PhotoLexicon, Volume 14, nr. 29 (November 1997) (en)

Rineke Dijkstra

Hripsimé Visser


In recent years, Rineke Dijkstra has attained international notoriety with her series of beach portraits. Her approach in this, and in the series realised after, are in principle austere and traditional. Departing from a strict concept based on frontality and the absence of anecdotal detail, she concentrates primarily on the developing individuality of young people (in most cases) in contemporary culture. In part through Dijkstra’s reserved use of colour and the large formats in which she works, her photos possess a monumental and contemporary character.




Rineke Dijkstra is born on 2 June in Sittard.


After completing secondary school in Castricum and Alkmaar, Rineke Dijkstra enrolls in the instructor’s training for handicrafts and textile work forms at the VLVU (Vrije Leergangen der Vrije Universiteit, (‘Liberal Studies of the Free University’) in Amsterdam.


Dijkstra is unhappy with her chosen field of study. She decides to take an orientation course at the Christelijk Cultureel Studiecentrum (‘Christian Cultural Study Centre’) in Rijswijk. She also takes a course in photography, organised by Het Paard van Troje (‘The Trojan Horse’), a youth centre in The Hague.


Dijkstra enrols once again in an instructors’ training for handicrafts and textile work forms, this time at the d’Witte Lelie (‘The White Lily’) in Amsterdam. At the same time, she takes a course in photography at the Cultureel Centrum De Moor (‘Cultural Centre De Moor’). The photographers, Hans Aarsman and Corinne Noordenbos, are her instructors.


Rineke Dijkstra participates in a one-week workshop of d’Witte Lelie in Rome, under the direction of Corinne Noordenbos. She makes a definitive switch to photography and enrols at the Rietveld Academy in Amsterdam. Her instructors in the beginning are Kees Heemskerk and André Pierre Lamoth, followed in the latter years of her study by Anthon Beeke and Boudewijn Neuteboom. She continues to follow courses at the De Moor Cultural Centre until 1983.


Dijkstra’s first completed series of portraits—photographs of young people attending the youth centre Paradiso—are exhibited at De Moor. She continues making portraits in the Paradiso until 1985.


Rineke Dijkstra completes her education at the Rietveld Academy. The work for her final exam consists of a staged, dream-like visual story, inspired by the fairy tale The Frog King, by the Brothers Grimm. After graduation, she produces—in collaboration with the photographer, Annaleen Louwes—brochure photos for both the Golden Tulip Barbizon Hotel Amsterdam and the design firm, BRS/ Premsela/ Vonk.


Rineke Dijkstra wins the Kodak Award Netherlands. Dijkstra’s Paradiso portraits are exhibited at the exhibition Gemeente-aankopen (‘Municipal Acquisitions’), in the Fodor Museum in Amsterdam. Within this context, two photos are acquired for the collection of the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam. Dijkstra focuses on making portraits in the studio. In the years that follow, she publishes photos in magazines and annual reports and produces photos for publications put out by cultural institutions, dance and theatre groups, and fashion campaigns. Until 1993, Dijkstra gives photography lessons at De Moor. Among her students are future photographers-to-be, such as Esther Kroon, Jasper Wiedema and Geerten Verheus, people whom she encourages to attend the Rietveld Academy with success.


For a publication of the Stopera (the Amsterdam city hall/opera house), Dijkstra makes portraits of the artists that have realised work for the building based on the ‘percentage arrangement’ subsidy.


For the Saturday Supplement of the newspaper NRC Handelsblad, Dijkstra makes portraits of artists, including Gerald van der Kaap, Jiri Kilian, and Rob Scholte. In addition, she makes portraits of businessmen and artists, as well as fashion photos, for various magazines, annual reports and brochures. In the spring of 1991, Dijkstra takes her first beach photo for NRC Handelsblad.

1992 to present

Via Willem van Zoetendaal, Dijkstra is hired as an instructor at the Rietveld Academy, where she is employed to the present day. In this same year, she begins working consistently on a series of beach portraits: photos of young people on the beaches of Europe and the United States. She continues this work until 1996. In addition, she photographs on commission for publications such as Elle, Avenue, NRC Handelsblad and Quote. In collaboration with Willem van Zoetendaal, she produces a book and puts together an exhibition (both realised in 1993) on the work of Esther Kroon, a young and promising photographer whose life ended in tragedy.


Dijkstra portrays the winners of the art awards for the AFK (Amsterdams Fonds voor de Kunst, ‘Amsterdam Fund for the Arts’). These photos are shown in the form of projections to introduce these artists at the award ceremony in Paradiso. They are also published in the Stedelijk Jaarverslag (‘Municipal Annual Report) for 1993 under the title of ‘Bekroonde Kunstenaars’ (‘Awarded Artists’). A first selection of Dijkstra’s beach portraits are shown at the exhibition, De Kracht van Heden (‘The Power of the Present’), held in Loods 6 in Amsterdam and at the Fotofestival Naarden (‘Naarden Photo Festival’). They are also published in Vrij Nederland. In this year and in 1994, Dijkstra makes portraits on a weekly basis of an actor or actress under the title of ‘Anti-sterren’ (‘Anti-Stars’) for the Cultural Supplement of the NRC Handelsblad for a period of time. For her autonomous work—the beach portraits—she receives the ‘Aanmoedigingsprijs’ (‘motivational prize’) from the city of Amstelveen as well as the Werner Mantz Prize.

In connection with De Nieuwe Wereldcampagne: Kunstproject Kinderen van Asielzoekers (‘The New World Campaign: Art Project Children of Assylum-Seekers’), called ‘A Pressing Engagement’, Dijkstra makes portraits of young foreign refugees. In addition, on her own initiative she photographs bullfighters after the fight, women who have just given birth and students at high schools in Krakow and Liverpool.


For NRC Handelsblad, Rineke Dijkstra photographs ‘ontheemde kunstenaars’ (‘estranged artists’), and from September, ‘writer’s portraits’ for the newspaper’s Literary Supplement. The beach portraits are exhibited in various galleries and museums both in the Netherlands and abroad, including the Stedelijk Museum Bureau Amsterdam and during the photo festival, Encontros da Imagem, in Braga, Portugal. For the Stichting Basalt (‘Basalt Foundation’), she makes portraits of the citizens of Groningen for the publication Stofgoud (‘Gold dust’, Rineke Dijkstra/ Jacob Molenhuis). In the context of the Kunstproject ‘Vlinderslag’ (Art Project ‘Butterfly Stroke’) at the Zuiderbad, a public swimming pool in Amsterdam, Dijkstra photographs groups of people swimming in the pool.

In December, Dijkstra makes video recordings at Vrieshuis Amerika, together with Gerald van der Kaap, and in April of the next year, at the Roxy dance club in Amsterdam.


Dijkstra is commissioned by Rijkswaterstaat Limburg (‘Public Works and Water Management Limburg’) to produce work for the project, ‘Oog op A73, Tien Visies op de Weg’ (‘Eye on A73, Ten Visions of the Highway’). The PTT Post Filatelie (‘Dutch Postal Services Philately’) asks her to make portraits for Unicef 1946-1996. She subsequently travels to Africa and makes portraits of Ghanean youths in the style of her beach portraits.

At the Buzzclub in Liverpool, Dikstra makes portraits of young people at a dance hall. In addition, she also produces video portraits, which she edits into a short film in collaboration with Gerald van der Kaap. This is first shown to the public at an exhibition held in the Paul Andriesse Gallery in Amsterdam.

In late 1996, Dijkstra receives one of the commissions for the documentary photographic project, Photo Work(s) in Progress, an initiative of the Nederlands Foto Instituut (‘Netherlands Photo Institute’) in collaboration with the Mondriaan Stichting (‘Mondriaan Foundation’).


In the context of the theme ‘Constructing Identity’, proposed for PhotoWork(s) in Progress, Dijkstra makes a video of people attending house festivals in the Netherlands (Mysteryworld, Zaandam) and Great Britain (Buzzclub, Liverpool), as well as high school students in Amsterdam and Alphen aan den Rijn, while listening to their favourite music.

Rineke Dijkstra makes her international breakthrough: her work is published in both Camera Austria and Artforum, and exhibited at the Biënnale in Venice. Her work is also to be seen at the exhibition, Framed Area, in Hoofddorp (Netherlands) and at the Nederlands Foto Instituut in Rotterdam, at the Photographers’ Gallery in London as well as the thirteenth edition of the New Photography exhibitions in the Museum of Modern Art in New York.


Contrary to what adherents of post-modernist theories or those adept in digital techniques have professed, Rineke Dijkstra’s work demonstrates, if anything, that classical forms of photography are by no means dead. While clearly having autonomous and museum-related ambitions—particularly evident in her use of colour and large format—her approach is still soundly rooted in traditions that have played a role in portrait photography from the very start.

After having made several switches from one creative study to another, Rineke Dijkstra finally decided to study photography at the Rietveld Academy in Amsterdam in 1981. Equally important for her formation were the courses that she had previously followed at Het Paard van Troje (‘The Trojan Horse’) in The Hague, and especially those at Cultureel Centrum De Moor (‘Cultural Center De Moor’) in Amsterdam. In her earliest work, Dijkstra concentrated on making compositions of relatively empty spaces, both indoors and outdoors. These photos of waiting rooms and swimming pools, of sidewalk tiles and high-voltage power lines, bring to mind memories of the slightly surrealistic work of Paul den Hollander, who in the early 1980s inspired an entire generation of photographers in the Netherlands with his Moments in Time. At the De Moor Cultural Centre, it was Hans Aarsman who encouraged Dijkstra to start photographing people.

Initially, the people in Dijkstra’s photos—as was the case with Den Hollander—were no more than filler for highly contrived compositions. She photographed people from the back or walking out of the image, as a formal element in a balanced division of the planar surface. It was only in 1981, during a workshop in Rome under the direction of Corinne Noordenbos, that Dijkstra dared to enter a direct confrontation with people. In the publication that presents the collective results of a portrait workgroup at De Moor in 1983, the people in Dijkstra’s photos are looking directly into the lens. Besides the space in which the people who are portrayed have been placed, there are elements consciously added to these photos—e.g. the movement of other people, a cat’s leap, an intense beam of light—which play a virtually equivalent role. Only later, during her study at the Rietveld, did she focus on situations in which people are ‘(…) soaked out of there daily existence (…)’, as she formulates it herself. An emerging preference for the unusual expressed itself in an interest in transvestites, transsexuals, and somewhat later, in the extrovert behaviour of visitors to the youth centre Paradiso. The Paradiso portraits that were made with the Rolleicord camera possess a somewhat journalistic character—in spite of the restraints in compositional concentration which this film format implies–because of the unrestrained handling of framing and cropping.

Rineke Dijkstra’s graduation project from 1986 was, by contrast, much more related to the manner of staging that was then dominant and being promoted by her final exam advisor, Anthon Beeke. Her visual storyline was inspired by the fairy tale De kikkerkoning (‘The Frog King’), and—particularly when it came to the use of light—by movie stills from the 1950s and ’60s.

Illustrative and anecdotal elements as well play an important role in the posters that Dijkstra made after her study for the clothing brand, Sandwich, and for the theatrical studios Hinderik and Mark Kingsford. Completely different were the portraits of business people that she had started making as commissioned work for magazines such as Quote, Elle and Elegance. In the late 1980s, she started concentrating her efforts more and more on carefully designed portraits in the studio and on location, tightly composed, taken with the Hasselblad and an effective lighting achieved with various kinds of lamps. Although she enjoyed relative success, these commissions were giving her less and less satisfaction because of the limited possibilities of introducing her own initiative and vision: ‘Those people know exactly how they want to be photographed, that’s not what interests me.’ Dijkstra’s statement illustrates an age-old dilemma in portrait photography: a genre that exists sheerly by the grace of the complex relationship between the photographer and his subject. Before Rineke Dijkstra had found her own personal solution to this tense relationship, she made various series of artists’ portraits for clients such as NRC Handelsblad, for Stichting Fonds voor Beeldende Kunsten (‘Fund for the Visual Arts, Design and Architecture Foundation’), and for a book on the Stopera (Amsterdam’s city hall/opera house) based on the one-per cent arrangement. In these portraits, Dijkstra increasingly developed the sober, confrontational approach that would come to form the core of her current vision.

The beach portraits, her first completely self-initiated series, arose from her need to break away from the strait-jacket that commissioned work, certainly for magazines and newspapers, most certainly is. What she had gained through this training was insight into the pose: one of the most telling aspects of a portrait, besides that of the role that the photographer himself plays. In the end, it is above all the pose and the camera angle that make a portrait monumental, glamorous, psychological or intimate. Because adults are typically highly aware of these aspects, Dijkstra began focussing on children and young people. She went in search of poses that are free of references to status or accepted ideals of beauty. On the beaches of Europe and the United States, she tried to record those moments when a pose takes form, or by contrast disintegrates, when hesitation and uncertainty become visible in a person’s body language and the glance of the eyes. She did this with the sea as the background, a space without any boundaries or benchmarks other than the frame. Her choice of certain people was, as she sees it, intuitive and relatively random, although in retrospect, it turns out that the images of children and teenagers are the ones that best match what she herself had imagined: portraits in which the photographer—and the observer—recognizes her (his) own awareness of solitude, of existential loneliness.

From the moment that she began with the beach portraits, Dijkstra used a 4×5 inch camera. Before taking the shots that are later to be enlarged, she records the situation with a Polaroid, in order to check on the lighting, focus and composition. She gives no instructions regarding posture or expression, which after waiting for a while, usually results in a more relaxed rather than a dynamic posture, with the portrait subject’s attention appearing entirely concentrated on the photographer.

With her beach portraits, Dijkstra always took a fairly low camera angle at a distance that shows the person from the feet up. She used one single flash, which produces a somewhat artificial effect, brings everything in the photo into sharp focus, and in principle, clearly highlights people against a darker background. Dijkstra then corrects this darker background and the artificial effect often shows up only in the second instance, namely when the observer realises that the neutral lighting is rather surprising in a spot where the sun is often strongly reflected and can create strong shadows. Up to now, Dijkstra checks and retouches all of her prints personally based on her great love of details and effects achieved through the perfect application of photographic technique and craftsmanship. Dijkstra’s approach is somewhat ruthless in its all-exposing frontality and sharpness, a critique she has had to face repeatedly. In a certain way, she turns people into the object of an almost anthropological perspective. Her apparent lack of empathy places her work in the tradition of Diane Arbus, a photographer that Dijkstra greatly admires. In contrast with Arbus, but comparable to Irving Penn, Dijkstra’s choice of surroundings conveys no information that might be betray something about the person portrayed. She gives the observer nothing to hold on to: relinquished to their fate, her subjects reveal essentially nothing other than uneasiness, uncertainty and imperfection. Yet this merciless confrontation is held in balance by meaningful details that provoke compassion, be it nothing more than the obvious absence of fashionable swimwear in Poland or Ukraine, or the somewhat rough-and-tumble clumsiness of American teenagers with their hands stuck in their pockets in a semi-macho fashion. The poses in her photos are often made in reference to a culture, as is the case with a young American girl, who appears to know no ‘natural’ position other than that of a sexy pin-up girl. In another shot, the gaunt awkwardness of a teenage girl is transformed into something gracious, taking on a pose that is unmistakably reminiscent of the elegance in Botticelli’s Venus. It is with her feeling for these kinds of details and in the austere use of colour that Dijkstra distinguishes herself from the sarcasm of her English colleagues, who like her, possess an interest that is sociologically oriented. At the same time, her photography lacks the austerity of a ‘Becherschüler’ (‘Becher School’) such as the German photographer, Thomas Ruff, with whom she shares a certain conceptual consistency. Whereas Ruff focussed on a meaningless anonymity in his portraits of the 1980s, Dijkstra allows emotionality in her portraits. This is certainly the case in the series of bullfighters and women that have just given birth that she produced after the beach portraits. Dijkstra made these portraits because, as she puts it, she: ‘(…) wished to record people immediately after a profound experience (…)’. Particularly the last series is, in a certain sense, ruthless, but at the same time, empathetic in an impressive way. The photos are not images of the loving young madonnas that so frequently appear in our culture, but rather women with wounded bodies, posing frontally in cold bare spaces, with faces showing exhaustion, but at the same time pride in the red worms pressed up tightly against them.

It would be a mistake to view the significance of this series solely in the context of breaking a taboo or as an invitation to a somewhat indulgent attitude. The space in which Dijkstra surrounds her subjects both visually and psychologically gives the observer an opportunity to experience respect, a form of empathy without condescension.

Thanks to her beach portraits, Dijkstra has received various commissions that were directly in line with the approach that she developed. The portraits for the AFK (Amsterdams Fonds voor de Kunst, ‘Amsterdam Fund for the Arts’), the photos of refugees for Vrij Nederland, and the shots that formed the basis for stamps, can all be considered are above all a consequence of her commissions. In addition, she began to photography youths at schools and in discos, primarily in Great Britain. Based on their exclusive concentration on the face, the portraits of English schoolboys are most similar to Thomas Ruff’s early portraits, even though Dijkstra once again emphasises pubescent powerlessness and uncertainty in these images. The same uncertainty is found in the portraits that she made in 1996, featuring very young girls in a Liverpool disco. In this case, there is no decor whatsoever to be seen. The girls are photographed virtually from head-to-toe, standing against a wall of a vague light colour, their chubby bodies squeezed in clothing that is meant to be sexy and alluring, but which ultimately illustrates nothing more than the somewhat clumsy interpretation of a fashion ideal.

Dijkstra’s fascination with both poses and youth culture was what led to a project with Gerald van der Kaap in 1996. Together they shot video recordings of young people dancing in the club scene in Amsterdam and its environs. Here too, Van der Kaap and Dijkstra placed their models, who where invited for so-called ‘screen tests’, in a stark environment, with a cigarette or a bottle of alcohol as the portrait subject’s only benchmark. Stoned or drunk, the young girls sway back and forth mindlessly to the thud of a monotone musical beat. Remarkably, the coercive monotone video recordings allow the observer less space for an emotional response than the photos, as if the static photographic shot is better at stimulating a person’s own fantasy than the moving film image. In her article in De Groene Amsterdammer, Pam Emmerik referred to this work as ‘pleasantly unmoral’, because ‘(…) it doesn’t come across as a desire to sketch a psychological portrait of—another new!—lost generation’. The difference with the photographic portraits is that these video images, particularly because of the repetition and the passing of time in which hardly anything changes, appears to suggest that every opportunity to develop one’s individuality in the current mass culture is destined to be quashed. In this sense, this work is not about a lost generation, but does concern the dependency of a group of young people on the media, on images in the media, on the ever-present eye of the camera, and—last but not least—the voyeuristic fascination of the observer.

In the past year, Dijkstra has further developed this project on her own. For a solo exhibition with Paul Andriesse, she made video portraits at the Buzzclub in Liverpool, England. Van der Kaap assisted only with the editing. For PhotoWork(s) in Progress, she made video-shoots in Great Britain and the Netherlands under the theme ‘Constructing Identity’. In addition, she made video portraits of students listening to their favourite music in Amsterdam and Alphen aan den Rijn. For this project’s catalogue, she took stills from the video recordings via computer manipulation. This method of working allowed her to select other kinds of moments for her photos than what she would normally choose. Technically, this transformation gave rise to complications, as the perfection she normally aimed for in her prints had become more difficult to attain.

In addition to this work, Dijkstra makes portraits of the same children on an intermittent basis. One of her subjects is a young Yugoslavian girl, who she photographed for the first time in March 1994 in a centre for asylum-seekers in Leiden. The successive portraits reveal, particularly in her body language and look, the various stages of aging and a growing self-awareness, in part through her becoming rooted in Dutch society.

Within the classical genre of portrait photography, Rineke Dijkstra has found a highly convincing form in the last few years. Her photos possess a self-evident monumentality based on direct observation that is characteristic of Dutch (documentary) photography. Through the visual distance that she creates and the emphasis that she places on a strict concept, Dijkstra has simultaneously become a typical representative of an international generation that has swept the museum world without any effort. This acceptance undoubtedly stems from a reassessment of typical photographic qualities such as transparency, precision, and the suggestion of authenticity, whereas the formal characteristics of her photos make it possible to describe her work in terms such as style and oeuvre.

Gerald van der Kaap entered the art world in the early 1980s, in the wake of American pop art and constructed photography, with his brutal, ironic and media-critical ‘post modern’ stagings. One decade later, Dijkstra focussed on the analytical, descriptive possibilities of photography. Such a step is less radical than it might seem. In the late 1980s, a comparable re-orientation in the areas of landscape and cityscapes can already be detected in the work of the Dutch photographer Hans Aarsman. Just as with Aarsman in this period, Dijkstra made use of top-quality professional material, something that indicates an almost old-fashioned belief in the power of pure registration. Colour enhances the suggestion of realism. At the same time, it is precisely the subtle play of light, contrast, and space that draws her portraits out of an experience of everday reality. In the Netherlands, Dijkstra’s work—due to the absence of any narrative surroundings—is comparable to the documentary subjectivism of a photographer such as Bertien van Manen. The ostensible naivety with which Dijkstra confronts the observer as well juxtaposes her work with the extreme, cynical computer manipulations of the Dutch fashion photographer Inez van Lamsweerde.


Primary bibliography

Nieuw lid: Rineke Dijkstra, in GKf Bulletin (oktober 1988) 3, p. 9.

NRC Handelsblad 13 december 1991, Cultureel Supplement.

Rineke Dijkstra e.a. (samenstelling), Esther Kroon, 1966-1992, Rotterdam/ Naarden (Uitgeverij DUO/ DUO/ Stichting Kroon Fotografie) 1993.

Rineke Dijkstra en Jacob Molenhuis, Stofgoud, Amsterdam (Basalt) 1995 (serie: Lindereeks, nr. 2) (idem Engelse ed.: Gold Dust).

Rineke Dijkstra’s Wall Street, in Vrij Nederland 56 (11 februari 1995) 6, p. 50-53.

Fotografe Rineke Dijkstra over A Pressing Engagement, in Leids Nieuwsblad 19 (20 oktober 1995) 1563, bijlage Culturele manifestatie Human Rights and Refugees, ongepag.

Beaches, Zürich (Codax Publishers) 1996.


images in:

Elegance mei 1988, p. 75.

NRC Handelsblad 4 oktober 1991 (Cultureel Supplement).

Eric van Onna, Het oog van de vrouw, in NieuweRevu (12 mei 1993) 20, p. 36.

Fotofestival Naarden, in Trouw 13 mei 1993, Kunst, p. 1.

Felix [uitgave van Felix Meritis] juli/augustus 1994, p. 14.

Marijke Hilhorst (tekst) en Rineke Dijkstra (foto’s), Echt acht. Foto-essay, in Elsevier 50 (24 december 1994) 51/52, p. 102-115.

Taco Anema e.a. (red.), GKf 50. Fotografie 1945-1995, Amsterdam (De Verbeelding) 1995, p. 178-179.

Don Duyns e.a. (tekst), Vlinderslag. Beeldende kunst in het Zuiderbad te Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Stichting De Zuiderzee) 1995, p. 6, 31, 50.

Daniëlle Cuppens (samenstelling), Ontheemde kinderen, Leiden (Stichting Art & Engagement) 1995, p. 19-27.

Connie Palmen, De vriendschap, Amsterdam (Prometheus) 1995, omslag.

de Volkskrant 21 januari 1995.

Vlinderslag, in Het Parool 16 augustus 1995, p. 1.

Ageeth Scherphuis (tekst) en Rineke Dijkstra (foto’s), Verkracht voor volk en vaderland, in Vrij Nederland 56 (2 december 1995) 48, p. 38-44, 46-48.

Vrij Nederland 56 ( 23 december 1995) 51/52, omslag, p. 7, 11- 12.

Catalogus tent. Habitus: Rineke Dijkstra, Berhard Fuchs, Nancy Honey […], Salzburg (Galerie Fotohof) 1996, p. 12-13.

Connie Palmen, De wetten, Amsterdam (Prometheus) 1996, omslag.

Vrij Nederland 58 (3 mei 1997) 18 t /m 58 (29 mei 1997) 29 [foto’s bij serie ‘In de luwte’ van Marjo van Soest].

NRC Handelsblad 6 september 1997.


1986 Golden Tulip Barbizon Hotel Amsterdam (brochure i.s.m. Annaleen Louwes).

1987 BRS Premsela Vonk (portretten ontwerpers BRS Premsela Vonk t.b.v. brochure, i.s.m. Annaleen Louwes).

1987 Nederlands Theater Instituut (festiviteiten en voorstellingen Amsterdam Culturele Hoofdstad 1987).

1987 Quote (portretten van zakenmensen).

1988 Stichting Kunst en Bedrijf (kunst in het Muziektheater en Stadhuis en kunstenaarsportretten t.b.v. boek voor British American Tobacco Company).

1988 BRS Premsela Vonk (Jaarverslag IBM Nederland NV 1987).

1988 Dansgroep Krisztina de Chatel (publiciteitsfoto’s).

1988 KMPG (foto’s werksituaties t.b.v. brochure, i.s.m. Annaleen Louwes).

1988 Quote (portretten van zakenmensen).

1989 Bull Nederland NV (portretten van zakenmensen).

1989 1e Klas Magazin (portretten en illustaties).

1989 Elle (portretten van operazangeressen).

1989 IBM Nederland NV (Sociaaljaarverslag 1989).

1989 KPMG (algemene brochure KPMG).

1989 NV Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Jaarverslag 1989).

1989 Quote (portretten van zakenmensen).

1989 Stichting Fonds voor Beeldende Kunsten, Bouwkunst en Vormgeving (kunstenaarsportretten t.b.v. nieuwsbrief bij een tentoonstelling).

1989 Stichting Kunst en Bedrijf (kunstwerken).

1989 Studio Dumbar (groepsportret Raad van Bestuur t.b.v. Jaarverslag Aegon 1989).

1989 Rudolf Veldhoven BV (posters voor het modemerk Sandwich).

1990 Avenue (portret Ryuichi Sakamoto).

1990 Beeldenstorm (theateraffiche Mark Kingsford ‘De Gang van Zaken’).

1990 Bull Nederland NV (portretten van zakenmensen).

1990 1e Klas Magazin (portretten en illustaties).

1990 Elle (portretten).

1990 Flying Dutchman International (portretten).

1990 KPMG (algemene brochure KPMG, i.s.m. Annaleen Louwes).

1990 Mac & Maggie (modefoto’s in Jordanese interieurs t.b.v. brochure ‘Wol’).

1990 NRC Handelsblad (portretten, o.a. Rob Scholte en Jiri Kilian, t.b.v. Zaterdag Bijvoegsel).

1990 O Magazin (portretten in de P.C. Hooftstraat).

1990 Quote (portretten van zakenmensen).

1990 Studio Dumbar (groepsportret Raad van Bestuur t.b.v. Jaarverslag Aegon 1990).

1990 Studio Hinderik (theateraffiche).

1991 Dr. Adams schoenen (dames- en herenschoenen t.b.v. eigen brochure).

1991 Maarten Altena Emsemble (publiciteistsfoto groepsportret).

1991 BRS Premsela Vonk (portretten t.b.v. brochure ‘Inzicht’).

1991 Dansgroep Krisztina de Chatel (publiciteitsportret Krisztina de Chatel).

1991 Elle (portretten).

1991 Flying Dutchman International (portretten).

1991 KPMG (algemene brochure KPMG, i.s.m. Annaleen Louwes).

1991 Quote (portretten van zakenmensen).

1991 Studio Dumbar (illustraties t.b.v. Jaarverslag Aegon 1991).

1991 Toonder Studio’s (portretten t.b.v. Agfa bedrijfsfilm).

1991 Ruud Veldhoven (groepsportret Raad van Bestuur t.b.v. Jaarverslag Pirelli).

1992 Avenue (portret Jan Meng).

1992 Elle (portretten ‘Baanbrekende moeders’).

1992 Quote (portretten).

1993 Avenue (modefoto ‘Jurk met hond’).

1993 Barbara Duifjes (theateraffiche).

1993 NRC Handelsblad (6 schoolklassen en portrettenserie ‘Anti-sterren’ voor Cultureel Supplement).

1993 Randstad Uitzendburo (portretten t.b.v. Randstad data).

1993 Stichting Amsterdams Fonds voor de Kunst (‘bekroonde kunstenaars voor Stedelijk Jaarverslag 1993 van de Gemeente Amsterdam en diapresentatie bekroonde kunstenaars in Paradiso).

1993 VNO (Jaarverslag VNO 1993).

1994 Elsevier (portretten van achtjarigen).

1994 Hogeschool Beeldende Kunsten Utrecht (portretten t.b.v.jaarboek).

1994 Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (affiche voor programma Kunstmest).

1994 De Nieuwe Wereldcampagne (portretten i.k.v. kunstproject Kinderen van asielzoekers).

1994 NRC Handelsblad (portretten ‘ontheemde kunstenaars’ en portretserie ‘Anti-sterren’ voor Cultureel Supplement).

1995 Arcade (CD-hoes Lois Lane).

1995 Le Cri Néerlandais (modefoto’s m.b.t. CD-rom).

1995 Elle (Elle Studio ‘Het mannelijk naakt’).

1995 Montezuma’s Revenge (publiciteitsportret).

1995 NRC Handelsblad (portretten ‘ontheemde kunstenaars’).

1995 Stichting Zuiderzee (kunstproject ‘Vlinderslag’ in Zuiderbad, augustus/september 1995).

1995 Uitgeverij Contact (publiciteitsportret Margriet de Moor).

1995-1996 NRC Handelsblad (schrijversportretten t.b.v. Literair Supplement september 1995-september 1996).

1996 Miracles (portretten ontwerpers).

1996 PTT Post Filatelie (postzegels 70 en 80 cent Unicef 1946-1996).

1996 Rijkswaterstaat Limburg (i.k.v. het project Oog op A73. Tien visies op de weg; met o.a. Erwin Olaf, Teun Hocks).

1996 SQ (portretten Thom Hoffman, Pim Fortuyn).

1996 Theaterbureau Berbee & Rudolfi (portretten theatergroepen, o.a. Curver, Karina Holla).

1996 Uitgeverij Prometheus (portretten Gerrit Komrij, Ronald Giphart en Sietze van der Zee).

1997 Framed Area (kunstenaarsproject in Hoofddorp van Paul Kamp en Ellen de Bruyne).

1997 NFI (portretten kunstenaars en auteurs voor catalogus PhotoWork(s) in Progress en opdracht i.k.v. PhotoWork(s) in Progress/ Constructing Identity).

1997 Opzij (portretten van lezeressen t.b.v. reclamecampagne Opzij 25jaar).

1997 Vrij Nederland (portretten van o.a. Dries van Agt, Fedor den Hertog, Christina Deutekom en Alexandra Radius, bij serie ‘In de Luwte’ van Marjo van Soest).

Secondary bibliography

Auteur onbekend, De mooiste foto’s van lieve, leuke, lekkere mannen, in Viva (6 november 1981) 45, p. 26-31.

Corinne Noordenbos (tekst), Themanummer portret, Amsterdam (De Moor) 1983, ongepag. (met foto’s).

Renée Steenbergen, Tieners in badpak en een computer die vloekt, in NRC Handelsblad 15 mei 1993.

Adriaan Morriën/ Hans Aarsman, Bij de vloedlijn. De strandportretten van Rineke Dijkstra (Adriaan Morriën, Een blik van blaam gezuiverd/ Hans Aarsman, Geoorloofd naakt), in Vrij Nederland 54 (15 mei 1993) 19, omslag, p. 56-61 (met foto’s).

Auteur onbekend, Kunstprijs voor Rineke Dijkstra, in Leidsch Dagblad 13 september 1993.

Catalogus tent. De kracht van heden, Amsterdam (Stichting Fonds voor Beelden Kunsten, Vormgeving en Bouwkunst) 1993, p. 77-82.

Auteur onbekend, Visie van 5 vrouwen, in Focus 80 (mei 1993) 5, omslag, p. 51-61 (met foto’s).

H. Visser, Rineke Dijkstra, in ‘de ander, der Andere, 1’autre’ [catalogus Werner Mantz-prijs], Sittard (Het Domein) 1994, p. 7-10.

Johan de Vos, Rineke Dijkstra, in Johan de Vos, Nogal onfatsoenlijk maar zeker verleidelijk. Over de onvergetelijke foto’s, Amsterdam/Leuven (Mets/Kritak) 1994, p. 130-131.

Tjalling van Dijk, De schoonheid van het volmaakte, in Algemeen Dagblad 24 januari 1994.

Mariska van de Berg en Tanja Wallroth, Rineke Dijkstra, in Ruimte 11 (1994) 3/4, p. 9-10 (met foto).

Renée Steenbergen, Eenzaamheid vastgelegd in een moment voor de camera, in NRC Handelsblad 18 juli 1994.

Willem K. Coumans, Werner Mantz Prijs voor Rineke Dijkstra, in Foto 49 (december 1994) 12, p. 60-61.

H. Visser, Rineke Dijkstra, in Nieuwsbrief van Bureau Amsterdam (17 december 1994) 10, p. 3-4.

Leontine Coelewij, Rineke Dijkstra, Tom Claassen. Bureau Amsterdam, in Stedelijk Museum Bulletin december 1994/januari 1995, p. 6-7.

M. Koemans, Lachen is niet interessant, in Het Parool 17 december 1994 (met foto’s).

Mariëtte Haveman, Het bijzondere van het gewone. Portretten van Rineke Dijkstra, in Vrij Nederland 55 (24 december 1994) 51/52, p. 50-53 (met foto’s).

Catalogus tent. A Europa e o Mar. Encontros da Imagem, Braga 1995.

Catalogus tent. The European Face. Portrait Photography from the fifteen member states of the European Union, Edinburgh 1995.

Catalogus tent. Wim Janssen, Rineke Dijkstra en Jan Koster, Amsterdam (Galerie Paul Andriesse) 1995.

T. Seelig, Rineke Dijkstra, in Pakt (januari/februari 1995) 5, p. 29.

Arno Haijtema, Fotografen portretteren jonge vluchtelingen in asielzoekerscentra. Kinderen in een niemandsland, in de Volkskrant 2 januari 1995.

Ineke Schwartz, Meedogeloze camera van Rineke Dijkstra, in de Volkskrant 7 januari 1995.

M. Wilson, Rineke Dijkstra. Stedelijk Museum Bureau, in Flash Art maart/april 1995, p. 114-115.

I. Leenheer, De naakte man, in Elle april 1995.

Paul Groot, De geboorte van een nieuwe muze. Bij de foto’s van Rineke Dijkstra, in Metropolis M (april 1995) 2, p. 44-47 (met foto’s).

Jhim Lamoree, De manipulators, in Het Parool 15 april 1995.

Kristien Hemmerechts, Het taboe van het hoogstpersoonlijke. De SLAA-lezing van Kristien Hemmerechts, in Vrij Nederland 56 (27 mei 1995) 21, p. 50-52.

Auteur onbekend, In het Zuiderbad duikt kunst op, in Algemeen Dagblad 21 augustus 1995.

Mirelle Thijsen, Europa en de zee. Encontros da Imagem 1995: zee als materie en toevluchtsoord, in Foto 50 (september 1995) 9, p. 76-81.

TH (= Ton Hendriks), Voor de vorm. Rineke Dijkstra: Echtheid en ontroering, in Hollands Licht (1995) 4, p. 43.

Auteur onbekend, Jacob Molenhuis en Rineke Dijkstra, in Noorderlichtkrant 7 oktober t /m 5 november 1995, p. 28.

Auteur onbekend, Human Rights en Refugees, in C.B.K. nieuwsbulletin november 1995, ongepag.

Rolf Bos, Ook elitefotograaf moet bikken, in de Volkskrant 14 november 1995.

S. Boecker, Art Cologne. Angebot grösser denn je, in Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger (17 november 1995) 267, p. 31.

Ineke Schwartz, Engagement tussen Leidse herenhuizen, in de Volkskrant 24 november 1995.

W. van Zoetendaal, Rineke Dijkstra/ Jacob Molenhuis, in Het Parool 21 december 1995, p. 17.

Catalogus tent. Fotofiktion, Kassei (Kasseler Kunstverein) 1996.

Catalogus tent. Gynaika, Knokke (Cultureel Centrum Knokke-Heist) 1996.

100x Foto. Catalogus tent. 100 Foto’s uit de collectie van het Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, Amsterdam/Bussum (Stedelijk Museum/Thöth) 1996, p. 206-207.

Catalogus tent. Prospect. Photographie in der Gegenwartskunst, Kilchberg/Zürich (Edition Stemmle) 1996, p. 104-107, 380. (met foto’s).

Catalogus tent. Zeitgenössische Fotokunst aus den Niederlanden, Berlijn (Neuer Berliner Kunstverein) 1996, p. 56-61.

Leontine Coelewij (samenstelling), Sublieme vormen met zicht vanaf 5M: Tim Ayres, Bill Breckenridge, Caroline Coehorst, Rineke Dijkstra, Janneque Draisma, […], Amsterdam (Stedelijk Museum) 1996, p. 10-11 (Catalogus Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam nr. 794).

M. Thijsen, Rineke Dijkstra, in Catalogus tent. Le Printemps de Cahors. Photograpie & Arts Visuels 1996, Cahors 1996, p. 49-51.

M. Thijsen, Prospect 96 blijft overeind dankzij thematische ordening, in Het Financieele Dagblad [editie 65] 1996, p. 12.

Auteur onbekend, Drie fotografen krijgen opdracht voor fotoproject, in de Volkskrant 2 april 1996, p. 14.

Lucette de Borg, Onbehagen op het drukste punt van Nederland, in de Volkskrant 6 juni 1996, p. 12.

B. Ollier, 6ème Printemps de Cahors, photographie et arts visuels, in Liberation 26 juni 1996, p. 32.

C. Wauters, Prospect 96, in Arts Press (juni 1996) 214, p. 70-71.

Han Singels, Fotograferen op het strand, in Kunstschrift 40 (juli/augustus 1996)4, p. 41-44.

C. Vögele, Rineke Dijkstra in der Galerie Bob van Orsouw, in Das Kunst-Bulletin (september 1996) 9.

S. Maurer, Zwischen Magie und Sachlichkeit, in Tages-Anzeiger [Zürich] 9 september 1996.

M.A. Lindo, Ik zie meteen een Botticelli voor me, de fotocollectie van het Stedelijk, in Het Parool 14 september 1996, p. 49.

Jan Paul Bresser, Het Poolse meisje, in Elsevier 52 (28 september 1996), p. 105.

J. Steiner, Such nach Würde – Fotografie von Rineke Dijkstra in Zürich, in Neue bildende Kunst 5/6 oktober 1996, p. 112.

Blindspot (1996) 8, omslag, p. 10-13.

Ineke Schwarz, Couleur locale. Galerie Paul Andriesse. Lolita’s uit Liverpoolse disco, in de Volkskrant 30 oktober 1996, p. 15.

B. van der Haak, Fotografe Rineke Dijkstra ‘iedereen is alleen’, in Elle november 1996, p. 68-69.

Bianca Stigter, Fotografie stoot het schilderij van de troon. Galeries tonen hedendaagse kunst op twee kleine beurzen in Berlijn, in NRC Handelsblad 1 november 1996.

Bianca Stigter, Rineke Dijkstra, in NRC Handelsblad 1 november 1996, Cultureel Supplement, p. 6.

S. Lütticken, Lichaamstaal in de Engelse disco, in Het Parool 1 november 1996, p. 19.

Pam Emmerik, Bezopen meisjes, in De Groene Amsterdammer 13 november 1996, p. 33 (met foto’s).

Linda Roodenburg (red.), Photo-Work(s) in Progress. Constructing Identity, Rotterdam (Nederlands Foto Instituut) 1997, omslag, p. 24-37.

Martijn van Westerop, Beter heftig fout dan een halfzacht compromis. Het verhaal van uitgeverij Basalt, in Hollands Licht (1997) 3, p. 4-6.

Hripsimé Visser, On Rineke Dijkstra/ Über Rineke Dijstra, in Camera Austria. International (1997) 57/58, p. 21-31 (met foto’s).

Dominic van den Boogerd, Pubers aan zee, in HP/De Tijd 25 april 1997, p. 72-75.

Andy Grundberg, Out of the Blue, in Artforum 35 (1997) 9, omslag, p. 85-87.

Ineke Schwartz, Grimmig, groezelig en glamoureus, in de Volkskrant 14 mei 1997, p. 12.

Ineke Schwartz, Bij KPN komt na de lunch een kunstenaarsfilm, in de Volkskrant 16 mei 1997, p. 1 2.

Hans den Hartog Jager, Speurtocht naar kunst in bietenvelden, in NRC Handelsblad 12 juli 1997, p. 9.

David Brittain en Joanna Lowry, [Introduction], in Creative Camera (augustus/september 1997) 347, omslag, p. 4, 22-23 (met foto’s).

Auteur onbekend, Rineke Dijkstra/ Mike Kelley, in Aap Noot Kunst over, voor en door kinderen. 18 september – 7 december 1997. Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen Rotterdam.

Najaarsberichten (augustus/september 1997) 7/8, ongepag.

Holland Cotter, Adolescents, in New York Times 1 augustus 1997.

Peter Schjeldahl, Young Lions, in Village Voice 19 augustus 1997, p. 93.

Jhim Lamoree, De jeugd van Tegenwoordig, een avondje uit met Rineke Dijkstra, in Het Parool 29 augustus 1997 (Uitmarkt krant).

Iris Dik, Chaos en toeval bepalen het lot, Photoworks in Progress: Dijkstra, Ewald, Seawright, in Vrij Nederland 58 (30 augustus 1997) 35, p. 50-52 (met foto’s).

Auteur onbekend, PhotoWork(s) in Progress, in Focus 84 (september 1997) 9, p. 9.

Rianne van Dijk, Een nieuwe identiteit. Resultaten van PhotoWork(s) in Progress, in Foto 52 (september 1997) 9, p. 10-13.


1981 Hoofdprijs, wedstrijd uitgeschreven door het tijdschrift Viva.

1987 Kodak Award Nederland.

1990 Nominatie voor Young European Photographers.

1991 Epica Award voor Best European Advertising Photography.

1993 Kunst Aanmoedigingsprijs Amstelveen.

1994 Werner Mantz Prijs


GKf, vanaf 1988.


1981 (g) Amsterdam, De Moor, Reisfoto’s uit Rome.

1982 (g) Amsterdam, De Moor, Portret.

1984 (e) Amsterdam, De Moor, Paradiso Portraits.

1987 (g) Amsterdam, Museum Fodor, Gemeente Aankopen.

1988 (e) Amsterdam, De Moor, Het ontstaan van vorm.

1993 (g) Amstelveen, Cultureel Centrum, [genomineerden Kunst Aanmoedigingsprijs Amstelveen].

1993 (g) Amsterdam, Beurs van Berlage/ Bloom Gallery, Ieder kind is van marmer.

1993 (g) Amsterdam, Loods 6 [KNSM-laan 143], De Kracht van Heden.

1993 (g) Naarden, Vestingmuseum Dependance, Mensen op het strand (Fotofestival Naarden).

1994 (g) Aken, Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, de ander, der Andere, l’autre.

1994 (e) Amstelveen, Aemstelle, Art Encouragement Award Amstelveen.

1994 (g) Sittard, Het Domein, de ander, der Andere, l’autre.

1994/1995 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum Bureau Amsterdam, [Rineke Dijkstra en Torn Claassen].

1995 (g) Amsterdam, Galerie Paul Andriesse, [Wim Janssen, Rineke Dijkstra en Jan Koster].

1995 (g) Amsterdam, Zuiderbad, Vlinderslag. Beeldende kunst in het Zuiderbad.

1995 (g) Braga, Cadados Crivos, A Europa e o Mar. Encontros da Imagem.

1995 (g) Brussel, Galerie Jan Mot en Oscar van den Boogaert, [i.k.v. Kunstbeurs].

1995 (g) Den Haag, [foto’s ‘ontheemde kinderen’ op billboards langs Hofvijver].

1995 (g) Edinburgh, Talbot Rice Gallery, The European Face. Gent, Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst, Time Festival. Rineke Dijkstra [foto’s van Rineke Dijkstra en sculpturen van Hugo Debaere].

1995 (g) Groningen, Kunstcentrum Niggendijker, Stofgoud [Rineke Dijkstra/ Jacob Molenhuis] (Fotomanifestatie Noorderlicht).

1995 (g) Leiden, Centrum Beeldende Kunst, A pressing Engagement.

1995 (g) Rotterdam, Nederlands Foto Instituut, Eichtjaren. 50 Jaar GKf-fotografie.

1996 (e) Amsterdam, Galerie Paul Andriesse.

1996 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, 100 Foto’s uit de collectie.

1996 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Sublieme vormen met zicht vanaf 5 M (Gemeente Aankopen 96).

1996 (g) Basel, Eiste 96 (Art Fair Basel)

1996 (g) Berlijn, Neuer Berliner Kunstverein (NBK), Zeitgenössische Fotokunst aus den Niederlanden.

1996 (g) Cahors, Le Printemps de Cahors.

1996 (e) Dijon, Ee Consortium.

1996 (g) Dudelange, Galerie Nei Liicht, Contemporary Dutch Photography.

1996 (g) Frankfurt am Main, Schirn Kunsthalle, Prospect 96.

1996 (g) Karlsruhe, Badischer Kunstverein, Zeitgenössische Fotokunst aus den Niederlanden.

1996 (g) Kassei, Kasseier Kunstverein, Fotofiktion.

1996 (e) Keulen, Galerie Sabine Schmidt.

1996 (g) Knokke, Cultureel Centrum Knokke-Heist, Gynaika.

1996 (g) Kopenhagen, Portalen Koge Bugt Kulturhus, Ee Printemps de Cahors.

1996 (g) Milaan, Galleria Photology, Colorealismo: Rineke Dijkstra, Wolfgang Tillmans, Inez van Lamsweerde, Nan Goldin.

1996 (g) Salzburg, Galerie Fotohof, Habitus.

1996 (g) Schwaz (Oostenrijk), Schwaze Kunstverein, Aufnahmen der Normalitdt.

1996 (e) Zürich, Galerie Bob van Orsouw.

1997 (e) Brussel, Galerie Jan Mot en Oscar van den Boogaert.

1997 (g) Alkmaar, Grote St. Laurenskerk, The European Face.

1997 (g) Den Haag, PTT Museum, Observaties, recente kunstaankopen van de KPN.

1997 (g) Dresden, Stadtische Galerie Ranitzgasse, Distanz und Domizil. Fotografie der Gegenwart.

1997 (g) Halle, Hallescher Kunstverein, Zeitgenössische Fotokunst aus den Niederlanden.

1997 (g) Hoofddorp, Café Flora, Framed Area.

1997 (g) Innsbruck, Kunstraum, Tussen de Mazen.

1997 (e) Londen, Photographers’ Galerie.

1997 (g) New York, Museum of Modern Art, New Photography 1997.

1997 (g) Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Nan Goldin, Rineke Dijkstra, Mike Kelley, Sharon Lockhart (R Festival 1997- Aap Noot Kunst- over, voor en door kinderen).

1997 (g) Rotterdam, Nederlands Foto Instituut, Face to face.

1997 (g) Rotterdam, Nederlands Foto Instituut, PhotoWork(s) in Progress. Constructing Identity [Rineke Dijkstra, Wendy Ewald en Paul Seawright].

1997 (g) Venetië, Corderie, Biënnale.

1997 (g) Weesp, Weesper Synagoge, The European Face.


1996 Zonder titel, [discotheekbezoekers in het clubcircuit van Amsterdam en omstreken], i.s.m. Gerald Van Der Kaap.

1996 Zonder titel, [discotheek The Buzzclub in Liverpool].

1997 Zonder titel [discotheek Mysteryworld in Zaandam en de Buzzclub in Liverpool], i.k.v. Photo Work (s) in Progress.


Amsterdam, Rineke Dijkstra.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.


Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum.

Bern, Kunstmuseum Bern.

Den Haag, Koninklijk PTT Nederland (KPN).

Essen, Museum Folkwang.

Essex, Tim Dawson Collection.

Gent, Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst.

Hamburg, Gundlach Collection.

Keulen, Hoffman Collection.

Kopenhagen, Det kongelige Bibliotek (The Royal Library).

Parijs, Maison Europeenne de la Photographie.

Rotterdam, Caldic Collection.

Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen.

Sittard, Het Domein.