrote a number of popular photo booklets that were reprinted numerous times, just as the Kosmos Fotozakboek (‘Photo Pocket Book’), of which the first edition appeared in 1959. Van Dijk’s reading public typically comprised the engaged amateur photographer who possessed a desire to learn the principles of photographic technique in condensed form, who wished to learn how to make better prints, or wanted to know what kind of camera and film he should choose for the particular goal he had in mind. Van Dijk provided these photographers with concise information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the mirror reflex camera with a ground glass screen (the ‘seeing’ camera), as well as the 35 mm camera with an attached distance meter (the ‘measuring’ camera).
The professional photographer, however, was also able to gain insight with the specialised knowledge that Van Dijk had acquired through his testing of cameras, objectives, film, and developers. He wrote about topics such as his experiments with developers for film with varying grain structures, as well describing which combinations led to the best results. Van Dijk also devoted attention to the influence of developing time on the grain of a film and the consequences this had for the sharpness of enlargements. In addition, he addressed other factors that played a role in obtaining a sharp print, e.g. the lighting of a shot, adequate focusing, the fineness of film grain, the aperture of the enlarger when making prints, and the surface of the film paper.
Photo sharpness was a key principle recurring in all of Van Dijk’s discourses. He would often expound on the fact that the small camera, with its wide-aperture lenses, produced negatives that could easily be enlarged to 50×60 cm, while maintaining the highest degree of sharpness—provided that the camera has the excellent quality of a Leica or Contax camera and one uses good film. In the long run, the 35 mm film types even won out over larger negative formats of up to 9×12 cm, because of a ‘surplus’ in sharpness and resolving power (i.e. the number of white-black lines still depicted as lines per mm; when this limit is surpassed, then an even grey tone arises). Van Dijk predicted that this could only improve in the future. It was important, however, to know how one acquired the necessary soft negative in order to produce sharp enlargements of a reasonable format. After extensive searching, Van Dijk recommended the Agfa Agepan, a very thin document film with a high resolving power, to be used together with a soft-working surface developer, such as the Neofin Blue (Willi Beuther’s system), on the condition that one meticulously followed the guidelines for exposure and developing. Van Dijk tested the film with the sharpness test card, developed by Carel Tirion, and managed to achieve astoundingly good results with it.
When miniature cameras were brought out on the market in the 1950s, it was Van Dijk’s desire to examine empirically what was to be expected from these cameras. Mini formats were designed for taking photographs inconspicuously, e.g. for spying purposes as well as ease of transport. To gain ready access to these cameras for his experiments, Van Dijk approached the importers. They in turn were more than happy to cooperate, as it might perhaps lead to their brands’ promotion in one of Van Dijk’s magazine articles. Van Dijk tested out 35 mm, the half-frame 35 mm, and super-35 mm cameras and the film types that came with them. Just as with the ‘ordinary’ 35 mm camera, finding a film of decent quality for mini cameras was the first problem that had to be solved. Initially, the sharpness suffered from an insufficient resolving power due to the unduly thick layers of the film, which introduced limitations when it came to making enlargements. One of the first usable types of mini cameras that managed to survive was the Minox, designed in 1938 in Latvia, but produced in West Germany following World War II. For Van Dijk, this 9.5 mm camera soon held no more secrets; the same was true of the 16 mm Minicord (introduced in 1951), the Mec (introduced in 1957), and many others. He continued to follow these developments, as well because automation was always on-going, as well in the mini format such as the Mamiya-16 Automatic (introduced in 1959). In Van Dijk’s series of articles on this topic, he also discussed mini darkrooms, the finishing technique, and the use of colour film for small cameras.
Around 1960, the publicist Hille Kleinste proposed the term ‘mini camera’ versus the somewhat ponderous ‘miniature camera’. At the end of one of Van Dijk’s articles (‘De mini-camera enthusiast 8’, ‘The Mini-Camera Enthusiast 8’), the editorial staff of Focus recommended that Kleinste’s recommendation be adopted.
The areas of interest most suitable for the mini camera in Van Dijk’s view were children’s photography, capturing unexpected events on the street, making reproductions of documents in archives and libraries for academic research, and the reproduction of artworks and photos. As a case in point, he referred to L. Fritz Gruber (1908-2005), the organiser of the Photokina exhibitions, who travelled around the world to make his selections, photographing each with his mini camera. Such a camera allowed one to photograph an object from a short distance (circa 20 to 30 cm) without requiring any additional accessories.
In 1940, Van Dijk voiced a view of colour photography that was still highly negative. In the 31 August 1940 issue of Focus, he wrote: ‘(…) when the time has finally arrived, that we can use our colour image in the same way that we currently do our black-and-white image, then the possibilities will become even infinitely greater. Not just that we will then have to switch entirely to a medium that in essence is entirely different, that requires a totally different approach from the photographer, but the limitations, which we will then have to place upon ourselves, will also be much bigger. I will leave the stage, in which colour photography momentarily finds itself, completely out of the discussion. At this point, it is nothing more than a primitive joke (…)’. This final remark immediately incited protestations from Meinard Woldringh, aimed at Van Dijk. Woldringh was already seriously specialised in colour photography, that were
Prior to World War II, however, Van Dijk had already written a small book about colour photography for the Weten en kunnen series. He was a man who embraced practical experience and someone who was also well aware of developments that were on-going. For this reason, he delved into his subject matter thoroughly. In the mid-1950s, with the second edition of this book, Van Dijk felt it was the appropriate time to instruct the advanced amateur in developing his own colour film and making his own colour prints. In his view, the ability to do work oneself was a condition for mastering the final product. The criteria of perfection that one was required to place upon oneself could hardly be expected from the then existing centres for developing and printing. For colour, Van Dijk found travel photography, macrophotography, and microphotography to be the areas of greatest interest.
The photos that Van Dijk took on behalf of his business clients became the property of those companies ‘without consultation’. There was never any mention of rights of authorship. Following his death, Van Dijk’s wife sold large quantities of photos and negatives to his former clients, including Demka Steel in Utrecht and Liga in Roosendaal. After Demka was taken over by Hoogovens Steel, the Demka archive was transferred to the archive of the latter company in IJmuiden. The Liga archive belongs to the city archives of Roosendaal. Wim van Dijk’s legacy (photos, negatives, letters, notebooks with annotations, and other documents) is managed by his eldest daughter, Edith van Dijk. Following previous donations made by the photographer himself in 1954 and 1957, the Leiden University Print Room received a donation of ninety-four photos originating from the possessions of Van Dijk’s daughters in 2004.
In light of all that has been stated above, it requires little further elaboration: Van Dijk’s photography was of a high technical quality. His autonomous work is sensitive, but provides no modern vision. As a corporate photographer, Van Dijk depicted the subjects he was commissioned to photograph with precision, high sharpness, and clarity. Whether it concerned the employees of a company, the production processes, or the machines that were used, the main subject was distinctly represented, with the surroundings still providing relevant information without detracting from the overall image. One can compare Van Dijk’s working method to other photographers of his generation, e.g. Hans Spies, Jaap d’Oliveira, and Willy Schurman, who likewise combined a clear, unembellished style of photography with sound, technical craftsmanship.
From his articles, W.C. Van Dijk emerges as photographer with a knowledge of materials, techniques, and applications to a degree that few possessed. His knowledge was widely disseminated among Dutch (amateur) photographers. Van Dijk’s advice regarding the selection of cameras and film—specifically in the vast market of 35 mm cameras and mini cameras—undeniably contributed to the popularisation of 35 mm photography in the Netherlands. The same can be said of his articles on the topic of colour photography.
[Advertentie in rubriek Vraag en aanbod], in Bedrijfsfotografie 13 (12 juni 1931) 12, p. VI.
W. van Dijk, Vakervaringen met camera’s van klein formaat, in Bedrijfsfotografie 14 (26 februari 1932) 4, p. 62.
[Advertentie in rubriek Vraag en aanbod], in Bedrijfsfotografie 15 (3 november 1933) 22, p. IV.
[Advertentie in rubriek Vraag en aanbod], in Bedrijfsfotografie 15 (30 december 1933) 26, p. IV.
[Advertentie in rubriek Vraag en aanbod], in Bedrijfsfotografie 16 (9 maart 1934) 5, p. VII.
W.C. van Dijk, Fotografeeren. Handleiding voor beginners, Amsterdam/Antwerpen (Kosmos) 1938 (serie: Weten en kunnen. Nieuwe reeks nr. 205).
W.C. van Dijk, Het fotografeeren van kinderen, Amsterdam (Kosmos) 1938 (serie: Weten en kunnen. Nieuwe reeks nr. 206).
W.C. van Dijk, Kleurenfotografie thans mogelijk voor iederen amateur-fotograaf, Amsterdam (Kosmos) z.j.  (serie: Weten en kunnen. Nieuwe reeks no. 225) (idem: Kleurenfotografie mogelijk voor iedere amateur-fotograaf, z.j.  2e dr.).
W.C. van Dijk, Ontwikkelen, afdrukken en vergroten, Amsterdam (Kosmos) z.j.  (serie: Weten en kunnen. Nieuwe reeks nr. 232).
W.C. van Dijk, Kleinbeeld-fotografie, Amsterdam etc. (Kosmos) z.j.  (serie: Weten en kunnen. Nieuwe reeks nr. 233).
W.C. van Dijk (samenstelling), Kosmos foto-zakboek, Amsterdam etc. (Kosmos) z.j. .
W.C. van Dijk, Fotografie. 1. Welke camera en waarom, Amsterdam etc. (Kosmos) 1964 (serie: Weten en kunnen nr. 205).
W.C. van Dijk, Fotografie. 2. De opname, het hoe en waarom, Amsterdam etc. (Kosmos) z.j.  (serie: Weten en kunnen nr. 206).
W.C. van Dijk, Fotografie. 3. Pakkende foto’s van elk onderwerp, Amsterdam etc. (Kosmos) z.j.  (serie: Weten en kunnen nr. 212).
S.W. Bowler [Ned. bew. W.C. van Dijk], Kleinbeeldfotografie, Amsterdam etc. (Kosmos) z.j.  (serie: Kosmos fotocursus).
Colin Day [Ned. bew. W.C. van Dijk], Kleurenfotografie, Amsterdam etc. (Kosmos) z.j.  (serie: Kosmos fotocursus).
E.C. Partridge [Ned. bew. H. van der Mijn-Kijzer, bew. W.C. van Dijk], Fotografie, Amsterdam etc. (Kosmos) z.j.  (serie: Kosmos foto-cursus).
W.C. van Dijk, Fotografie. 1. Welke camera Amsterdam (Kosmos) z.j.  (serie: Wenk hobbygidsen nr. 305).
W.C. van Dijk, Fotografie. 2. Opnametechniek, Amsterdam (Kosmos) z.j.  (serie: Wenk hobbygidsen nr. 306).
W.C. van Dijk, Fotografie. 3. Pakkende foto’s, Amsterdam (Kosmos) z.j.  (serie: Wenk hobbygidsen nr. 312).
W.C. van Dijk, Fotografie. 4. Kleurenfotografie, Amsterdam/Antwerpen (Kosmos) 1970 (serie: Wenk).
W.C. van Dijk, Fotografie 5. Donkere kamer, Amsterdam/Antwerpen (Kosmos) 1970 (serie: Wenk nr. 332).
W.C. van Dijk (tekst), in Focus: Korrel, scherpte en oplossingsvermogen. Het nog steeds onopgeloste probleem. I, 24 ( 16 januari 1937) 2, p. 34-37.
Korrel, scherpte en oplossingsvermogen. Kan het gebruik van Paraphenyleendiamine vermeden worden? II, 24 (30 januari 1937) 3, p. 67-71.
Kleinbeeldcamera voor artistiek werk I. Is de grote camera op dit terrein in het voordeel?, 24 (13 februari 1937) 4, p. 96-98.
Kleinbeeldcamera voor artistiek werk II. Is de grote camera op dit terrein in het voordeel?, 24 (27 februari 1937) 5, p. 124-126.
Kleinbeeldcamera voor artistiek werk III. Is de grote camera op dit terrein in het voordeel?, 24 (13 maart 1937) 6, p. 158-160.
Ziende of metende camera? Wat is de beslissing toch moeilijk!, 24 (27 maart 1937) 7, p. 183-186.
Ziende of metende camera? II, 24 (10 april 1937) 8, p. 213-216.
Een zeer dunne film. Verheugend nieuws voor kleinbeeld-enthousiasten, 24 (24 april 1937) 9, p. 243-244.
Ziende of metende camera? III, 24 (8 mei 1937) 10, p. 270-271.
Waarom soft focus? I. Doel en middelen, 24 (17 juli 1937) 15, p. 401-404.
Waarom soft focus? II. Doel en middelen, 24 (31 juli 1937) 16, p. 432-435.
Overzwaaien van de kleine camera naar een grooter formaat? I, 24 (20 november 1937) 24, p. 671-673.
Overzwaaien van de kleine camera naar een grooter formaat? I, 24 (4 december 1937) 25, p. 696-698.
Welke middelen voor hoogstaande foto’s?, 25 (29 januari 1938) 3, p. 70-71.
Stroomingen en technieken in de fotografie. Resumé van een lezing, gehouden voor de Stichtsche Kleinbeeldclub te Utrecht. I, 25 (6 juli 1940) 14, 395-397.
Stroomingen en technieken in de fotografie. Resumé van een lezing, gehouden voor de Stichtsche Kleinbeeldclub te Utrecht. II, 25 (20 juli 1940) 15, 423-424.
Stroomingen en technieken in de fotografie. Resumé van een lezing, gehouden voor de Stichtsche Kleinbeeldclub te Utrecht. III, 25 (17 augustus 1940) 17, p. 475-477.
Stroomingen en technieken in de fotografie. Resumé van een lezing, gehouden voor de Stichtsche Kleinbeeldclub te Utrecht. IV. (slot), 25 (31 augustus 1940) 18, p. 497-500.
Ingezonden stukken. Kleurenfoto’s beïnvloeden?, 27 (28 september 1940) 20, p. 574.
Ingezonden stukken. De gemoederen in beweging, 27 (7 december 1940) 25, p. 681.
De miniatuurcamera-enthousiast, 46 (7 januari 1961) 1, p. 12-14, 34.
De miniatuurcamera-enthousiast, 46 (4 februari 1961) 3, p. 70-73.
De miniatuurcamera-enthousiast 3, 46 (4 maart 1961) 5, p. 128-131.
De miniatuurcamera enthousiast 4, 46 (18 maart 1961) 6, p. 157-161, 184.
De miniatuurcamera-enthousiast 5, 46 (1 april 1961) 7, p. 192-195.
De miniatuurcamera-enthousiast 6, 46 (15 april 1961) 8, p. 221-223.
De miniatuurcamera-enthousiast 7, 46 (29 april 1961) 9, p. 253-255.
De mini-camera enthousiast 8, 46 (13 mei 1961) 10, p. 287-291, 308.
De mini-camera-enthousiast 9, 46 (27 mei 1961) 11, p. 318-321.
De mini-camera enthousiast 10, 46 (10 juni 1961) 12, p. 355-357, 375.
De mini-camera enthousiast 11, 46 (24 juni 1961) 13, p. 389-391.
De mini-camera enthousiast 12, 46 (8 juli 1961) 14, p. 421-424.
Geloof en ongeloof in mini, een reuzevergroting en stofjes, 46 (8 juli 1961) 14, p. 424.
De mini-camera enthousiast 13, 46 (22 juli 1961) 15, p. 451-454.
De mini-camera enthousiast 14, 46 (5 augustus 1961) 16, p. 490-494.
De mini-camera enthousiast 15, 46 (19 augustus 1961) 17, p. 521-524.
De mini-camera enthousiast 16, 46 (2 september 1961) 18, p. 555-557, 570
De mini-camera enthousiast 17, 46 (16 september 1961) 19, p. 587-591.
De mini-camera-enthousiast 18, 46 (30 september 1961) 20, p. 623-627.
De mini-camera enthousiast 19, 46 (14 oktober 1961) 21, p. 661-664.
De mini-camera enthousiast 20, 46 (28 oktober 1961) 22, p. 669-702.
Een kleinbeeldcamera kiezen, 47 (16 maart 1962) 6, p. 6-7, 35.
Belangrijke vraag voor velen: Kleinbeeldreflex of -meetzoekercamera?, 47 (30 maart 1962) 7, p. 3-5, 23.
Kleinbeeldreflex- of meetzoekercamera?, 47 (27 april 1962) 9, p. 8-11.
Laatste nieuws over mini-camera’s, 47 (11 mei 1962) 10, p. 3-7.
Het Leica-systeem, 47 (25 mei 1962) 11, p. 12-14.
Het samenspel van film – belichting – ontwikkelaar en papier, 47 (3 augustus 1962) 16, p. 18-21.
Het samenspel van film – belichting – ontwikkelaar – papier, 47 (17 augustus 1962) 17, p. 22-25.
Heeft broomolie (nog) zin?, 48 (18 januari 1963) 2, p. 8-12.
De broomolie techniek (1e deel), 48 (15 februari 1963) 4, p. 3-8.
Half-kleinbeeld en mini in het algemeen en de Olympus PEN-D in het bijzonder, 48 (16 maart 1963) 6, p. 26-29, 32.
De broomolie techniek (2), 48 (29 maart 1963) 7, p. 10-15 (met foto’s).
Een juweel voor fijnproevers: de Tessina 48 (16 augustus 1963) 17, p. 10-16.
Overpeinzingen over fotoboeken, 48 (8 november 1963) 23, p. 2-8.
Dzjon-Willium en Meerie op het Nederlandse fotopad, 48 (3 januari 1964) 1, p. 28-29.
De Rollei-16, 48 (13 maart 1964) 6, p. 2-9.
AGFA Optima Parat een goede halfkleinbeeldcamera uit Europa, 48 (27 maart 1964) 7, p. 2-7.
Van 13×18 cm tot 8×11 mm ofwel De terreur van het formaat, 48 (24 april 1964, 9, p. 45-50.
W.C. van Dijk, in Cosmorama: Moderne fototechniek I, 4 (juli 1938) 7, p. 110-111.
Moderne fototechniek II, 4 (augustus 1938) 8, p. 124-125.
Moderne fototechniek III, 4 (september 1938) 9, p. 138-139.
Moderne fototechniek IV, 4 (oktober 1938) 10, p. 150-151.
Moderne fototechniek V, 4 (november 1938) 11, p. 162.
Moderne fototechniek VI, 4 (december 1938) 12, p. 182.
Moderne fototechniek VII, 5 (januari 1939) 1, p. 11.
Moderne fototechniek VIII, 5 (februari 1939) 2, p. 31.
Moderne fototechniek IX, 5 (maart 1939) 3, p. 46-47.
Moderne fototechniek X, 5 (april 1939) 4, p. 62-63.
Moderne fototechniek XI, 5 (mei 1939) 5, p. 78-79.
Moderne fototechniek XII, 5 (juni 1939) 6, p. 94-95.
De kleurenvergroting op papier I, 5 (juli 1939) 7, p. 115-117.
De kleurenvergroting op papier II, 5 (augustus 1939) 8, p. 131-133.
De kleurenvergroting op papier III, 5 (september 1939) 9, p. 149-151.
De kleurenvergroting op papier IV, 5 (oktober 1939) 10, p. 166.
Laten we ons bezinnen!, 6 (januari 1940) 1, p. 1-2.
Paraphenyleendiamine exit!, 6 (maart 1940) 3, p. 31-33.
Wat is het essentiële? I, 6 (mei 1940) 5, p. 64-65.
Wat is het essentiële? II, 6 (juni 1940) 6, p. 77-79.
W.C. van Dijk, in Kleinbeeld-foto:
Van een viool, die valsch bespeeld wordt…, 1 (januari 1938) 10, p. 311-313.
Van een viool, die valsch bespeeld wordt… II, 1 (februari 1938) 11, p. 335-337.
Het negatiefarchief, 1 (maart 1938) 12, p. 376-379.
Alle begin is… niet zoo moeilijk!, 2 (april 1938) 1, p. 25-26, 29.
Alle begin is…niet zoo moeilijk! [II], 2 (mei 1938) 2, p. 70-71.
Alle begin is … niet zoo moeilijk! III, 2 (juni 1938) 3, p. 106-108.
Wat wij van onze techniek moeten afweten?, 2 (juli 1938) 4, p. 128-131.
Alle begin is… niet zoo moeilijk! IV, 2 (juli 1938) 4, p. 146, 149.
Alle begin is… niet zoo moeilijk! V, 2 (augustus 1938) 5, p. 180-181.
Alle begin is… niet zoo moeilijk! VI, 2 (september 1938) 6, p. 216-217.
Alle begin is… niet zoo moeilijk! VII, 2 (oktober 1938) 7, p. 250-252.
Alle begin is… niet zoo moeilijk! VIII, 2 (november 1938) 8, p. 283-285.
Alle begin is… niet zoo moeilijk! IX, 2 (december 1938) 9, p. 322-323.
Alle begin is… niet zoo moeilijk! X, 2 (januari 1938) 10, p. 356.
Alle begin is… niet zoo moeilijk! XI, 2 (februarii938) 11, p. 388.
Alle begin is… niet zoo moeilijk! XII, 2 (maart 1938) 12, p. 418, 421.
(foto’s in boeken, tijdschriften en ander drukwerk)
W.C. van Dijk (foto’s), Liga fabrieken. Wij nodigen u uit… [uigave t.g.v. de officiële opening van het nieuwe gebouwencomplex van de “Liga-Fabrieken” N.V.], z.p., z.j.
Bedrijfsfotografie 18 (7 februari 1936) 3, p. 52.
Cosmorama 2 (juli 1936) 7, afb. 125.
Cosmorama 3 (maart 1937) 2, afb. 48.
Cosmorama 2 (augustus 1937) 8, afb. 150.
Bedrijfsfotografie 19 (6 augustus 1937) 16, p. 296.
Bedrijfsfotografie 20 (27 mei 1938) 11, p. 207-210.
Kleinbeeld-foto 2 (augustus 1938) 5, p. 175.
Kleinbeeld-foto 2 (september 1938) 6, p. 207.
Kleinbeeld-foto 2 (oktober 1938) 7, p. 243.
Libelle (2 februari 1940) 5, p. 34.
J.G. Beernink, Compositieleer voor amateur- en vakfotografen en tevens ten dienste van het onderwijs in fotograferen en tekenen aan kunstnijverheidsscholen, tekenacademies en cursussen, Bloemendaal (Focus) 1944, afb. 71a.
Philip Ernest Johnson, The world of the Leica, Londen (The Fountain Press) 1950, afb. 22.
Demka agenda 1962, Utrecht (Koninklijke Demka Staalfabrieken N.V.) z.j. .
Cock Gorisse, Johanna Jacobs en Janine Verster, Liga, vooruitstrevend in voeding. Bergen op Zoom-Roosendaal, Roosendaal (Gemeentearchief Roosendaal) 2003 (serie: Publicatie van het Gemeentearchief Roosendaal, 28).
NRC Handelsblad 31 oktober 2003.
21 (18 augustus 1934) 17, p. 478.
24 (2 januari 1937) 1, p. 15.
24 (30 januari 1937) 3, p. 75.
24 (13 maart 1937) 6, p. 164.
24 (27 maart 1937) 7, p. 195.
24 (8 mei 1937) 10, p. 279.
24 (5 juni 1937) 12, p. 335-336.
24 (31 juli 1937) 16, p. 443.
25 (12 februari 1938) 4, p. 120.
27 (30 maart 1940) 7, p. 206.
27 (22 juni 1940) 13, p. 377.
27 (31 augustus 1940) 18, p. 506-507.
27 (26 oktober 1940) 22, p. 612.
28 (15 februari 1941) 4, p. 92.
28 (7 juni 1941) 12, p. 294.
28 (5 juli 1941) 14, p. 339, 343.
49 (31 juli 1964) 16, p. 20-21.
Bouwbedrijf Van Laar.
Demka Staalfabrieken, Utrecht.
Fibo beeldonderwijs, Zeist.
Huize Doorn, Doorn.
Kuyl en Rottinghuis, pompen en motoren, Rijkevoort.
Laboratorium De Sphinx, Utrecht.
Meubelfabriek ‘Koekoek’, Rhenen.
Verf- en behangfabriek Rath en Doodeheefver, Duivendrecht.
Wasserij ‘Burgers’, Zeist.
A.B. [= Adriaan Boer], De N.F.P.V. tentoonstelling te Rotterdam, in Bedrijfsfotografie 14 (20 mei 1932) 10, p. 179-180, 185-186.
A.B. [= Adriaan Boer], De tentoonstelling Fotografendag 1933 te Amsterdam. (II), in Bedrijfsfotografie 15 (2 juni 1933) 11, p. 203-205.
A.B. [= Adriaan Boer], Tentoonstelling “Bekende Landgenooten”, in Bedrijfsfotografie 16 (29juni 1934) 13, p. 220-224.
Anoniem, Bij de platen in dit nummer, in Bedrijfsfotografie 18 (7 februari 1936) 3, p. 53-54.
Anoniem, Tentoonstelling “Film und Foto”, Düsseldorf, in Bedrijfsfotografie 18 (29 mei 1936) 11, p. 214-215.
Martien Coppens, Titels, technische gegevens, kanttekeningen, in Cosmorama 2 (juli 1936) 7, p. 80-82.
v.G. [= A.J. van Gelder], Titels. Technische gegevens. Kanttekeningen, in Cosmorama 3 (maart 1937) 3, p. 41-43.
P.L. Snel, Titels. Technische gegevens. Kanttekeningen, in Cosmorama 3 (augustus 1937) 8, p. 120-122.
Anoniem, Bij de platen, in Bedrijfsfotografie 19 (6 augustus 1937) 16, p. 285-286.
Anoniem, Bij de platen in dit nummer, in Bedrijfsfotografie 20 (27 mei 1938) 11, p. 199.
A.J. van Gelder, Een boekje over kinderfotografie, in Cosmorama 4 (december 1938) 12, p. 183.
Anoniem, Tips en nieuws, in Kleinbeeld-foto 2 (januari 1939) 10, p. 357, 359.
Adriaan Boer, Foto’s met inhoud, Bloemendaal (Focus) 1940, p. 36-37.
Anoniem, Boek bespreking, W.C. van Dijk, Kleurenfotografie, thans mogelijk voor iederen amateur-fotograaf, in Kleinbeeld-foto 5 (januari 1942) 5, p. 282.
Anoniem, Bij de platen, 21 (18 augustus 1934) 17, p. 461-462.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 24 (2 januari 1937) 1, p. 12.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 24 (30 januari 1937) 3, p. 74.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 24 (13 maart 1937) 6, p. 162.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 24 (27 maart 1937) 7, p. 192, 202.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 24 (8 mei 1937) 10, p. 274.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 24 (5 juni 1937) 12, p. 328, 341.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 24 (31 juli 1937) 16, p. 438, 450.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 25 (12 februari 1938) 4, p. 112.
Anoniem, “Focus” kleinbeeldwedstrijd voor fotohandelaren, 27 (16 maart 1940) 6, p. 163.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 27 (30 maart 1940) 7, p. 204.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 27 (22 juni 1940) 13, p. 374.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer. “Vrije Onderwerpen Augustus” eerste serie, 27 (31 augustus 1940) 18, p. 502.
M. Woldringh, Kleurenfotografie. Antwoord op critiek, 27 (14 september 1940) 19, p. 545.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 27 (26 oktober 1940) 22, p. 608.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer. “Vrije Onderwerpen December” 2e serie, 28 (15 februari 1941) 4, p. 84.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 28 (7 juni 1941) 12, p. 286.
Anoniem, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 28 (5 juli 1941) 14, p. 336.
D.B. [= Dick Boer], Analyse der platen, 49 (31 juli 1964) 16, p. 18.
D.B. [= Dick Boer], Nieuwe boeken. W.C. van Dijk: Welke camera en waarom? Pakkende foto’s van elk onderwerp. ‘De opname, het hoe en waarom’, 50 (6 augustus 1965) 16, p. 31.
Stichtsche Kleinbeeldclub Utrecht.
Jury, tentoonstelling Kleinbeeld ’39, Amsterdam 1939.
Diploma, Eerste Amsterdamse Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst, Amsterdam 1934
Medaille, Fotografische Kunst Cosmorama, 1936.
Eervolle vermelding (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Vrije Onderwerpen”, oktober 1936.
Erediploma (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Tegenlicht”, oktober 1936.
Erediploma (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Vrije Onderwerpen”, december 1936.
Eervolle vermelding (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Winteropnamen”, 1937.
Erediploma (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Kleederdrachten en typen”, 1937.
Erediploma (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Landschappen met wolken”, 1937.
Erediploma (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “De Brug”, 1937
Erediploma (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Vrije Onderwerpen”, oktober 1937.
Eervolle vermelding (buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Winter”, 1938.
Medaille voor uitmuntende prestaties, Kleinbeeld-foto-wedstrijd, Amsterdam 1938.
Medaille, Fotografische Kunst Cosmorama, 1939.
Zilveren plaquette der AAFV, 5e Amsterdamsche Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst, Amsterdam 1939.
Eervolle vermelding (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Stillevens Buiten”, 1940.
Hoofdprijs, “Focus” meesterplaquette, Focus-kleinbeeldwedstrijd voor fotohandelaren, 1940.
Erediploma (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Vrije Onderwerpen”, juni 1940.
Erediploma (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Vrije Onderwerpen”, augustus 1940.
Erediploma (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Vrije Onderwerpen”, december 1940.
Eervolle vermelding (diploma AAFV), Zevende Amsterdamsche Salon van Fotografische Kunst (AAFV), Amsterdam 1941.
Erediploma (deelname buiten mededinging), Focus-prijsvraag “Vrije Onderwerpen”, april 1941.
Eerste prijs vakklasse, wedstrijd tijdschrift Foto, februari 1958.
Tweede prijs, vakfotografen groep zwartwit foto’s, Derde Nationale Fototentoonstelling, Hoensbroek 1958.
1932 (g) Rotterdam, Rotterdamsche Kunstkring, [tentoonstelling verbonden aan de Zevende Fotografendag der NFPV].
1933 (g) Amsterdam, Gebouw Heystee, [tentoonstelling verbonden aan de Achtste Fotografendag der NFPV].
1934 (g) Amsterdam, Leesmuseum (aan het Rokin), Bekende landgenooten (NFPV).
1934 (g) Amsterdam, Verenigingsgebouw AAFV (Keizersgracht 428-430), Eerste Nationale Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst (AAFV).
1934 (g) Osaka, Osaka Asahi Hall, The Seventh International Photographic Salon of Japan.
1935 (g) Amsterdam, Verenigingsgebouw AAFV (Keizersgracht 428-430), Tweede Amsterdamse Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst (AAFV).
1935 (g) Antwerpen.
1935 (g) Ayr (Schotland)
1935 (g) Brussel, Cercle Artistique et Littéraire, XIVme Salon International de Photographie (Association Beige de Photographie et Cinématographie) (reizende tentoonstelling: Antwerpen, Gent en Verviers).
1935 (g) Cannes.
1935 (g) Luik.
1936 (g) Amsterdam, Verenigingsgebouw AAFV (Keizersgracht 428-430), Derde Amsterdamse Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst (AAW).
1936 (g) Boedapest, Nemzetközi Kallitäs Budapest.
1936 (g) Chicago, Chicago Convention (The Photographers Association of America).
1936 (g) Düsseldorf, Tentoonstellingszalen aan de Rijnkade, Film und Foto.
1936 (g) Parijs.
1936/1937 (g) Antwerpen, 10e Internationaal Kerstsalon de Noël (Iris).
1937 (g) Bandoeng, Eerste Nederlandsch Indische Fotosalon (Preanger-Amateur Fotografen Vereeniging i.s.m. Bandoengsche Kunstkring).
1937 (g) Boedapest, Nemzetközi Fényképkiállitás Budapenten. Daguerre-Centenárium 1837-1937 [International Photographic Exhibition, Budapest. Centenary of Daguerre 1837-1937].
1937 (g) Bristol, Eighth Annual Western International Photographic Salon.
1937 (g) Charleroi, IVe Salon International Albert IIer.
1937 (g) Gent, XVe Fotosalon van Fotoclub Vooruit.
1937 (g) Kortrijk, Vde Internationale Fototentoonstelling.
1937 (g) Toulouse, Salon International d’Art Photographique de Toulouse.
1937 (g) Turijn, V Salone Internazionale di Fotografia Aristica fra dilettanti (Circolo degli artisti).
1937 (g) Weymouth, Eighth Annual Western International Photographic Salon.
1938 (g) Expositio Universalis Artis Photographkae Contraci Belgio.
1938 (g) Birkenhead, Annual Exhibition (Birkenhead Photographic Association).
1938 (g) Bristol, Western Salon of Photography.
1938 (g) Ljubljana, III Mednarodna Razstava Umetniške Fotografije Ljubljana [III Exposition Internationala].
1938 (g) Maribor, Exposition Internationale.
1938 (g) Strafford, International Exhibition (Great Eastern Mechanic’s Institution Photographic Society).
1938 (g) Szeged (Hongarije), [Hongaarse fototentoonstelling].
1938 (g) Weymouth, World’s Camera Pictorialists Exhibition (Weymouth and District Photographic Society).
1938 (g) Weymouth, Open Exhibition of International Photographic Art (Weymouth and District Photographic Society).
1939 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Kleinbeeld ’39.
1939 (g) Amsterdam, Gebouw Leesmuseum, 5e Amsterdamsche Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst (AAFV).
1939 (g) Amsterdam, Gebouw Leesmuseum, Nederland Fotografisch Gezien. 6e Nationale Bondssalon.
1939 (g) Charleroi, Vlme Salon International d’Art Photographique.
1939 (g) München, IFA, Internationale Fotoausstellung.
1940 (g) Amsterdam, Gebouw Leesmuseum, Zesde Amsterdamsche Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst (AAFV).
1941 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Zevende Amsterdamsche Salon van Fotografische Kunst (AAFV).
1949 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Elfde Nationale Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst. (Bondssalon) (AAFV).
1950 (g) Eindhoven, Stedelijk Van Abbe Museum, Vakfotografie 1950.
1952/1953 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Veertiende Nationale Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst. “Bondssalon ” (AAFV).
1954 (g) Utrecht, [zesde fotosalon van de Utrechtse Amateur Fotografen Vereniging].
1957 (g) Utrecht, Museum van nieuwe religieuze kunst, [tentoonstelling t.g.v. het gouden jubileum van de Utrechtse Amateur Fotografen Vereniging].
1957/1958 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 19e Nationale Kerstsalon. “Bondssalon” (AAFV).
1958 (g) Hoensbroek, Kasteel Hoensbroek, Derde Nationale Fototentoonstelling.
1958 (g) Leverkusen, Internationale Fotoausstellung.
1960 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 21e Nationale Kerstsalon. “Bondssalon” (AAFV).
1960 (g) Heerlen, Raadhuis Heerlen, 21e Nationale Kerstsalon. “Bondssalon ” (AAFV).
1960/1961 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 22e Nationale Kerstsalon. “Bondssalon” (AAFV) (reizende tentoonstelling: 1961 Den Haag, Kunstzaal Esther Surrey; 1961 Maastricht, Bonnefanten-Museum).
1962 (g) Teplice, International Fotofestival.
Den Dolder, Edith C. van Dijk (biografische gegevens, documentatie en mondelinge informatie).
Leiden, Prentenkabinet Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.
Muiden, Sonja A. van Dijk (biografische gegevens, documentatie en mondelinge informatie).
Utrecht, Annelize van Dijk (biografische gegevens, documentatie en mondelinge informatie).
Utrecht, A.Th. van Diejen (documentatie en mondelinge informatie).
Amsterdam, Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam.
Leiden, Prentenkabinet Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden.
Roosendaal, Gemeentearchief Roosendaal.
IJmuiden, Archief Mital/Corus/Hoogovens.