PhotoLexicon, Volume 20, nr. 35 (August 2003) (en)

Carel Tirion

Tineke de Ruiter (first edition, 1984)

Hripsimé Visser (first edition, 1984)

Ingeborg Leijerzapf (second supplemented edition)


Carel Tirion was a photographer who devoted his professional knowledge to academic photography and education. Characteristic of his working method was the focus and perseverance with which he approached technical problems. Tirion’s commissioned work required that he develop various photo-technical instruments and methods. He was one of the leading figures responsible for setting up and developing vocational education in the field of photography in the Netherlands. An impressive series of articles in the Dutch professional trade magazines can also be attributed to Tirion’s name.




Carel Jan Tirion is born on 28 May in Magelang (Dutch East Indies).


Tirion attends school in the Netherlands. Following primary school and the HBS (Hogere Burgerschool, an upper-level secondary school), he studies at the Middelbare Koloniale Landbouwschool (‘Secondary Colonial Agriculture School’) in Deventer, where he shows an interest in photography and drawing.

Following his studies, Tirion returns to the Dutch East Indies, where he remains a salaried employee working as a rubber and coffee planter until late 1932.


After Tirion’s wife, Jezelina Elizabeth te Nuyl, comes down with several serious tropical diseases, Tirion returns to the Netherlands at the end of the year. The initial plan is to stay for one year, but his wife’s continuing health problems leave the couple with no other choice but to remain.


Tirion enrols at the KABK (Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten, ‘Royal Academy of Art’) in The Hague. On 1 September 1933, he begins in the advertising programme (Department A-6), where he receives instruction from Paul Schuitema and Gerrit Kiljan. Through self-study in the academy’s library, Tirion becomes an autodidact in the areas of scientific and colour photography.


Tirion completes the academy’s four-year programme in two years. He sets up a ‘Laboratorium voor gerechtelijk-, hand- en machineschriftonderzoek, technische en wetenschappelijke fotografie’ (‘Laboratory for judicial, hand-, and typewritten research, technical, and scientific photography’) in his own home. He investigates topics such as document forgery, invisible and charred scripts, chemical and mechanical erasures, crossed-out texts, papers, and ink.

Tirion becomes a member and secretary/treasurer of the Hague chapter of the NFPV (Nederlandse Fotografen Patroonsvereeniging, ‘Netherlands Photographers Guild’).

Tirion also becomes the chairman of the ‘Vereniging voor kleurenpsychologie’ (‘Association of Colour Psychology’), a function he fulfils for approximately the next twenty years.

Ca. 1935-’40

Shortly after completing his studies at the academy, Tirion begins working with 8mm film. He produces films for manufacturers and ‘landdagen’ (‘national days’, i.e. annual company meetings). Tirion also takes on commissions for advertising and architectural photography, on behalf of companies such as the Coöperatieve Centrale Raiffeissenbank (‘Cooperative Central Raiffeissen Bank’) in Utrecht.

Tirion gives lectures on a regular basis and works as a private photography instructor.


Tirion turns his attention to medical photography as a consequence of commissioned work for hospitals (Bronovo Hospital and the Westeinde Hospital, The Hague). His specialisations in this area are infrared photography of blood vessels and microscopic photography.

Tirion works on the publication Het werkende land. Opbouw van Nederland in moeilijke tijden (‘The Working Land. The Building Up of the Netherlands in Difficult Times’), together with W.J. van Balen, produced through the assistance of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and published by Uitgeverij Tjeenk Willink in Haarlem.

Ca. 1930-’41

Tirion is the senior editor of the magazine Bedrijfsfotografie (‘Corporate Photography’).


Tirion collaborates with the police and the ‘Criminological Laboratory’ of the Ministry of Justice. Via this ministry, Tirion is introduced at the ‘Polizei Praesidium’ in Vienna, Austria (an international technical investigative agency set up to counter Communism), where he does an internship in forensic photography lasting several months.

During this time, Tirion develops the ‘diepteloupe’ (‘depth magnifier’), a stereo macro camera with an adjustable magnification of the depth effect, allowing one to detect falsifications in documents.

At the NFPV’s request, Tirion becomes part of a committee responsible for planning the content of a professional study programme in photography, together with B.F. Eilers and J.J. Kok. Tirion’s involvement in the commission is brief.


The publisher Tjeenk Willink & Zoon in Haarlem releases the publication Groeizaam geld, een indruk van de scheppende werking der Boerenleenbanken in Nederland (‘Growable Money, an Impression of the Creative Effect of the Farmers’ Loan Banks in the Netherlands’), written by W.J. van Balen and illustrated by C.J. Tirion. The photos featured in this publication are a selection taken from Tirion’s assignment for the Raiffeissen Bank initially undertaken 1935.


Tirion is Paul Guermonprez’s successor as a photography instructor for the evening programme at the KABK in The Hague.


Tirion becomes the head of the laboratory and instrument-manufacturing department of the NOF (Interdepartementale Stichting Nederlandse Onderwijsfilm, ‘Interdepartmental Foundation of the Netherlands Educational Film’).


In January, Tirion starts giving a two-year evening course in practical photography at his home at Weissenbruchstraat 390 in The Hague. The classes are designed for professional photographers and photography dealers (alternating every fourteen days, with one week for the photographers and the other week for the dealers).


In 1942, the NOF moves to a building across from city hall in Leiden, on the Breestraat. He again has access to a laboratory. Tirion receives a civil servant exemption from the ‘Arbeitsinsatz’ (compulsory labour deployment in Germany), stemming from his work on behalf of the NOF.

With the permission of the German occupying forces, Tirion travels several times to Paris on assignment for the NOF in order to monitor the production of developing and copying apparatuses, for which the drawings were made himself. Prior to being delivered to the NOF, the equipment is seized by the Germans in Paris in 1943. The NOF sends Tirion to Germany to try and get the equipment back—naturally a fruitless endeavour.

In the spring of 1943, at the end of the academic year, Tirion stops with the private evening classes held at his home on the Weissenbruchstraat. Several months later, he and his family are forced to abandon their home as a result of the building of the Atlantic Wall. The family is relocated to a house on the Plantsoen in Leiden.

Tirion perfects sharpness test cards for checking the image sharpness of objectives for photo and film cameras. After the war, these are published by Uitgeverij FOCUS.


During the German occupation, Tirion works as a forger of identity papers and other documents.

During the Hunger Winter, Tirion shoots photos of important drawings on nitrate film for the Dutch resistance. Tirion develops a method to separate the image’s gelatin layer from its support, which allows information to be smuggled to Great Britain with reduced risk. In the event of danger, the courier can simply devour the gelatin image. As a result of his illegal activity, Tirion is forced to hide for three months in the laboratory safe of the by now empty building of the NOF in Leiden.

After the liberation, Tirion quits his job at the NOF. He again sets up his own company, now at Mauvestraat 44 in the Benoordenhout neighbourhood of The Hague. Tirion completes a manuscript on laboratory photography. Due to circumstances at FOCUS publishing company, the work is never released.


Tirion resumes his activities prior to the outbreak of the war. He teaches for several months at the KABK in The Hague. In October, he begins working once again as a private instructor at his home on the Mauvestraat. On assignment for the AKU (Arnhemse Kunstzijde Unie, ‘Arnhem Artificial Silk Federation’), Tirion conducts research into fibres with the help of a modified microscope. With this instrument he is able to take microstereographic shots with a heightened depth effect to create images that depict extremely fine cross sections of artificial fibres.

For the Rotogravure Maatschappij (‘Rotogravure Society’) in Leiden, Tirion develops a new model of a chromoscope, a device designed to assist with the monitoring the processing of colour reproductions.


The Stichting Fotovakschool (‘Vocational School of Photography Foundation’), an organisation established prior to the war­, takes over Tirion’s private course in photography. Tirion becomes the foundation’s director and also teaches classes. The school is based on a correspondence programme.


Tirion initiates the founding of the ‘Stichting voor fotografisch onderzoek en voorlichting’ (‘Foundation for Photographic Research and Information’), an organisation arising from a collaboration between the Nederlandse Fotovakschool (‘Netherlands Vocational School of Photography’) and the ‘Vakgroep Fotografie’ (‘Photography Professional Group’). Tirion is named as chairman of the foundation, which conducts general scientific research in the area of photography for various purposes: for application in photographic companies, to acquire better insight into photographic processes, to provide advice, and to certify materials and conduct research on the behalf of the Consumentenbond (‘Consumer Federation’).

Upon Tirion’s retirement as chairman in 1970, no successor can be found to replace him. In late July 1979, he decides to liquidate the organisation by notarial deed.


In February, the ‘School voor fotografie en fototechniek’ (‘School of Photography and Photographic Technique’) is established in The Hague. This evening study programme is bestowed the status of a UTS (Uitgebreid lager Technisch Onderwijs, a lower-level secondary technical school). In October, the evening study programmes officially start at the Fotovakschool on the Jan van Nassaustraat in The Hague. Tirion is hired as a photography instructor and stops with teaching his private courses.


The evening course at the ‘School voor fotografie en fototechniek’ is converted into a day programme and assigned a new status: the MTS voor Fotografie en Fototechniek (Middelbare Technische School, ‘Secondary Technical School of Photography and Photographic Technique’), located at Tarwekamp 3 in The Hague (Mariahoeve). Tirion becomes the school’s director as well as an instructor in ‘Fysiologie en psychologie van de waarneming, wetenschappelijke en algemene fotografie’ (‘Physiology and Psychology of Perception, Scientific and General Photography’).


On 1 August, Tirion leaves the MTS voor Fotografie en Fototechniek, having reached retirement age. A.J. Lohr succeeds him. Tirion’s laboratory is shut down. He and his wife leave The Hague and move to a bungalow vacation home at Nieuwe Laaklaan 22 in Putten (Gelderland).


On 9 July, Tirion and his wife move to ‘De Schauw’, an elderly care facility in Putten.


On 27 November, Carel Tirion dies in Putten.


Early on in his career, Carel Tirion had already freed himself of any kind of photographic movement or stylistic development, after having initially applied the visual idiom of New Photography. Tirion’s interest in technology, but also the weather climate in the Netherlands, had steered him in this direction. Suffering from frequent bouts of bronchitis, he looked for work that could be done chiefly indoors. As laboratory work appealed to him, he decided to specialise in the field of technical chemical research for the benefit of science. He likewise made a significant contribution to vocational education in the field of photography, which was still an undeveloped area in the Netherlands at this time. Tirion was a man of practical experience as well as theory. He was a good teacher, but also the author of numerous publications that were clear-cut, both in their structure and substance. Tirion’s persevering nature enabled him to accomplish many of the goals he set for himself.

After working for several years as a rubber and coffee planter in the Dutch East Indies, Tirion’s return to the Netherlands obliged him to start over again. He was drawn to the advertising field and the applications of photography propagated in the advertising department ‘A-6’ of the KABK (Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten, ‘Royal Academy of Art’) in The Hague at this time. The programme’s instructors, Paul Schuitema and Gerrit Kiljan, greatly emphasised the possibilities that could be achieved with photography, such as the perfect expression of texture, sharp ‘objective’ shots, and close-ups—thereby relying on the innovative concepts taught by Laszló Moholy-Nagy at the Bauhaus in Weimar, Germany. In choice of subject matter, approach, and design, Tirion’s early work was very much in line with avant-garde photography. A good example is his close-up shot of a sewing machine.

Resorting to a wide range of camera vantage points was another element of the photographic code at this time. The diagonal—employed to suggest dynamic—was a stylistic tool that photography had adopted from Russian films, dating back to the 1920s. Tirion’s photo of children on the steps of a slide exemplifies such a diagonal angle of view as seen from below. A similar vantage point is likewise found in a portrait shot of Tirion, taken by a fellow student, whose identity is not known. In addition to capturing surface texture and introducing unusual camera vantage points, Tirion enjoyed experimenting with technique, with an emphasis on lighting techniques and optical features.

After completing his studies at the academy, which he did very quickly, he established himself as an independent photographer in The Hague. He was specialised in technical advertising photography, architectural photography, and scientific photography. His clientele was made up of advertising and architectural firms, the government, and various companies. Tirion also shot numerous photos of children, but typically on a non-commission basis. Autonomous photography and photographing for advertising and industry during his career was limited to the 1930s and ’40s.

The aforementioned connection to New Photography in Tirion’s architectural photography can be observed in his photo of the building ‘De Volharding’ (‘Perseverance’, by the architectural firm Buys and Lürsen). Tirion was not only amazed by objective architecture, but had an eye more than anything for an aspect that was of technical interest: the lighting of a building. The shot took place in two stages. First a shot was taken of the building itself, without the windows being lit up. Next, the same photographic plate was exposed several times, while the windows were lit one by one, to prevent flare. The infrared light of radio masts in Scheveningen, for which Tirion was awarded a prize in 1936 at the exhibition Den Haag 700 jaar (‘The Hague 700 Years’), was shot based on the same kind of technical interest. The biggest architectural commission Tirion ever got was from the Coöperatieve Centrale Raiffeissenbank (‘Cooperative Central Raiffeisen Bank’) in Utrecht, which requested that he photograph all of the companies and factories in which the bank had invested.

From the moment he established himself as an independent photographer, Tirion was specialised in scientific photography, a genre that places the highest requirements on technique as opposed to design. His impressive series of publications affirms that he turned to text and images to make his knowledge, obtained through research, known to the world. In no time, Tirion became an authority in the areas of medical, forensic, and physics photography in the Netherlands. This led to Tirion’s participation in exhibitions such as Foto ’37 in Amsterdam, where he showed infrared shots of the human blood circulation, produced for medical science. Possible defect could be quickly traced with these photos. To simplify biological research, Tirion combined microscopic observations with (stereo) photography. This resulted in micro shots, such as a cross section of the faceted eye of the honeybee or the photo of the ovary of a cockchafer.

Tirion also developed his so-called ‘diepteloep’ (‘depth magnifier’), to be used for the forensic investigation of document forgery. This is a stereo magnifier with a stereo viewer, which can magnify the depth relative to the surface by ten to fifteen times. When one photographed handwritten en typewritten texts with this camera, one could easily distinguish any characteristic traits or deviations in the script with the stereo viewer. Alterations or omissions also became perceivable.

By employing techniques that were similar, Tirion managed to solve various problems for the AKU (Arnhemse Kunstzijde Unie, ‘Arnhem Artificial Silk Federation’) in Arnhem. He studied and photographed swelling in artificial fibres, and was subsequently able to show that, when used in combination with photography, the technique of microscopic observation normally applied up until this time resulted in illusory reliefs that were visually deceptive, thus resulting in the wring conclusion. By changing the microscope as he saw fit, and using components he had designed himself for the objective and the ocular, Tirion succeeded in producing stereo photos with a heightened depth effect, which depicted the swelling phenomena accurately. By Tirion’s own account, neither internal research conducted at the AKU nor laboratory research in the United States had been able to come up with any kind of insight regarding this problem. For the NRM (Nederlandse Rotogravure Maatschappij, ‘Netherlands Rotogravure Company’) in Leiden, Tirion took microphotographic measurements of intaglio printing matrices. His research showed that the number of lines per centimetre failed to agree with the values assigned to a matrix (e.g. a 70 line matrix had in reality 72 lines, a 60 line matrix 54 lines). At the NRM’s request, Tirion also spent time looking at issues involving a new model of a chromoscope, a device intended to assist with monitoring of the colour reproduction process. Via semi-permeable mirrors, one could see three separately lit (with respectively a blue, green, and red filter) partial positives appearing simultaneously on the same plate. The requirements to be satisfied by this device had been specified by Meinard Woldringh, who was working for the Rotogravure Maatschappij as a photographer at this time. Tirion designed a chromoscope that involved taking a small prismatic system and combining it with an adjustable viewer in order to produce a colour image that was not only highly defined down to the finest of detail, but which could also be set to achieve any random colour temperature with an optimal visual clarity. This instrument never went any further than the initial trial version due to internal issues at the company (unwillingness on the part of the NRM employee who would have used it). As well on behalf of the NRM, Tirion made calculations for photographic filters and intaglio ink, on the basis of colour measurements carried out by the Instituut voor Grafische Techniek (‘Institute for Graphics Technique’) in Amsterdam.

Tirion’s experiments on behalf of science and industry led to the discovery of new applications involving photographic technique. At the ‘School voor fotografie en fototechnique’ (‘School of Photography and Photographic Technique’), he laid the basis for the later department of photonics training and research in scientific photography.

In the framework of the ‘Vestigingsrecht’ (a law governing the right to establish a company), a push had been made for legal measures to be taken that would protect the professional starting as early as 1935. Prior to a system of permits being approved, however, an entire professional training for photographers had to be set up first. The NFPV (Nederlandse Fotografen Patroonsvereeniging, ‘Netherlands Photographers Guild’) had to take the lead in getting this programme off the ground. In 1937, the association asked Tirion to take on this project, together with B.F. Eilers and J.J. Kok. Their task was to draw up a report about with a plan for the content of a vocational training programme. Tirion’s involvement in this commission was short in duration, however, due to issues arising primarily from Tirion’s dislike for Kok’s political sympathies. Nevertheless, he did not turn away when initiatives were being taken to make the vocational programme a reality. To orient himself with training programmes elsewhere, Tirion took two working trips to photography vocational schools in Paris, Brussels, Dresden, Berlin, Munich, and Vienna. It would still be several years after World War II before a programme was actually realised: first a written correspondence class in 1948, offered by the Stichting Fotovakschool (‘Vocational School of Photography Foundation’), with Tirion compiling study materials and advising course participants, followed in 1953 by the School voor fotografie en fototechniek, where class instruction could be given. Tirion became not only an instructor, but also the director. His working life after the war was centred chiefly around education and his activities on various management boards.

Carel Tirion’s extant oeuvre comprises black-and-white prints, more than 400 photos with a format of ca. 18×24 cm and several dozen photos in a larger format. The subjects illustrate his specialisations as described above. In addition, the ‘diepteloep’ that Tirion designed has also been preserved, an adjustable stereo viewer, investigative reports for the AKU and the NRM, various documents in typewritten script, and several slide series.

Tirion’s oeuvre shows that he was without doubt an adherent of the ideas espoused by New Photography. His most important qualities as a photographer and an expert in the field of photography, however, lie not in design and artistic notions, but in his knowledge and execution of technical-scientific photography and in his pioneering role in establishing a vocational education programme in photography.


Primary bibliography

(Brochure) C.J. Tirion, Avondleergangen in fotografie en fotohandel, z.p., z.j.

C.J. Tirion, Scherpteproefkaarten voor het controleren der afbeeldingsscherpte van objectieven van foto- en filmcamera’s, Haarlem (Focus) z.j.

C.J. Tirion, Wetenschappelijke fotografie, in De Groene Amsterdammer 61 (19 juni 1937) 3133, p. 7.

C.J. Tirion, Een nieuwe methode van belichtingsbepaling bij omkeer- en kleurenfilms, in Het Veerwerk 6 (december 1937) 12, p. 215-216.

C.J. Tirion, Een nieuwe methode van belichtingsbepaling bij omkeer- en kleurenfilms II, in Het Veerwerk 7 (maart 1938) 3, p. 42.

C.J. Tirion, Een nieuwe methode van belichtingsbepaling bij omkeer- en kleurenfilms III, in Het Veerwerk 7 (april 1938) 4, p. 65.

C.J. Tirion, Neues Verfahren zur Untersuchung von Schriftfälsungen mit Hilfe einer Stereomikrocamera mit stark erhöhter Tiefenwirkung, in Archiv für Kriminologie 103 (1938) 1/2, p. 33-41.

C.J. Tirion en WJ. van Balen, Groeizaam geld, een indruk van de scheppende werking der boerenleenbanken in Nederland, Haarlem (Tjeenk Willink & Zn) 1938.

C.J. Tirion, Enkele beschouwingen over kleurenfotografie, in Kleur 1 (november/december 1938) 4, p. 1-2.

C.J. Tirion, Photographie und gerichtliche Schriftbegutachtung, in Photographie und Forschung3 (december 1939) 3, p. 90-96.

C.J. Tirion, Boekbespreking. De lichtechtheid van wit en gekleurd papier, in Kleur? (december 1939/januari 1940) 3, p. 23-24.

C.J. Tirion, De problematiek van de goede foto, in Gedenkboek, 25 jaar BNAFV 1922-1947, Hengelo (Smit & Zn.) 1947, p. 55-60.

C.J. Tirion, De fotografie ten behoeve van het documentonderzoek, in Nederlands Jaarboek voor Fotokunst 1948/49, p. 130-136.

C.J. Tirion, Scherpteproefkaart volgens Tirion. Gebruiksaanwijzing voor het bepalen van algemeene scherpte en afbeeldingsfouten van fotografische en cinematografische objectieven, Bloemendaal (Focus) z.j. [1949].

C.J. Tirion, Fotografie, in Jac. Bot en R.J. Forbes (red.), Eerste Nederlandse systematisch ingerichte encyclopedie. Negende deel, Amsterdam (E.N.S.I.E.) 1950, p. 264-269 (met foto’s).

C.J. Tirion, Reproduktionen mit der Contax, in Photographie und Forschung 5 (oktober 1953) 7, p. 207.

C.J. Tirion, Fysiologie en psychologie van de waarneming. Deel I, Den Haag (School voor Fotografie en Fototechniek) 1957.

C.J. Tirion, Fysiologie en psychologie van de waarneming. Deel II, Den Haag (School voor Fotografie en Fototechniek) 1957.

P. Heyse en A.S.H. Craeybeckx (hoofdred.) en C.J. Tirion (medew.), Encyclopedie voor fotografie en cinematografie, Amsterdam/Brussel (Elsevier) 1958.

C.J. Tirion, Fotografie, in Vos e.a. (red.), Eerste Nederlandse systematisch ingerichte encyclopedie. Elfde deel, Amsterdam (Wetenschappelijke Uitgeverij) 1959, p. 542-544.

C.J. Tirion, School voor Fotografie en Fototechniek, in Stam Steun [huisorgaan Stam-boekenconcern] (juni 1968) 13, p. 6-15.

Dick Boer, Paul Heyse en L. Roosens (hoofdred.) en C.J. Tirion e.a. (medew.), Focus Elsevier foto en film encyclopedie, Amsterdam/Brussel (Elsevier) 3de geh. herz. dr. 1971 (met foto’s).

C.J. Tirion, Enkele aanwijzingen voor het fotograferen van bloemen, in Orchideeën 39 (december 1977) 6, p. 259-260.

C.J. Tirion, Enkele aanwijzingen voor het fotograferen van bloemen – 2, in Orchideeën 40 (februari 1978) 1, p. 24-26.

C.J. Tirion, Enkele aanwijzingen voor het fotograferen van bloemen – 3, in Orchideeën 40 (april 1978) 2, p. 68-69.

C.J. Tirion, Enkele aanwijzingen voor het fotograferen van bloemen – 4, in Orchideeën 40 (juni 1978) 3, p. 121-123.

C.J. Tirion, Criminalistische fotografie, in Paul Heyse (hoofdred.), Focus Elsevier foto en film encyclopedie, Amsterdam/Brussel (Focus) 4de geh. herz. en uitgebr. dr. 1981, p. 145.


in Bedrijfsfotografw.

C.J. Tirion, Verwarrende benaming en detailweergave, 17 (13 december 1935) 25, p. 474.

C.J. Tirion, Vakfotografen en filmen, 17 (28 december 1935) 26, p. 490.

C.J. Tirion, Het monteeren van films, 18 (24Januari 1936) 2, p. 39.

C.J. Tirion, De keuze van platen, filters en licht in verband met de kleurweergave, 18 (7 februari 1936) 3, p. 59-60.

C.J. Tirion, De keuze van platen, filters en licht in verband met de kleurweergave II, 18 (21 februari 1936) 4, p. 78-80.

C.J. Tirion, Nogmaals natriumlicht, 18 (20 maart 1936) 6, p. 116-117.

C.J. Tirion, Over het reproduceeren van schilderijen, 18 (29 mei 1936) 11, p. 216-218.

C.J. Tirion, Het gebruik van opnamelenzen voor vergrootingsdoeleinden, 18 (12 juni 1936) 12, p. 228, 231.

C.J. Tirion, Sensitometrie en de vakfotograaf, 18 (7 augustus 1936) 16, p. 305-306.

C.J. Tirion, Grondslagen der sensitometrie, 18 (4 september 1936) 18, p. 352-354.

C.J. Tirion, Sensitometrie en de practijk, 18 (16 oktober 1936) 21, p. 407-409.

C J. Tirion, Gedachten over vestigingswet en vakverheffing, 18 (27 november 1936) 24, p. 453-454.

C.J. Tirion, Sensitometrie in de practijk, 19 (8 januari 1937) 1, p. 6-8.

C.J. Tirion, Sensitometrie voor de praktijk, 19 (5 februari 1937) 3, p. 44-46.

C J. Tirion, Natriumlicht en een publicatie van Philips, 19 (2 april 1937) 7, p. 124-125.

C.J. Tirion, Aan wien de fout! Iets over het halo verschijnsel bij diapositieven, 19 (16 april 1937) 8, p. 144-145.

C.J. Tirion, Naschrift [volgend op artikel De kleurweergave bij natriumlicht. Antwoord aan den heer C.J. Tirion], 19 (30 april 1937) 9, p. 173, 175-176.

C.J. Tirion, Het “Zwarte licht” van Philips, 19 (25 juni 1937) 13, p. 238.

C.J. Tirion, Scherpte en onscherpte bij groot-en kleinbeeld, 19 (12 november 1937) 23, p. 425-427.

C.J. Tirion, Kleurgevoeligheid – lichtkleur – kleurweergave en snelheid, 20 (27 mei 1938) 11, p. 211-214.

C.J. Tirion, Apparatenbouw, 20 (30 september 1938) 2, p. 390-391.

C.J. Tirion, Versterken van negatieven om zachter en detailrijker afdrukken te krijgen, 21 (24 februari 1939) 4, p. 67-68.

C.J. Tirion, Goedkoope voorzetlenzen, 21 (30 juni 1939) 3, p. 247-248.

C.J. Tirion, Vakopleiding, 21 (28 juli 1939) 15, p. 285-287.

C.J. Tirion, Vakopleiding. II, 21 (11 augustus 1939) 15, p. 296-297.

C.J. Tirion, De diepteloupe, 21 (25 augustus 1939) 16, p. 318-320.

C.J. Tirion, Portretten in moderne interieurs, 21 (22 september 1939) 19, p. 370-371.

C.J. Tirion, Een nieuwe methode om achtergronden in negatieven te beïnvloeden, 21 (6 oktober 1939) 20, p. 385-386.

C.J. Tirion, Fabricatie van apparaten, 21 (20 oktober 1939) 21, p. 399-400.

C.J. Tirion, “Psychologische photografieën” op verzoek, 22 (12 januari 1940) 1, p. 6-7.

C.J. Tirion, Fotograaf en clichémaker, 22 (12 januari 1940) 1, p. 18-20.

C.J. Tirion, De ideale portretcamera, 22 (9 februari 1940) 3, p. 44-45.

C.J. Tirion, Vakfilmer en Vestigingswet [ingezonden brief], 22 (19 april 1940) 8, p. 157.

C.J. Tirion, Oproep om hulp, 22 (31 mei 1940) 10/11, p. 182.

C.J. Tirion, Krachtig aan den arbeid, 22 (31 mei 1940) 10/11, p. 184-185.

C.J. Tirion, Hulp aan de getroffenen, 22 (14 juni 1940) 12, p. 215.

C.J. Tirion, Ontwikkelmethode volgens tijden temperatuur, 22 (28 juni 1940) 13, p. 231-233.

C.J. Tirion, Ontwikkelmethode volgens tijd en temperatuur, 22 (1 juli 1940) 14, p. 249-252.

C.J. Tirion, Ontwikkelmethode volgens tijd en temperatuur. 3, 22 (26 juli 1940) 15, p. 258-260.

C J. Tirion, De Walch “Tricroma” kleurencamera, 22 (9 augustus 1940) 16, p. 285-286.

C.J. Tirion, Versterken en verzwakken, 22 (23 augustus 1940) 17, p. 301-304.

C.J. Tirion, Het verwarmingsvraagstuk, 22 (6 september 1940) 18, p. 309-312.

C.J. Tirion, Fotografie en gerechtelijke schriftexpertise, 22 (20 september 1940) 19, p. 338-340.

C.J. Tirion, Het verwarmingsvraagstuk. (Slot), 22 (20 september 1940) 19, p. 340-341.

C.J. Tirion, Fotografie en gerechtelijke schriftexpertise II, 22 (4 oktober 1940) 20, p. 353-356.

C.J. Tirion, Het halo verschijnsel en zijn bestrijding, 22 (18 oktober 1940) 21, p. 364-366.

C.J. Tirion, Ons beroep: de fotografie, 22 (1 november 1940) 22, p. 379-380.

C.J. Tirion, Verwijderen van reflectiehalo, 22 (1 november 1940) 22, p. 387-388.

C.J. Tirion, Een nieuwe matglasinstelling, 22 (15 november 1940) 23, p. 405-407.

C.J. Tirion, Een woord aan de leerlingen in het fotografisch bedrijf in den fotohandel, 22 (29 november 1940) 24, p. 416.

C.J. Tirion, Het nut van teekenen voor den fotograaf, 22 (29 november 1940) 24, p. 421-423.

C.J. Tirion, “Land of the free-U.S.A.”, 22 (13 december 1940) 25, p. 433-434.

C.J. Tirion, Het nut van teekenen voor den fotograaf II, 22 (13 december 1940) 25, p. 439-440.

C.J. Tirion, Fotopapieren, 22 (27 december 1940) 26, p. 453-455.

C.J. Tirion, Fotografie en specialisatie, 23 (10 januari 1941) 1, p. 11-13.

C.J. Tirion, Fotografie en specialisatie, 23 (24 januari 1941) 2, p. 21-22.

C.J. Tirion, De invloed van het diafragma op de afbeeldingsscherpte, 23 (7 februari 1941) 3, p. 35-37.

C.J. Tirion, De invloed van het diafragma op de afbeeldingsscherpte, 23 (21 februari 1941) 4, p. 59-60.

C.J. Tirion, Over de scherpe afbeelding door vergrootingsobjectieven, 23 (7 maart 1941) 5, p. 67-70.

C.J. Tirion, Objectieven met verminderde reflex, 23 (21 maart 1941) 6, p. 84-86.

C.J. Tirion, Objectieven met verminderde reflex, 23 (4 april 1941) 7, p.100-102.

C.J. Tirion, Kleurenblindheid bij fotografen, 23 (18 april 1941) 8, p. 118-120.

C.J. Tirion, Kleurenblindheid bij fotografen. II, 23 (2 mei 1941) 9, p- 136-137.

C.J. Tirion, Belichtingstijdmeting, 83 (16 mei 1941) 10, p. 154-156.

C.J. Tirion, Belichtingstijdmeting (vervolg), 23 (30 mei 1941) 11, p. 171-173.

C.J. Tirion, Bijzondere belichtingstijdmeting, 23 (25 juli 1941) 15, p. 238-240.

C.J. Tirion, Bijzondere belichtingstijdmeting. II, 23 (8 augustus 1941) 16, p. 253-254.

C J. Tirion, Reclame voor den fotograaf, 23 (22 augustus 1941) 17, p. 268-270.

C.J. Tirion, Reclame voor den fotograaf, 23 (5 september 1941) 18, p. 281-283.

C.J. Tirion, Reclame voor den fotograaf, 23 (19 september 1941) 19, p. 303-305.

C.J. Tirion, Reclame voor den fotograaf, 23 (3 oktober 1941) 20, p. 319-321.

C J. Tirion, Reclame voor den fotograaf. (Slot), 23 (17 oktober 1941) 21, p. 333-335.


in Focus:

C.J. Tirion, Fijnkorrel-ontwikkeling. Een andere meening, 24 (31 juli 1937) 16, p. 435-436.

C.J. Tirion, Nieuw afdrukprocédé, 24 (9 oktober 1937) 21, p. 576-579.

C.J. Tirion, Eenvoudige onderzoekingsmethoden voor den amateur, 25 (15 januari 1938) 2, p. 43-44.

C.J. Tirion, Eenvoudige onderzoekingsmethoden voor den amateur II, 25 (29 januari 1938) 3, p. 73-74.

C.J. Tirion, Eenvoudige onderzoekingsmethoden voor den amateur III, 25 (12 februari 1938) 4, p. 104-105.

C.J. Tirion, Eenvoudige onderzoekingsmethoden voor den amateur IV, 25 (26 februari 1938) 5, p. 135-136.

C.J. Tirion, Kunnen “Kunst” en “Techniek” samen gaan?, 25 (18 juni J938) 13, p. 382-383.

C.J. Tirion, Belichtingsbepaling door meting van spitslichten, 25 (30 juli 1938) 16, p. 461-463.

C.J. Tirion, Iets over infraroodfotografie, 25 (3 december 1938), p. 727-728.

C.J. Tirion, Versterken van negatieven om zachter en detailrijker afdrukken te krijgen, 25 (17 december 1938) 20, p. 773-774.

C.J. Tirion, De Diepteloupe, 26 (7januari 1939) 1, p. 26-28.

C.J. Tirion, Gedachten over kleur en kleurenfotografie, 26 (18 februari 1939) 4, p. 135-136.

C.J. Tirion, Gedachten over kleur en kleurenfotografie. (II), 26 (4 maart 1939) 5, p. 168-169.

C.J. Tirion, Ruimtelijk zien van vlakke beelden en kleuren, 26 (2 september 1939) 18, p. 550-551.

C.J. Tirion, Goedkoope voorzetlenzen, 26 (16 september 1939) 19, p. 580-581.

C.J. Tirion, De hooge lichten in de foto. Worden zij zoo weergegeven als men deze waarneemt?, 27 ( 20 januari 1940) 2, p. 41-43.

C.J. Tirion, Waarom nog kleinbeeldclubs en kleinbeeldtentoonstellingen?, 27 (25 mei 1940) 11, p. 313-314, 330.

C.J. Tirion, Wat verlangt men van de kleurenfoto? Een onderzoek van deze vraag en een antwoord erop, 27 (12 oktober 1940) 21, p. 577-579.

C.J. Tirion, ‘Land of the free-U.S.A.’, 28 (1 februari 1941) 3, p. 55-56.

C.J. Tirion, Een nieuwe matglasinstelling, 28 (15 maart 1941) 6, p. 131-133.

C.J. Tirion, De plaats die de techniek inneemt bij het vervaardigen van foto’s en films, 29 (september 1942) 16, p. 305-306.

C.J. Tirion, Lagorio en Agfa kleurenproefkaart. Een vergelijkend onderzoek, 31 (28 september 1946 ) 19/20, p. 294-299.

C.J. Tirion, Belichtingsmeting met opvallend licht, 34 (11 juni 1949) 12, p. 268-269.

C.J. Tirion, Materiaal-eigenschappen, 35 (29 april 1950), p. 183-184.

C.J.T. (= C.J. Tirion), Examens Nederlandse Foto-vakschool 1950, 35 (22 juli 1950) 15, p. 329-330.

C.J. Tirion, Gamma tijdcurve, 36 (4 augustus 1951 ) 16, p. 333-334.

C.J. Tirion, Materiaaleigenschappen, 36 (1 september 1951) 18, p. 370.

C.J. Tirion, Materiaaleigenschappen, 36 (13 oktober 1951) 21, p. 427.

C.J. Tirion, Materiaaleigenschappen, 36 (24 november 1951) 24, p. 477.

C J. Tirion, Koud licht voor vergrotingsapparaten en lichtbakken, 38 (2 mei 1953) 9, p. 195.

C J. Tirion, Over het werk van de stichting voor fotografisch onderzoek en voorlichting, 38 (27 juni 1953) 13, p. 280.

C.J. Tirion, Hoe staat het met mijn objectief?, 39 (10 januari 1954) 1, p. 14.

C.J. Tirion, Stichting fotografisch onderzoek en voorlichting. Materiaaleigenschappen, 40 (5 februari 1955) 3, p. 55.

C.J. Tirion, Materiaaleigenschappen, 40 (25juni 1955) 13, p. 278.


(foto’s in boeken, tijdschriften en ander drukwerk)

Reclamefolders A.N.W.B./N.R.T.C, Den Haag z.j.

Reclamefolder Het Jagershuis, Den Haag z.j. [ca. 1934].

Reclamefolder “Cartsteel” archiefladen geven u de oplossing voor een goede berging van uw documenten, Den Haag (Jac. Bladergroen n.v.) z.j. [ca. 1935].

Reclamefolder Metaalplastiek, Deventer (H.J. te Nuyl) z.j. [ca. 1935].

Jaarverslag van de Nederlandsche Ruiter Toeristen Club 1 (1935).

WJ. van Balen, Het werkende land. Opbouw van Nederland in moeilijke tijden, Haarlem (Tjeenk Willink & Zoon) 1936.

Bedrijfsfotografie 18 (17 april 1936) 8, p. 149-151.

Catalogus tent. foto ’37, Prisma der Kunsten (1937) (speciaal nummer), p. 123.

Reclamefolder Genootschap voor Reclame, 1937.

De 8 en Opbouw (30 januari 1937) 2, p. 11.

WJ. van Balen, Groeizaam geld. Een indruk van de scheppende werking der Boerenleenbanken in Nederland, Haarlem (Tjeenk Willink & Zoon) 1938.

Reclamefolder “Waar deskundigen beslisten…”, Voorburg (N.V. Forta) juli 1938.

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf (red.), Het Fotografisch Museum van Auguste Grégoire. Een vroege Nederlandse fotocollectie, Den Haag (SDU) 1989, p. 182.

Secondary bibliography

Anoniem, Ballotage candidaat-leden, Bedrijfsfotografie 17 (15 november 1935) 23, p. 435.

Anoniem, Ledenlijst N.F.P.V., in Bedrijfsfotografie 18 (24 januari 1936) 2, p. 25-27.

Anoniem, Uit de B.F. donkere kamer. Bij de platen van C.J. Tirion, in Bedrijfsfotografie 18 (17 april 1936) 8, p. 153.

Anoniem, Fototentoonstelling “De Residentieweek”, in Bedrijfsfotografie 18 (12 juni 1936) 12, p. 239.

Anoniem, verwisselde cliché’s, in Bedrijfsfotografie 19 (22 januari 1937) 2, p39.

H.V.i., Fotografie van het onzichtbaren, in Bedrijfsfotografie 19 (19 maart 1937) 6, p. 107.

J.A.M, van Liempt, De kleurweergave bij natriumlicht. Antwoord aan den heer C.J. Tirion, in Bedrijfsfotografie 19 (30 april 1937) 9, p. 174-175.

d.V., Wetenschap in dienst der politie, in Algemeen Handelsblad 5 maart 1939.

Th. Boogaard, Uit de fotoclubs. Haagsche A.F.V., in Focus 26 (7 januari 1939) 1, p. 39.

Anoniem, Voorzetlenzen, in Bedrijfsfotografie 21 (28 juli 1939) 15, p. 280.

Anoniem, Adreswijziging, in Kleur (augustus/september 1939) 1 ,p. 1.

Anoniem, C.J. Tirion leeraar fotografie Academie, Den Haag, in Bedrijfsfotografie 21 (6 oktober 1939) 20, p. 374.

Anoniem, Een nieuwe vaste medewerker: de heer C.J. Tirion, in Bedrijfsfotografie 22 (31 mei 1940) 10/11, p. 183.

Frederika Quanjer, Haagsche A.F.V., in Focus 27 (23 november 1940) 24, p. 674.

Anoniem, Een nieuwe cursus voor de practijk te Den Haag, in Bedrijfsfotografie 22 (29 november 1940) 24, p. 412.

Aug. Grégoire, Honderd jaar fotografie in Nederland, Bloemendaal (Focus) 1948, p. 39.

Anoniem, Vacantiecursussen, in Bedrijfsfotografie 24 (1949) 7, p. 141.

Jan Stokvis, Retoucheren. Het verantwoord aanbrengen van verbeteringen aan negatief en positief, Hengelo (Fotografische Bibliotheek H.L. Smit & Zn) 1950, p. 100 (idem, Doetinchem (C. Misset) 2de en herz. dr. 1958., p. 88).

Piet van der Ham en Ed van Wijk, Cursus fotografie. LOI, Leiden (Leidse Onderwijs Instelling) 1970 (idem herdruk 1975).

Anoniem, Afscheid directeur van fotoschool, in Het Vaderland 24 september 1970, p. 15.

Els Barents (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1940-1975, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978, losse biografie.

Flip Bool en Kees Broos (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1920-1940, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1979, p. 7-8, 20, 68, 106-107, 130, 132, 142, 158 (met foto’s).

Catalogus tent. De Maniakken. Ontstaan en ontwikkeling van de grafische vormgeving aan de Haagse Akademie in de jaren dertig, Den Haag (Rijksmuseum Meermanno-Westreenianum) 1982, p. 27, 30.

Peter Noorland, Carel Tirion, man achter vakopleidingen, werd 80. “In mijn leven moest ik viermaal een salto maken”, in Fotohandel 55 (september 1985) 9, p. 7-8.

Kees Broos en Flip Bool (red.), De Nieuwe Fotografie in Nederland, Amsterdam/Den Haag/Naarden (Fragment/SDU/V+K Pulishing) 1989, p. 20, 40.


NFPV, 1935-1970 (secretaris/penningmeester afd. Den Haag).

Nederlandse Vereniging voor Kleurenstudie, ca. 1935-ca. 1955.

Redactie tijdschrift Bedrijfsfotografie 1936-1941 (eindredacteur).

Redactie tijdschrift Kleur, officieel orgaan van het Nederlandsch Kleurengenootschap, 1938-1939.

Nederlandsch Kleurengenootschap 1938-1939.

Nederlandse Vereniging van Wetenschappelijke Film, na 1945.

Normalisatiecommissie van Fotografie en Cinematografie, na 1945-ca. 1962.

Nederlandse Vereniging voor Fotografie, Fotochemie en Fotofysica, na de oorlog (bestuurslid en later erelid).

Nederlandse Vereniging voor Medische Fotografie, ca. 1950-ca. 1955.

Bestuur Stichting voor fotografisch onderzoek en voorlichting, 1948-1970.

Examencommissie Fotovakschool Apeldoorn, tot eind 1982.


1936 Tweede en derde prijs, fotowedstrijd Den Haag 700 jaar (tentoonstelling i.k.v. de Residentieweek).


1936 (g) Den Haag, Gebouw Panorama Mesdag, Den Haag 700 jaar (tentoonstelling i.k.v. de Residentieweek).

1937 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, foto ’37.

1939 (g) Den Haag, Gemeentearchief, Honderd jaar fotografie.

1979 (g) Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum, Foto 20-40.


Delft, Bibliotheek Technische Hogeschool.

Leiden, Studie en Documentatie Centrum voor Fotografie, Prentenkabinet Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden.

Leusden, Jan Wingender (collectie nederlands fotoboek).

Putten, C.J. Tirion, mondelijke informatie.


Den Haag, Politiemuseum (diepte-loep).

Leiden, Prentenkabinet Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden.