The Amsterdam Photography Exhibitions of 1855, 1858 and 1860
In the years 1855, 1858, and 1860, three large international photography exhibitions were organised in the Netherlands. A closer investigation of the organisation, composition, and effect of these exhibitions is worthwhile for a variety of reasons. The Dutch public had its first contact with images produced by the new medium of photography on such a wide scale nearly fifteen years following its invention. It is interesting to examine the entries with the knowledge and insights of today, not least because there were also many important photographers from abroad who also took part in the Amsterdam exhibitions. Gustave Le Gray, Edouard Baldus, and Charles Nègre submitted their prints to be shown at the exhibition locales of Arti et Amicitiae (‘Arts and Friendship’) and the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt (‘Association of Industry’), presumably because they hoped it would boost the reputation of the ‘photographer’, at this time a still somewhat obscure profession.
Another reason why these photography exhibitions are interesting for the photo historian are the catalogues. Such publications serve as important sources that enable us to observe just how photography carved out a path of its own alongside and in competition with the other arts. Its position was that of a newcomer, initially practiced by resolute amateurs whose ambition was to show to the world what they had managed to achieve with their cameras and light-sensitive paper. How did the phenomenon of the photography exhibition evolve? Where, and in what capacity, did photographers show their work during this earliest of stages? The ambition of ‘exhibiting’ photography in a literal sense is even more strange, when one considers that photography was not yet the picture industry it was about to become. It was a new medium, chosen by assertive pioneers who had artistic aspirations during a period of transition to a new situation. After this time, the profession of the photographer was much more a given. It has now been eighty years since research into Dutch photography exhibitions was last conducted. As one of the very first Dutch photo historians, G.A. Evers devoted attention to this topic in his seminal series of articles concerning the history of photography in the Netherlands. [] While this series has proved its worth for many years, Evers’ findings can be supplemented with the help of the 1858 and 1860 exhibition catalogues. It is also important to investigate the status and significance of these trade exhibitions, but also to compare them with the Tentoonstellingen van Kunstwerken van Levende meesters (‘Exhibitions of Artworks of Living Masters’), as well as with the industrial art exhibitions held at the national and provincial level in the Netherlands, which were growing in significance. [] To a degree, the latter exhibitions organised at this time provided photography with a ‘stage’. Finally, all of these photography exhibitions should be examined within their international context and compared to photo exhibitions organised abroad during this same decade.
With the introduction of photography in the Netherlands, those who wrote about the new discovery described it in terms of ‘art’ as well as a ‘phenomenon of physics and chemistry’. Photography was batted back and forth from the one field to the other. During the 1840s, Dutch magazines such as De Algemeene Konst- en Letterbode (‘The General Art and Literary Newspaper’), the Tijdschrift ter bevordering van nijverheid (‘Magazine for the Promotion of Industry’), the Nederlandsch Magazijn (‘Netherlands Magazine’), and the Leeskabinet (‘Reading Cabinet’) regularly devoted attention to photography, which one moment was hailed as the competitor of the existing visual arts and the next described as an emerging branch of technology and industry. It appears that journals and newspapers were as yet the only place where the new medium was being discussed, as well as ‘publicised’ via advertisements. It is difficult to ascertain the frequency and the means by which those experimenting with photography were able to share their results with a larger audience in the 1840s. The best-known example is a work submitted to the Tentoonstelling van Kunstwerken van Levende Meesters, held in The Hague in 1839, by the painter Christiaan Portman. [] Portman had already been experimenting with daguerreotype, taking views—in all likelihood the very first—of Amsterdam and the Binnenhof (‘Inner Court’) in The Hague. Portman also submitted two photographs of Paris, though in this case, it is uncertain whether he had taken these himself.
After this, it is quite some time before one comes across any mention of photographs or exhibitions. The next listing of a photographic entry to an exhibition is encountered in the catalogue of the Tentoonstelling van Inlandsche Nijverheid en Kunst (‘Exhibition of Indigenous Industry and Art’), held in Utrecht in 1847, which cites the submission of daguerreotypes by Friedrich Wilhelm Deutmann, a photographer from Haarlem. [] Unfortunately, Deutmann’s five photographs—including a view of the city hall of Haarlem and a view of the Spaarne River—are found under the heading of late entries. As a result, it is impossible to determine from the catalogue in what area the exhibition committee had determined his photographs were to be classified: either as ‘Typographie, Steendrukwerk, Boekbinderswerk, Papeterie’ (‘Typography, Lithographic Works, Bookbinding Works, Works on Paper’), or as ‘Schilderijen en andere voorwerpen van Beeldende Kunst’ (‘Paintings and other objects of Visual Art’). What one also notices is that there are still no photographic instruments included among the submissions in the category ‘Natuurkundige Werktuigen’ (‘Physics Instruments’). In the catalogue accompanying the July 1849 exhibition of ‘indigenous’ industry of South and North Holland, held at Delft, not a single reference is made to photography, neither in the category of printed matter and paper nor in that of physics instruments. No photographers’ instruments were to be found displayed alongside the prisms, magnifying glasses, cylindrically cut glass, artificial eye model, and a camera obscura for drawing purposes. []
In the same year, Deutmann submitted daguerreotypes—this time, however, without success—to the 1849 Tentoonstelling van Kunstwerken van Levende Meesters (‘Exhibition of Artworks of Living Masters’) held in Amsterdam. The committee rejected Deutmann’s entry, with the six photographs retrieved a week later. [] Not until 1852 did a photographer again participate in the annual Tentoonstelling van Kunstwerken van Levende Meesters in Amsterdam. This time, the dubious honour was bestowed upon Louis Wegner. His photographs were taken down from the walls during the exhibition itself, following protests from other artists. [] Ironically, two photographs from Egypt submitted by the French photographer Maxime Du Camp apparently raised no objections and were allowed to remain on the wall. [] It remains a valid question, however, as to whether such exhibitions are in fact an accurate gauge for evaluating the acceptability of photographs as objects worthy of display. After all, most of the works exhibited were paintings, with artworks on paper—e.g. drawings and engravings—shown only on occasion. []
At the onset of the 1850s, the photo as an exhibition object was decidedly out of the question, regardless of the category. It was still too early for this. A substantial growth in the number of professional photo studios, where chiefly daguerreotype was applied, had taken place only a short time before, at the end of the 1840s. Mainly amateurs used photography on paper. Photography could not yet be seen as a form of large-scale industry, or as an art form suitable for exhibitions. []
The Great Exhibition of 1851 held in London acted as a catalyst for the appreciation of the new invention. At the Crystal Palace, dozens of countries displayed the products they had to offer. Photography as well made an appearance—albeit on a small scale—at this international market of novelties. On exhibition were almost fifty daguerreotype portraits of well-known Americans produced by Mathew Brady. Gustave Le Gray submitted thirty-eight paper negatives. On display were also prints on salt paper by Henri Le Secq, Nicolaas Henneman, Hugh Owen, and Hill & Adamson. [] The literature of the day consistently makes mention of the unique charm of stereophotography, presented for the first time at the 1851 exhibition. Queen Victoria was said to have marvelled at the stereoscope and the three-dimensional effect of stereo photographs. [] It is interesting to examine in which category the visitor to the exhibition was able to find products of photography, as this provides a degree of insight into the standing and appreciation of these images. The extensive exhibition catalogue was illustrated with 150 beautiful salt prints depicting all kinds of products—in itself one of the largest enterprises ever undertaken in photographic book illustration of the nineteenth century. Here photographs are listed under the category of ‘Philosophical, Musical, Horological, and Surgical instruments’. Prints on silver (daguerreotypes), as well as on paper and glass, were accepted to the exhibition. [] Stipulated in the exhibition’s regulations was the express clause that all forms of industry and no expressions of art were eligible for showing. Samuel Bleekrode, a professor of chemistry from Delft, wrote an extensive account of his findings at the ‘kristal-paleis’, in which he informed his fellow Dutchmen of what was to be seen at the exhibition. Bleekrode also wrote about the experiments in photography he had encountered, mentioning ‘(…) a beautiful chemical image (…), and ‘(…) what the sun of the United States, the sun of Great Britain, etc., had drawn from east to west (…)’. He described photography as an invention of great importance, which gave France so much honour, and as an ‘oeuvre de génie’, comparable to the art of printing. []
Whether people in the Netherlands—two years later—were also able to read about the first real photography exhibition, held in London in 1853/54, remains uncertain. At this time, no mention of the London exhibition has ever been ascertained in the Dutch press of the day. It was in the exhibition halls of the Society of Watercolour Painters that members of the newly founded ‘Photographic Society’ in London exhibited almost 900 photographs, covering a wide variety of themes: landscapes, still lifes, architectural photographs, portraits, sculpture photographs, as well as countless art reproductions, all on paper. Travel photographs shot that same year in Russia by Roger Fenton were shown at the exhibition, along with Hugh Diamond’s portraits of the mentally disabled. Most of the participants were British, with a few originating from France. A small catalogue accompanied the exhibition in which 839 titles were listed, organised by photographer. The sequential number and title was cited for each work, followed by the applied technique: wet collodion glass plate, ‘waxed’ paper negative, calotype, talbotype, daguerreotype, or albumen glass negative. Next, the name of the photographer was stated, and in the following column, the ‘exhibitor’. This last category listed the names of those representing the photographers, as was also customary with the sale of prints. The Photographic Society of London was responsible for the organisation. Starting in this year, the association hosted an exhibition on an annual basis. []
After London, Amsterdam was the first to have its turn. In May and June of 1855, a large international photography exhibition was organised at Arti et Amicitiae. A catalogue likewise appeared for this exhibition, which provides ample insight into the medium’s reach and the dissemination of foreign photography in the Netherlands at this point in time. [] This booklet guides us through an exhibition in the early days of photography, which any lover of nineteenth-century photographs might dream of attending. During this first encounter with these new images, the Dutch were able to view some of the most beautiful photo series created in the history of photography. Arti’s walls are certain to have been covered from floor to ceiling with photographs. The organising committee received more than 710 photographs from approximately 65 different exhibitors: from individual photographers and photography firms, as well as their representatives, i.e. book and print dealers. [] Most of the participants originated from France, with 28 in total. Charles Nègre submitted fifteen paper photographs of collodion negatives, which included numerous architectural shots of French monuments and genre photographs of various street types. Nègre’s colleagues in the field, e.g. Edouard Baldus, Henri Le Secq, and the Bisson brothers, as well submitted architectural shots. Baldus worked with paper negatives, Bisson with wet collodion negatives, and Le Secq with both.
Olympe Aguado showed six landscapes, while Charles Marville showed the same number of photographs ‘after nature’, all from paper negatives. After France, the Netherlands was the country best represented, with approximately twenty participants. One of the Dutch exhibitors was the amateur photographer Jan Adriaan van Eijk (1808-1887), the secretary of the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt. From Amsterdam, the photographers Louis Wegner and the duo Edouard Isaac Asser and Marie Eugène Bour also submitted photographs. From Rotterdam, there were the photographers C.F. Kellenbach Jr. and Peter Wotke, and from The Hague, the brothers Charles and H. Mouhot. Nicolas Henneman, a Dutchman trained in Great Britain by William Henry Fox Talbot, sent in a special series of photographs: his photographs of Zulus, which he had photographed in London. Dutch artists working with photography were likewise represented, including D.F. Jamin with eight daguerreotype portraits. [] In addition, photographers from Hamburg, Dresden, and Berlin submitted entries. Remarkably, only a few photographers from Great Britain—photography’s other source of origin—entered to the Amsterdam exhibition. One of them was the Comte de Montizon, whose entry comprised thirty of his famous animal photographs from the London Zoo. []
Various works of an exceptional nature were shown at the first photography exhibition in the Netherlands. Claus Pruter of Hamburg—who would later settle in the Netherlands as a photographer—sent in two ‘photografiën’, produced in 1834 (sic!) by a certain ‘Halgraff’, long before the official invention and introduction of photography. [] Significant attention was also given to photomechanical applications: photolithography and photogravure. The Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt displayed works such as a photogravure of an etching by Rembrandt, which the association had acquired from the French photographer Nègre. [] Other applications included books illustrated with photographs that were still pasted in: a book produced by the photobook publisher Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard with twenty-two photographs. [] The Amsterdam publisher J.H. Laarman submitted photographs by Louis Wegner, which he had used to illustrate a book. Baron Alexander von Minutoli, originating from Germany, sent in various sample books with approximately 175 photographs of glass models for artists and manufacturers. []
Likewise on display were the photographer’s instruments: cameras, objectives, thermometers, paper, chemicals, bottles, negative holders, storage cabinets, and photo papers. In this respect, the Amsterdam exhibition distinguished itself from the British and French exhibitions, where prints were shown to the exclusion of all else. It would appear that Frederik Martin Billroth—an Amsterdam mirror manufacturer, goldsmith, art dealer, and supplier of painting frames—was likewise an important distributor of cameras, lenses, as well as all kinds of other photographic supplies. [] His firm was also the Dutch sales base for La Lumière.
A quick count reveals that approximately 500 framed photographs on paper made up by far the largest share of the exhibition. These images included architectural photographs, cityscapes and landscapes of France, Great Britain, the German states, Spain, Greece, and elsewhere. Images of the Netherlands included cityscapes of The Hague, Amsterdam, and Rotterdam. Furthermore, the visitor was able to view numerous portraits and art reproductions: from the etchings of Raimondi and Rembrandt to the paintings of Rosa Bonheur and Cornelis Kruseman. The number of daguerreotypes was limited. Seventeen photographers, including ten Dutchmen, exhibited approximately seventy daguerreotypes in total. Half of these were portraits, the other half art reproductions and cityscapes. One exceptional daguerreotype was a shot of Niagara Falls, submitted by Deutmann and likely to have been imported from the United States. Stereo photography—in daguerreotype, and on paper and glass—was also well represented. [] Various stereoscopes and several dozen examples of stereo photography were on hand to admire. Little is known of the exhibition’s installation, except that all of the works were framed and that a number of the frames held multiple photographs. The daguerreotypes were mounted on two partitions, while the stereoscopic photographs and viewers were standing on a table. [] One can only assume that the Amsterdam exhibition was no different than the installations of other exhibitions during this period: the frames with photographs were hung very close together, covering the walls from top to bottom.
Because the archive of the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt was lost during the 1929 fire at the Paleis voor Volksvlijt (‘Palace of Industry’) in Amsterdam, it will probably never be entirely clear how the Amsterdam photography exhibition came into being and how it took form. In any event, the minutes of Arti et Amicitiae, the exhibition’s host, relate the initiating role played by the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt. The photography exhibition was to be the second such event organised by this association—the first, which had previously taken place in 1853, concerned the topic of building materials. Volksvlijt’s request for exhibition space to be made available at Arti et Amicitiae was discussed on 20 March 1855, as recorded in the minutes of the board meeting on this date. After consultation with the ‘committee of the art hall’, Arti’s general board decided to make its exhibition spaces available to the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt for a period of six weeks ‘(…) and then on the condition of half of the net profit and 5 per cent of the objects sold for the Widows and Orphan fund (…)’. [] Another condition was free entry for the members of the artist’s association. Arti’s minutes provide no indication of any further involvement, i.e. no Arti member is cited as an organiser in the records of the meetings. [] Three of its board members, however, did sit on the exhibition jury. The assumption exists that the amateur photographer Van Eijk—then secretary of the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt—played the most crucial role in the exhibition’s organisation. [] As well with later photography exhibitions, he consistently acts as the spokesperson. The Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt’s active involvement is likewise confirmed by the significant attention bestowed on photography as a new branch of industry in the association’s magazine De Volksvlijt, which was under the impassioned editorial direction of the very same Van Eijk. []
The first announcements appeared in the French photography magazines Bulletin de la Société Francaise and La Lumière, on 16 and 17 March 1855 respectively. The Bulletin cites a written statement released by the Dutch consul in Paris. [] On behalf of the association, he addressed ‘(…) all the French artists, amateurs and manufacturers (…)’, inviting them to participate. Entries could be submitted in the categories ‘(…) plates, paper, glass, etc., [photo-] gravures, heliographics, equipment, chemical products, etc.’ The regulations were submitted too late to be printed in the bulletin, but information was available at the association’s secretariat. French artists, amateurs and manufacturers were encouraged to participate, and to contribute to the advancement and popularisation of the new medium. Expenses and transport costs were to be paid for by the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt.
It was not until several weeks later that an announcement appeared in a Dutch magazine. Under the heading ‘Kunstberigten’ (‘Art Notices’), the 7 April 1855 issue of the Algemeene Konst- en Letterbode stated that the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt had released a list of regulations written in French, in which the objects to be exhibited were described in highly precise detail. [] It concerned four categories:
a. épreuves photographiques sur plaque, papier, toile, verre et toute autre matière (‘photographic prints on plate, paper, canvas, glass and any other material’),
b. gravures obtenues sur plaques, acier, pierre etc, par Ie procédé héliographique, (‘[photo-] gravures obtained on plates, steel, stone, etc., according to the 1st heliographic process’),
c. appareils et produits chimiques servant à obtenir les épreuves et gravures susdites et autres accessoires, tels que stéréoscopes etc. (‘equipment and chemical products applied to obtain the aforementioned prints and [photo-] gravures, as well as other accessories, such as stereoscopes’), et (and)
d. tout ce qui peut servir à éclaircir 1’histoire de la découverte, les progrès et 1’état actuel de 1’application des propriétés chimiques de la lumière dans un but artistique et industriel (‘anything that can be used to clarify the history of the discovery, progress and current state concerning the application of the chemical properties of light for artistic and industrial purposes’).
The fine print in the exhibition catalogue as well provides additional information of interest with respect to the form of the organisation. [] The works were to be sent in already in their frames. The exhibitor was required to state his technique and method. Equipment was to be accompanied by an instruction manual. With retouched or coloured photographs, ‘an undrawn’ print was also to be submitted. No mention is made with respect to the actual sending. The works from France may possibly have arrived in the Netherlands via Alexis Gaudin, a Parisian photographer and photo publisher, as this was the case at a later point, for the exhibition of 1858. The Amsterdam dealer and distributor Billroth—as well an exhibitor—may have been of some assistance in this regard. Both photographers and dealers submitted works. The photographs were available for sale at a price determined by the exhibitor himself. Ten per cent of the sales price went to the organisation, with half of this amount going to Arti. Foreign photographers were exempted from import duties, which apparently in most cases still had to be paid if their photographs were actually sold in the Netherlands. The unsold photographs were returned.
Visitors paid ’25 cents’, with no entry for children under the age of six. The exhibition was opened on 30 April and lasted through 25 June. [] Revenue in the week of 8 May amounted to Dfl. 105.50. [] Arti et Amicitiae’s earnings would have been approximately six times this amount. Regarding the exhibition, the society’s 1855 annual report stated the following: ‘This exhibition, as important as it was new, managed to draw the attention of the cultured public to a high degree, because, in addition to the large number of members from the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt and the Society, who naturally received free entry, it was attended by 4128 persons. The goal of this exhibition was the promotion of a branch of industry, that can be incalculably consequential for the visual arts.’ [] After appearing at Arti et Amicitiae, the exhibition was presented with the same setup at the Haagse Teekenakademie (‘Hague Drawing Academy’). [] The entries were judged by a jury, as was also customary with exhibitions of industrial art. The jury consisted of several members from the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt: Van Eijk, the chemist Samuel Sarphati—who was also a collector of Amsterdam cityscapes—and the previously cited professor of chemistry from Delft, Samuel Bleekrode. They in turn were assisted by the artists Pierre Louis Dubourcq, Charles Rochussen, and Johan Willem Kaiser: all board members of Arti et Amicitiae. The members of the jury were assigned the task of assessing which of the submitted works excelled in its ‘(…) deugdelijkheid, sierlijkheid en vinding (…)’ (virtue, elegance and ingenuity’). [] Unfortunately, the jury’s argumentation is no longer extant. Consequently, we shall never learn why Wegner was the only photographer active in the Netherlands deemed worthy of receiving a silver medal, alongside the French photographers Baldus, Disdéri, Le Secq, Aguado, Bisson, and Nègre. [] The remaining Dutch medals went to Kellenbach, Wotke, and Rensing, who were each awarded a bronze medal. Asser & Bour, Billroth, Jamin, and Deeleman [] each received an honourable mention. La Lumière proudly announced the twenty-one medals awarded to the French photographers. The same magazine greatly commended both the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt and Arti. Thanks to the protection of the king and his brother, Prince Frederick, these expressions of photography received the recognition they deserved, ‘(…) dans la patrie des Ruysdaël, des Rembrandt, des Gerard Dow, des Paulus Potter et de tants des peintres illustres.’ (‘in the homeland of Ruysdael, Rembrandt, Gerard Dow, Paulus Potter, and so many illustrious painters.’) []
The catalogue, together with the programme and the exhibition regulations, provides insight into the organisers’ motivation. It is there that Van Eijk and Kaiser professed their belief that the Dutch were obliged to be aware of the progress occurring in this field: ‘The important advances in photography and heliography that have been made abroad since a couple of years, where these arts have become an important part of nationality, and the grand results that, with increasing perfection and expansion, they will provide for art and industry (…)’. They expressed the hope ‘(…) that their attempts to bring together the most beautiful products of skilled practitioners from various places in Europe for viewing here, and to benefit the industry and artistic sense of the fatherland, will be received and acknowledged with interest by their fellow countrymen.’ []
The goal of providing insight into the history of the invention and the advancement of the new medium confirms that the organisers were well aware of photography’s historical significance. The situation in the Netherlands was quite different from that of France and Great Britain. In the Netherlands, there were no photographers’ trade associations. For this reason, the task of overseeing the interests of those practicing the new profession was still in its early stages. Similarly, the thoughts and written words expressed regarding the topic of photography were not nearly as specialised as in the other two countries. Some of the Dutch magazines, such as the Kunstkronijk (‘Art Chronicle’), reported virtually nothing about the new art. Yet other magazines and newspapers—such as the Amsterdamsche Courant, het Algemeen Handelsblad and the Algemene Konst- en Letterbode—published both short and extended pieces on the topic of photography with some regularity, including exhibitions and publications concerning the medium. Notably, the 1855 exhibition held at Arti et Amicitiae was discussed in two articles in the Amsterdamsche Courant, expressed in highly specialised terms that were as well decidedly aesthetic/technical in nature. [] The anonymous critic devoted significant attention to the quality and diversity of the photographic prints: ‘The tone of the pieces by Lesecq, according to the catalogue produced on so-called negatives of papier ciré [‘waxed paper’], is very lovely and have an exquisite effect. And who has not admired with us the beautiful scenes of Bilordeaux. What a delightful effect of light and brown, what depths are perceived in these photographs. One cannot pretend to be seeing flat drawings, but believes to be observing unintentionally exalted work (…) the photographic prints sent in by [LL.M.] Asser and Bour were very much to our liking due to their pleasing tone (…)’, wrote the critic, with a substantial eye for the photographs’ finishing. Tone, tint, and effect were notions of which he was apparently well aware. It was as if the photographs’ content was less important than the mastery of the negative and printing method. The print quality of the representation was given chief merit. Changes in technique were also addressed in the Amsterdamsche Courant: the article’s author observes that the daguerreotype had been pushed to the wayside by photography on paper. The photographs on silver were as alluring as ever, because of their ‘(…) particular delicacy and softness, somewhat silvery in tone (…) recommendable for portraits (…)’. But the properties of the wet collodion process as well received ample praise. The essence of photographic quality—i.e. the depiction of numerous details and the conveying of surface texture—was pointed out: ‘But what is certain to captivate to a high degree are the images of buildings, bas-reliefs, and objects of this nature. What photography in talented hands offers in this area cannot be improved by any painter’s paintbrush. Light paints the finest singularities so faithfully and accurately, reflects the nature of materials so perfectly, that one, when standing before these photographs, acquires a complete overview of the whole; yes, we would almost dare say, better than when observing the original itself, which, with any protraction, can only be viewed at a distance that does not allow details to be observed.’ According to the Courant, Baldus was the ideal exponent in this respect. Unfortunately, the identity of the author making these astute observations can no longer be ascertained.
At this time, photography criticism in France and Great Britain was further developed than in the Netherlands. In the summer months of 1855, the Exposition Universelle was held in Paris, with photography amply represented. For Ernest Lacan, chief editor of La Lumière, the exhibition would serve as an inspiration to write an extended series of articles covering all of the photographic genres and methods of the day. While the Exposition Universelle did not feature a separate section for photography, photographs were found dispersed among the participating countries’ respective entries. [] As such, photography was a component of a much wider range of images, which also included industrial design drawings, engravings, books, geographical maps, and lithographs. [] Nonetheless, it was Lacan’s desire to describe and evaluate the photographs in ‘art historical’ terms. His reflections resulted in the book Esquisses Photographiques (‘Photographic Sketches’), published in 1856—one of the most important photography critiques dating from this period. []
Lacan discussed the results that photographers had achieved with the various negative methods: talbotype, ‘papier ciré’ (‘waxed paper’), albumen glass negative, and wet collodion glass negative. He also described the various photographic genres in detail, as well as the specific character of each: scientific photography, monuments and landscapes, art reproductions, portraits, genre photography, and the photography of events. In addition, he examined the talents of various photographers, including their mastery of negative methods and execution of prints. ‘Gravure heliographique’ (‘heliographic engraving’) and photolithography were discussed separately, along with their applications.
The Dutch art magazine the Algemeene Konst- en Letterbode had no desire to risk losing its identity by adopting such an approach. Photographic realism was a major obstacle for the magazine. In response to Antoine Claudet’s stereo daguerreotypes exhibited in Amsterdam in 1855, the magazine praised photography only in one respect: it was a rich and exemplary branch of industry. In the author’s view, it had nothing to do with artistic expression. Art also had something to learn from photography, namely ‘(…) that one should learn to understand and appreciate more generally what it, and only it, has to offer.’ [] These thoughts are in line with the on-going debate occurring in the second half of the nineteenth century, which concerned the level (or absence) of realism in art. []
Less than one year later, in response to the photography exhibition hosted by the Photographic Society in London in 1856, the Algemeene Konst- en Letterbode addressed the topic of a distinction between painting and imitation. The exhibition had apparently led to a more positive assessment on the magazine’s part: ‘Since a while back, an exhibition of photographs has opened in London, which will last two months, and which attests to the large bounds with which this young art has again progressed in the last year. Such as it is now practiced and viewed, it is rich in lessons for the artists, to whom it communicates the secrets of light and brown in a surprising manner. Truly, it requires time and courage to follow the rapid development and the hundred-fold applications of this joining of art, science, and industry in detail. A manual that today might be considered complete risks being out-dated already by tomorrow.’ [] The few reviews presented here provide remarkable insight into the reception of international photography in the Netherlands: there is no question that it was examined and evaluated in its various nuances.
The exhibition of 1858 ran from 19 May to 31 July and was ultimately much smaller than that of 1855. [] More than 230 photographs were shown in an upstairs exhibition space at the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt on the Bloemmarkt in Amsterdam. Van Eijk, Peter Wotke, and Pieter Oosterhuis exhibited a number of daguerreotypes and portraits ‘on glass’, in all likelihood ambrotypes. Stereoscopic photography was also well represented. [] Pieter Oosterhuis submitted various stereoscopic photographs on silver, glass, and paper. The publisher Andries Jager did the same, as did A. Jacobs, an important dealer in Amsterdam selling a wide variety of photographic supplies. Jacobs’ name also appears in the 1860 catalogue. The bookseller W.H. Kirberger submitted photographs of Amsterdam taken by an ‘English’ photographer. This is certain to have been Benjamin Brecknell Turner, who produced a series of cityscapes of Amsterdam during his trip to the Netherlands in 1857. [] In its publication Volksvlijt, the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt stated why it wished to exhibit photographs once again after three years: ‘(…) primarily in the interest of the nation’s photography (…) so that everyone would be given the opportunity to observe the ladder of development achieved over a period of three years and to become familiar with the fruits of so many diligent studies (…)’. []
The same article named the medal winners: Louis Wegner, Henri Lowenstam, Carl Rensing, and J. Schaarwächter all received silver medals. The foreign photographers who managed to win a silver medal were: Delehaye & Sluyts of Antwerp, Belgium, ‘(…) for copies of paintings and photography on wood’; De Béranger from Paris, ‘(…) for photography on waxed paper’; and Niépce de St. Victor ‘(…) for scientific investigations into the chemical properties of light’, as well from Paris. Bronze medals were awarded to C.F. Kellenbach, F.W. Deutmann, J. Vrolijk, Victor Plumier, Dr. Wotke, and Caro & Van Loo. Honourable mentions were bestowed upon Mastenbroek & Deeleman and Groote & Romeny. The jury was comprised virtually of the same people as in 1855: Van Eijk, Sarphati, Dubourcq, and Kaiser returned. Only Rochussen was replaced by P.F. Greive.
Photographers from France—in 1855 still present in large numbers—now responded with indifference. After the exhibition closed, La Lumière published a letter written by Van Eijk, voicing his regret that there had not been more French submissions: ‘Though very much regretting that your customary kindness, for us very pleasant, has not been crowned with greater success, in terms of the number of prints sent through your intermediary and through the good care of Mr. Gaudin.’ Lacan wrote a response that was published alongside Van Eijk’s letter, in which he offered his apologies. The French photographers had unjustly disregarded the Dutch exhibition, just as they had done with the provincial exhibitions in their own country. []
It remains unclear why the exhibition of 1858 was so much smaller and less successful when compared to that of 1855. One explanation might be that the organisation was poor, or that French and British photographers were able to exhibit their works in the context of their own associations every two years. Moreover, associations such as the Architectural Photography Association in Great Britain were organising photography exhibitions focusing on one specific genre. The second half of the 1850s was marked by a profusion of photography exhibitions, with the market perhaps becoming saturated. In any event, there was no more talk of the land of Rembrandt and Ruisdael being a place worthy of photography. []
By contrast, the Amsterdam exhibition of 1860—this time held in the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt’s exhibition hall on the Hoogesluis in Amsterdam—was much larger. [] From early January until 18 March, the visitor was able to admire more than 1,500 photographs on paper. [] There were forty-eight exhibitors in total, with sixteen from France and seventeen from the Netherlands. The French photographer Gustave Le Gray exhibited four photographs—a reproduction of the Mona Lisa and three of his renowned seascapes—with Henri Le Secq submitting ‘six photographs of dead wild game’ among others. The Bisson brothers of Paris displayed their views of the Alps and other works. Charles Nègre’s large-format heliogravures, which included shots of the portal of Chartres, were also on view at the Amsterdam exhibition. Following his absence at the exhibition of 1858, Eduard Isaac Asser exhibited several prints made with his own personally developed photolithographic method. The British photographer Charles Cifford submitted views of Spain, as did E.K. Tenison. The Alinari brothers, C. Cuccioni, Pietro Dovizielli, and Frédéric Flacheron all exhibited Italian cityscapes. Thirty-three prints by Gabriel de Rumine were on display, perhaps the photographs he shot in Jerusalem in 1859. As an added bonus, the visitor was able to briefly linger in the middle of the exhibition hall around a wooden scale model of the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt’s planned new exhibition space: the Paleis voor Volksvlijt (‘Palace of Industry’).
It was at this exhibition that photographs on cartes-de-visite were shown to the Dutch public for the first time, albeit by only one exhibitor, the photographer Louis Ghémar from Brussels, Belgium. Dr. Johannes Theodorus Munnich exhibited thirteen cityscapes, with no distinction made regarding whether this concerned his Haarlem or Amsterdam series, which are today both well known. [] The Amsterdam publisher Andries Jager was specialised in reproductions of art prints, showing twenty-seven pieces. Among these were various images taken by Pieter Oosterhuis produced for the publication Photographisch Kunst-Album (‘Photographic Art Album’, 1860), such as a reproduction of the Dutch painter Ary Scheffer’s Christus Consolator. Jager’s assortment, however, also included photographs of popular art prints such as Did you ring Sir? and Oh!!. Of the forty-eight exhibitors, twenty-two submitted one or more reproductions, chiefly of engravings. Besides Jager, the other Dutch exhibitors furnishing work in this category were the publishers G.Th. Bom and J.J. Weeveringh, and the photographer Van Eijk. After the exhibition closed, Van Eijk once again addressed a letter to La Lumière. The tone of this letter was much more pleasant that that of 1858. [] The director of the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt was able to inform the magazine that almost all of the 500 photographs submitted had been sold. The association had also played its part in this success: through the sale of lottery tickets, it had created a fund to facilitate the purchase of exhibited works. This intriguing collection also presumably went up in flames during the fire at the Paleis voor Volksvlijt in 1929.
The first photography exhibitions in the Netherlands were tests of craftsmanship, artisticity, technique, and trade all in one. To reconstruct the spread of photography and photographs in the Netherlands, a knowledge of these early exhibitions is of great importance. The exhibition catalogue serves as an interesting source that provides insight into photographers’ oeuvres, publishers’ funds, as well as the dissemination and technical development of photography. In the three exhibitions discussed, we see the emergence of the wet collodion negative process at the expense of the paper negative method. We can also observe the decline of the daguerreotype: diminishing from seventy exhibited in 1855 down to just one in 1860. [] The photographic medium was continually renewing and improving itself. It was likewise during these five years that the wide-scale application of photography began to emerge in the Netherlands: initially with stereoscopic photography, followed by the carte-de-visite photo, which made its debut at the exhibition of 1860. The catalogues also convey the phenomenon of booksellers and print dealers acting as representatives on photographers’ behalf. At the exhibition of 1858, the Amsterdam bookseller W.H. Kirberger submitted photographs by Benjamin Brecknell Turner, with the firm Buffa & Zonen showing prints by Alinari from Florence. In 1860, Andries Jager represented the photographer Pieter Oosterhuis, while J.J. Weeveringh submitted works by Robert Bingham of Paris. Lastly, the catalogues are intriguing because they expose numerous lacunae in what we know: besides those familiar to us, there are many photographers’ names and photo series that are today unknown. []
The initiatives undertaken by the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt proved to be exceedingly important for the acceptance and development of photography in the Netherlands. Its overseers successfully elevated the level of this new branch of industry in the Netherlands and raised its professionalism. During the second half of the 1850s, photography was seen more frequently at industrial art exhibitions, such as the Tentoonstelling van Provinciale Nijverheid en Kunst (‘Exhibition of Provincial Industry and Art’), held in Amsterdam in 1859. [] At the Algemeene Nationale tentoonstelling van Nijverheid (‘General National Exhibition of Industry’), held in Haarlem in 1861, various photographers and photography firms again submitted their wares. [] The Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt organised not only the first photography exhibition that followed—held in Amsterdam in 1862 []—but also the next exhibition where photography figured prominently. This Internationale Tentoonstelling van Schoone Kunsten toegepast op Industrie (‘International Exhibition of Fine Arts Applied to Industry’) was held in 1865 at the newly constructed ‘Paleis voor Volksvlijt’ in Amsterdam, i.e. the Dutch ‘Crystal Palace’. [] At the onset of the 1860s, the photographic trade in the Netherlands was becoming increasingly professional, with both the profession and sales experiencing a boom, in part resulting from this exhibition.
For photography, art exhibitions were just as inaccessible as ever. This was certainly the case with the miniature painter C. Hamburger, whose photographs were barred from Arti et Amicitiae’s exhibition hall in 1858. [] When it came to the artistic development of photography, the exhibitions initiated by the photographers’ associations in France and Great Britain were naturally far greater in importance than those held in Amsterdam. For photographers active in the Netherlands, however, these exhibitions are most certain to have been tremendously influential, as well contributing to the new medium’s overall acceptance.
 G.A. Evers, Hoe de fotografie in Nederland kwam. VI. De eerste tentoonstellingen (1855 en 1858), in “Lux”. Foto-tijdschrift 26 (1 September 1915) 17, p. 331-339.↑
 For a general overview of the national exhibitions of industrial art held in the Netherlands during the nineteenth century, see Titus M. Eliëns, Kunst Nijverheid Kunstnijverheid. De nationale nijverheidstentoonstellingen als spiegel van de Nederlandse kunstnijverheid in de negentiende eeuw, Zutphen (Walburg Pers) 1990.↑
 The entry was not included in the catalogue or the supplements. The Algemeene Konst- en Letterbode 49 (8 November 1839), p. 334-335, mentions it. For Christiaan Portman, see also: G.A. Evers, Hoe de fotografie in Nederland kwam. II. De eerste daguerreotypist, in “Lux”. Foto-tijdschrift 25 (15 September 1914) 18, p. 422-423; and Jan Coppens, Laurent Roosens, Karel van Deuren, “…Door de enkele werking van het licht…”. Introductie en integratie van de fotografie in België en Nederland 1839-1869, Ghent (Gemeentekrediet) 1989, p. 30-32.↑
 Catalogus der voortbrengselen van inlandsche nijverheid en kunst, ingezonden voor de tentoonstelling te Utrecht in 1847, no. 316.↑
 What the exhibition does feature is an entry submitted by Munnich, Beeke, and Co. One of the business partners was Johannes Theodorus Munnich. The company took part with objects made from gutta-percha. More than ten years later, Munnich, together with his business partner Ermerins, would establish himself as a photographer of some merit. See Catalogus der voortbrengselen van inlandsche nijverheid ingezonden voor de Tentoonstelling voor de Provinciën Zuid- en Noord-Holland, Delft 1849, No. 79, p. 20.↑
 Amsterdam City Archives, Archive 64 (Tentoonstellingen van Kunstwerken van Levende Meesters), inv. no. 7, with thanks to Hans Rooseboom for pointing this out to me. These documents indicate that Deutmann’s photographs were presented on 26 August and retrieved by one ‘Billroth’ on 2 September. This is likely to have been F.M. Billroth, a dealer and distributor of photographic and other supplies, who also took part in the photography exhibition of 1855. ↑
 See Hans Rooseboom, Louis Wegner, in I.Th. Leijerzapf (red.), Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen a/d Rijn (Samson)/Amsterdam (Footnote) 1984 -vol. 25 (1995).↑
 Amsterdam City Archives op. cit. (note 6), inv. no. 19.↑
 See Annemieke Hoogenboom, De stand des kunstenaars. De positie van kunstschilders in Nederland in de eerste helft van de negentiende eeuw, Leiden (Primavera Pers) 1993, p. 147-156 (dissertation); and Chris Stolwijk, De Tentoonstelling van Levende Meesters in Amsterdam en Den Haag 1858-1896, in De Negentiende Eeuw 19 (4 December 1995), p. 193-221.↑
 For the French situation in the 1840s, see Hélène Bocard, Les critiques des expositions de photographie à Paris sous le second empire, D.E.A. Université Paris Sorbonne 1995, p. 15. She refers to the precursors of the photography exhibitions, specifically the industrial art exhibitions of 1844 and 1849. A good overview of the German situation is provided by Ulrich Pohlmann, Harmonie zwischen Kunst und Industrie. Zur Geschichte der ersten Photoausstellungen (1839-1868), in: Silber und Salz, exhibition catalogue, Cologne (Agfa Fotohistorama) 1989, p. 496-513. With respect to the exhibitions in Great Britain, the following article provides the best information: ‘Exhibiting Photographs’ in Anthony J. Hamber, “A Higher Branch of Art”. Photographing the Fine Arts in England, 1839-1880, Amsterdam 1996, p. 251-298. Hamber provides an impressive quantity of new data and includes both the exhibitions of the Photographic Society and the world exhibitions of 1851, 1855, and 1862 in his argumentation.↑
 See: Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, 1851; Reports by the Juries on the subjects in the 30 classes into which the exhibition was divided, London (Spicer Brothers) 1852, Vol. II, p. 520-525, 594-608. The exhibitors were Mathew Brady, Antoine Claudet, Richard Beard, Hippolyte Bayard, David Octavius Hill, Nicolaas Henneman, Gustave Le Gray, Henri Ie Secq, and Hugh Owen. For a discussion, see: A.R., Exposition universelle, in La Lumiere 1 (20 July 1851), p. 26-27.↑
 See Frances Dimond and Roger Taylor, Crown & Camera. The Royal Family and Photography 1842-1910, Harmondsworth (Penguin) 1987, p. 14.↑
 See Official Descriptive and illustrated catalogue of the Great Exhibition of the works of industry of all nations, Vol. 2, London 1851, p. 394.↑
 S. Bleekrode, De Tentoonstelling der Nijverheid van alle Volken te Londen, The Hague (Belinfante) 1853, p. 70. See also p. 156 and 158-159.↑
 See exhibition catalogues of the Exhibition of Photographs and Daguerreotypes, London, 1853/1854, 1855, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1859. The British catalogues do not include any regulations or conditions. For the exhibitions in France, the conditions were stated prior to the listings in the Bulletin de la Société Française de Photographie. ↑
 See Catalogus der Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie, gehouden door de Vereeniging van Volksvlijt, Amsterdam 1855. The catalogue has 64 numbers: 42 numbers are stated in the first section, with an additional 22 numbers in the supplement. There were 65 entries (under number 47, two entries are listed). The copies of the catalogue of 1855 preserved in the collections of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (‘National Library of the Netherlands’) and the Leiden University Library are complete. They as well state the entries that were submitted late. The copies preserved at the Art Historical Institute and the city archives in Amsterdam are designed differently and do not state the works submitted late. The provenance of these copies, however, is known: the catalogue in the Amsterdam City Archives was once in the possession of PJ. Greive, an artist and board member of Arti et Amicitiae; the copy in the library of the Art Historical Institute originated from J.P. Six. ↑
 The British magazine The Athenaeum (7 July 1855) 1445, p. 794 speaks of 1,000 entries. This total is therefore incorrect. The stated number of 675 photographs is an estimate. There were more exhibitors than the number listed in the catalogue. In some cases, there were an unknown number of photographs exhibited under a single number.↑
 The other Dutch participants were H.G. de Boer, F.M. Billroth, Deeleman, F.W. Deutmann, Gudendag, T.C. de Graaf, Laarman, Carl Rensing, and H.C. Schuijt tot Castricum, Vereening voor Volksvlijt, and Wotke.↑
 These photographs were donated to Arti et Amicitiae. They have not been found in the association’s archive or in its library. The library is today preserved at the Van Gogh Museum. ↑
 The name ‘Halgraff’ is unknown (source: Ulrich Pohlmann).↑
 J.A van Eijk, Heliographie of Gravure door het licht, in De Volksvlijt. Tijdschrift voor Nijverheid, Landbouw, Handel en Scheepvaart, uitgegeven door de Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt, te Amsterdam 2 (1855), p. 9-11. The facsimile of Rembrandt’s etching has been inserted into the magazine as a plate photo. A heliogravure by Baldus acquired by the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt is also depicted. This article is always cited as a review of the exhibition, but in all likelihood it was written prior to this time, as Van Eijk makes no reference to the exhibition.↑
 This publisher is likely to have submitted John Beasley Greene’s album Le Nil. Monuments et Paysages (‘The Nile. Monuments and Landscapes’), a work not mentioned in the catalogue. In the Bibliothèque nationale de France (‘National Library of France’) in Paris, there is a monumental album with photographs by John Beasley Greene, entitled: Le Nil. Monuments – Paysages Exploration Photographiques par J.B. Greene, Lille 1854. All of the medals are listed at the front of the book, including one from the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt in Amsterdam: ‘medaille Société de Volksvlijt Amsterdam 1855’.↑
 For more information about Minutoli, see Bernd Vogelsang ‘Das Museum im Kästchen oder Die Erfmdung des Kunstgewerbemuseums als Photosammlung durch den Freiherrn von Minutoli (1806-1887), in Silber und Salz, exhibition catalogue, op. cit. (note 10), p. 522-547. Some of the photographs are attributed to Ludwig Belitski.↑
 See De Lelijke Tijd, exhibition catalogue, Amsterdam (Rijksmuseum) 1996, p. 303.↑
 See Mattie Boom, “Een waarlijk volkomen begoocheling”. Stereofotografie in Nederland, in Jong Holland 2 (1986) 3, p. 2-13.↑
 See: Author unknown, Een Blik op de Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie gegeven in de zalen der Maatschappij Arti et Amicitiae I, in Amslerdamsche Courant 31 May1855.↑
 Minutes Arti et Amicitiae 20 March 1855.↑
 Arti et Amicitiae’s vice-chairman P.L. Dubourcq is said to have been actively involved and even awarded a medal from the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt, see C. Kramm, De levens en werken der Hollandsche en Vlaamsche kunstschilders enz., volume II, Amsterdam (Gebroeders Diederichs) 1858, p. 374. No solid proof, however, has been identified to affirm this assertion. ↑
 See Jan Coppens, “Mr. Jan Adriaan van Eijk (1808-1887), Amateurfotograaf”, in Jaarboek Amstelodamum 70 (1978), p. 344-359.↑
 Starting in 1854, articles on the new methods employed by Van Eijk, but also Samuel Bleekrode and Julius Schaarwachter, appeared on a regular basis.↑
 See Bulletin de la Société Francaise de la Photographie 16 March 1855.↑
 De Algemeene Konst- en Letterbode 67 (7 April 1855) 14, p. 110. A brief announcement also appeared in the Amsterdamsche Courant of 10 April 1855.↑
 Catalogue op. cit. (note 16). This includes the ‘Programma der Tentoonstelling van Photographie’ (‘Programme of the Exhibition of Photography’) and a ‘Reglement van Orde’ (‘Regulations of Order’).↑
 See Verslag en Naamlijst der Leden van de Maatschappij “Arti et Amicitiae”, gevestigd te Amsterdam, 1855, p. 11. The activities planned were also previously announced in the report of 1854, p. 17.↑
 Minutes Arti et Amicitiae 8 May 1855. In these same minutes, the photographer Louis Wegner is recommended by the painter Nicolaas Pieneman and accepted as an art-loving member. Mention is also made of a gift for the association’s library presented by the French consul, specifically the Bulletin de la Société Francaise de Photographie.↑
 Verslag 1855 op. cit. (note 34), p. 11-12. Prince Frederick of the Netherlands, the brother of King William III, was also in attendance, together with his retinue.↑
 Evers op. cit. (note 1), p. 337. The exhibition in The Hague lasted from 12 to 31 July.↑
 Catalogue op. cit. (note 16), p. 6.↑
 The only mention of medals I found was in La Lumière 5 (23 June 1855) 25. Ernest Lacan awarded the twenty-one French medals.↑
 Deeleman was a manufacturer or dealer in chemical substances. Even though he won a medal, he is not mentioned in the catalogue. Wotke, who submitted daguerreotypes, is also not mentioned. ↑
 La Lumière op. cit. (note 39).↑
 See catalogue op. cit. (note 16), p. 4.↑
 Author unknown, Een Blik op de Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie gegeven in de zalen der Maatschappij Arti et Amicitiae I en II, in Amsterdamsche Courant 31 May and 5 June 1855.↑
 See Exposition des produits de 1’Industrie de toutes les Nations 1855. Catalogue Officiel publié par ordre de la Commission Impériale, exhibition catalogue, Paris 1855. The products on exhibit were divided into two main categories. In the main category ‘Oeuvres d’Art’, located in the Louvre, the most important entries of the Salons were again shown to the public. Drawings, lithographs, and engravings were displayed under the heading of ‘fine arts’, but there were no photographs. The other main category was devoted to the ‘Produits de l’Industrie’ (‘Products of Industry’), which were on display in the newly built ‘Palais de l’Industrie’. It was here that one encountered entries submitted by numerous photographers, specifically in the 26th ‘Classe’, fourth category, under the heading ‘Dessin et plastique appliqués a l’Industrie, Imprimerie en caractères et en taille-douce, Photographie, etc.’ (‘Drawings and sculpture applied to Industry, Printing in characters and intaglio, Photography, etc.’). There was no strict distinction between art and industry. The exhibition regulations state that ‘Epreuves artistiques’ (‘Artistic Prints’) were also accepted in ‘Classe 26’. See also Exposition Universelle. Oeuvres d’Art, exhibition catalogue, Paris 1855.↑
 Dutch photographers had just shown their results to the public for the first time a short while before and were therefore absent from the world exhibition in Paris. Dutch photographers did not respond to the Société Francaise de Photographie’s appeal, published in the Algemeene Konst- en Letterbode 6 (2 June 1855) 22, p. 175.↑
 Ernest Lacan, Esquisses Photographiques a propos de 1’Exposition Universelle et de la Guerre d’Orient, Paris 1856 (reprint 1986). During the second half of the 1850s, more large exhibitions were featured in in La Lumière, the Bulletin de la Société Française de Photographie and The Photographie News, in response to the French and British photography exhibitions. Lacan’s essays and the articles in these magazines reflected the very latest theories. The Société Française de Photographie (‘French Society of Photography’), established in 1854, organised its first exhibition in June and July 1855, unfortunately without a catalogue. For every biennial exhibition after this, starting in 1857, the catalogues have been preserved. See Jean Michel Place, Catalogues des Expositions Organisées par la Société Française de Photographie 1857-1876, Paris 1985. In Hélène Bocard op. cit. (note 10), an extensive overview of the numerous discussions published in the French (trade) magazines and newspapers concerning all of these exhibitions is provided. See also André Jammes and Eugenia Parry Janis, The Art of French Calotype, Princeton (Princeton University Press) 1983, p. 42-43 and p. 270-271.↑
 Algemeene Konst- en Letterbode 67 (12 May 1855) 19, p. 150. One year later, a notice concerning Claudet’s photographs was again published, in which objections were raised concerning their realistic character: ‘(…) results in which illusion has taken over the place of pure, artistic imitation (…)’, see Algemeene Konst- en Letterbode 68 (13 September 1856) 37, p. 295. ↑
 See Toos Streng, ‘Realisme’ in de kunst- en literatuurbeschouwing in Nederland tot 1875, Amsterdam (Amsterdam University Press) 1995, p. 76-96, 154, et al.↑
 Algemeene Konst -en Letterbode 68 (26 January 1856) 4, p. 31.↑
 See Catalogus der Tentoonstelling van Photographie, Heliographie, enz. gehouden door de Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt, Amsterdam 1858. This copy of the catalogue is preserved in the library of the Art Historical Institute of the University of Amsterdam. I am greatly indebted to Eugène Langendijk, who was initially unable to locate both this catalogue and the 1860 catalogue in Arti et Amicitiae’s archive, but indeed later able to retrieve them from the Art Historical Institute of the University of Amsterdam. This copy includes, as does the catalogue of 1860, the word ‘Six’ , written in the handwriting of Jan Pieter Six. J.P. Six was one of the board members of the Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap (Dutch ‘Royal Antiquities Society’).↑
 While conducting research for my article on stereoscopic photography in the nineteenth century in the Netherlands (Boom op. cit. note 24), the catalogues of 1858 and 1860 were not consulted. These catalogues nevertheless shed new light on the development of this genre in the Netherlands, which apparently experienced a major boom in the years 1855 to 1858. The production and distribution of stereoscopic photographs circa 1858 by F.W. Deutmann, J. van Emden, W. Geissler, and A. Jacobs—all photographers working in Amsterdam—was not known to me at the time I was writing this article. Two years after the 1858 exhibition, very few stereoscopic photographs were on display at the exhibition of 1860.↑
 See also Author unknown, Tentoonstelling van Photographie in het lokaal der Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt, in Amsterdamsche Courant 27 juli 1858. This article as well states that stereoscopic depictions of the Netherlands had also been submitted. A ‘foreign’ photographer, perhaps referring to the series Hollande distributed by the publisher Alexis Gaudin, produced these photographs. The Frenchman Henri Plaut was the photographer for this series.↑
 Author unknown, Tentoonstellingen in Nederland. Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie, in De Volksvlijt 5 (1858), p. 402-403.↑
 Ernest Lacan, Exposition de la Société Internationale d’Industrie d’Amsterdam, in La Lumière 14 August 1858.↑
 In any case, in 1859 Dutch photographers were able to show their photographs at the exhibition of the Société Française de Photographie in Paris. In the 2 March 1859 issue of the Algemeen Handelsblad, an appeal was made to Dutch photographers requesting they submit their photographs to the exhibition. Asser, Van Eijk, Rensing, and Wegner were the only photographers who responded to this appeal.↑
 See Catalogus der Tentoonstelling van Photographie, Heliographie, enz. gehouden door de Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt, Amsterdam 1860. There are two copies of this catalogue known to exist: one is preserved at the Print Room of Leiden University, the other copy—with supplement—is preserved at the Art Historical Institute of the University of Amsterdam. ↑
 With thanks to Steven Wachlin, who allowed me to view his research data on exhibitions in the Netherlands. The precise date on which this exhibition opened remains unclear, but possibly as early as December 1859. On 7 October and 14 November 1859, announcements appeared in the Algemeen Handelsblad, stating that the exhibition would open at some point in the month of December. The next announcement appeared on 18 January. By this time, the exhibition was already under way. The catalogue is also dated 1860.↑
 In 1861, Munnich would take part in the exhibition of the Société Française de Photographie in Paris, together with his business partner Robbert Carel Ermerins.↑
 La Lumière 1860, p. 49-50.↑
 This daguerreotype dates from 1854: a photograph made by the photographer J. Cohen, depicting the unveiling of the statue of King William II in The Hague. The daguerreotype has never been found. A lithograph of the photo is preserved at the Hague City Archives and reproduced in I.Th. Leijerzapf (ed.), Fotografie in Nederland 1839-1920, The Hague (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978, p. 58, fig. 152.↑
 Many of the original exhibition prints, which eventually found their way into the hands of Dutch buyers, have been lost or are now preserved at locations unknown. Some of the exhibited photographs—or rather, the series from which they originated—are indeed known, e.g. from the series of Comte de Montizon, Minutoli, Bisson, Le Gray, Fierlants, and De Rumine. One or more of the exhibited photographs by Baldus, Nègre, Asser and Disdéri (the ‘grandeur naturelle’ portrait of Silbermann) are also known.↑
 See: Catalogus der Tentoonstelling van Provinciale Nijverheid en Kunst te Amsterdam, 1859.↑
 See: Catalogus der Algemeene Nationale Tentoonstelling van Nijverheid, Haarlem 1861. (A copy of this catalogue is preserved in the library of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam). At this exhibition, photographs were exhibited by: W. Tinker, M.R.C. Ermerins (Firma Munnich en Ermerins), Dr. P. Wotke, G. Hoogwinkel, H.P.N. ‘t Hooft, A.J.H. Böeseken, Caro & van Loo, M. Verveer, H.Janssen, and L.W. Vollers. Finally, F.W. Rinck and the ‘Widow Muller’ exhibited photo albums.↑
 At this point in time, no catalogue of this exhibition has ever been found. Announcements of the exhibition were published in the Algemeen Handelsblad of 1 May, as well as on 8 and 21 September 1862. The exhibition was held at the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt’s locale on the Hoogesluis. It ran from 1 May tot 21 September. Notices in the Algemeen Handelsblad also state that a catalogue was available. A review published in the French magazine Revue Photographique (1862, p. 182-184) states this as well. According to this article, entitled ‘Exposition de photographie à Amsterdam’, the catalogue included 721 numbers of 60 exhibitors: 24 of French origin, 23 Dutch, 5 Belgian, 4 German, 3 British, and 1 Italian. The reviewer discussed works by the following photographers: Wegner, Binger, Bisson, Collard, Le Gray, Maxwell Lyte, Bingham, De Bérenger, Van Eijk, Liesegang, Lorent, Burbach, Maes, Michaux, Fierlants, Michiels, Simonau et Toovey, and Nègre. My thanks to Adri Verburg, who brought this review to my attention.↑
 This industrial art exhibition had an international character. The magazine Tijdschrift voor Photographie, established in 1864, devoted substantial attention to the exhibition via its editor Eduard Isaac Asser. In any event, photography had the status of a separate category at this exhibition, i.e. the last sector of thirteen sectors concerning works of art and applied art represented at this exhibition. For the ‘Reglementen’ (‘regulations’) and the announcement of this exhibition, see: Tijdschrift voor Photographie 2 (1865), p. 189-192. The thirteen categories were (in this sequence): Bouwkunde (‘Architecture’), Beeldhouwwerk (‘Sculpture’), Snijwerk (‘Carvings’), Schilderwerk en teekenkunst (‘Painted Works and Drawing Art’), Meubelwerk (‘Works of Furniture’), Bronzen (‘Bronzes’), Goud en zilver (‘Gold and Silver’), Geschilderd Porcelein (‘Painted Porcelein’), Glaswerk (‘Glasswork’), Kunstbloemen (‘Artificial Flowers’), Verschillende kunstvoortbrengselen (‘Miscellaneous Art Production’), Kleedingstukken (‘Articles of Clothing’), Photographie (‘Photography’).↑
 Minutes Arti et Amicitiae, 5 January 1858. Much of the meeting was devoted to the matter of whether Hamburger’s ‘retouched photography portraits’ were rightfully rejected by the ‘committee of the art hall’ and on the basis of what article. Essentially, the discussion concerned determining in what category Hamburger’s profession was to be classified: ‘Mister Hamburger states he is of the opinion that the retouching of photographs belongs to the work of the artist. He employs a model and makes miniatures thereof, but he resorts to the photographic capacity.’ ↑
Exhibitors as listed in the catalogues of 1855, 1858 en 1860
(Alphabetical list of participants at the photography exhibitions organised by the Vereeniging van Volksvlijt in Amsterdam in the years 1855, 1858 and 1860; the name of the exhibitor is followed by the year of participation and the objects submitted in that year)
Aguado, De Graaf (Paris)
(1855) 43. Six landscapes
Alinari, Gebroeders (Florence)
(1860) Three views in Italy: 1. Fresco of S. Martini in Pisa; 2. Fresco by Gozzoli in Pisa; 3. Fresco by Raphael in Florence; 406-408.
Asser, [LL.M.] E. and E. Bour (Amsterdam)
(1855) 1. Two frames with photographic studies
Asser, [LL.M.] E.J. (Amsterdam)
(1860) 4-5. Various proofs of photographs reworked with printer’s ink. (See De Volksvlijt 1859)
Baldus see: Baldus, E.
Baldus, E. (Paris)
(1855) 2. Photographs from negatives, on paper: 2a. The Mont d’Or, 2b. The church of Nôtre Dame in Paris; 2c. The bridge la Sainte; 2d. Le Trone de l’Enfer [‘The Throne of Hell’]; 2e. 4 Heliographic engravings; 46. 2 Photographs from negatives on paper: 46a. View of the Louvre, Pavillon de 1’Horloge; 46b. Arc de Triomphe; 46c. The Arena in Arles; 46d. 5 Photographs of various views
(1858) 14. 5 Photographs of buildings in Paris
(1860) 6-12. Seven different photographic landscapes (Dry and wet collodion); 409. Pavillon Richelieu, in Paris
Barboni, A. (Brussels)
(1855) 45a. 15 Photographs, from negatives on collodion, with and without retouching; 45b. 3 Lens sets for darkrooms (chambres noires) in whole-, half-, and quarter-size; 45c. 12 Flacons of collodion
(1855) 6. Eleven Portraits, on paper from negatives on collodion (without retouching), fixed with ‘goudechlorure’ [‘gold chloride’?], and encaustic of Delahaye
Béranger, De Markies de see: Béranger, Markies de
Béranger, Markies de (Paris)
(1855) 7. Four Photographic images from negatives, on ‘papier ciré’ [‘waxed paper’]
(1858) 37. Photographs, from negatives on dry waxed paper (papier ciré)
(1860) 13. Bridge in Chaix near Grenoble, (papier ciré sec) [‘dry waxed paper’]; 14. Chêne de bon Secours, Forêt de St. Germain (collodion); 15. Hommage de la ville de Paris au Roi Louis XIV (‘Tribute of the city of Paris to King Louis XIV’); 16. Jan Count of Nassau, from an engraving by Lucas Vorsterman, after the painting by Van Dyck; 17. David Teniers and family, engraving by Lucas, after Teniers; 18 Pifferari; drawn from nature; 19. Idem, ‘zittende’ [‘seated’?]; drawn from nature
Berchtold Frères & Bin (Paris)
(1855) 3. Four heliographic engravings on steel, without retouching
Bérenger, De Burggraaf see: Béranger, Markies de
Billroth, F.M. (Amsterdam)
(1855) 5a. A complete Device for producing Photographs on silver and paper, in whole, half, and quarter size, with all necessities and chemical preparations; 5b. A ditto Device for Photographs on silver, half size; 5c. A ditto ditto, quarter size; 5d. A ditto ditto, of Palisander wood, half size; 5e. A ditto ditto, of Palisander wood, quarter size; 5f. A ditto ditto, of Palisander wood, one-sixth size; 5g. A ditto, with a single ‘bus’ [‘canister’]; 5h. ‘Traité de Photographie’ [‘A processed photograph’?] on collodion by D. van Monckhoven; 5i Different kinds of passe-partouts, frames etc.; 5j. Several chemical preparations; 5k. 3 achromatic lens sets by Voigtlander of Vienna for whole, half, and quarter size; 5I. A prism of crystal for reversing images in the darkroom; 5m. Two iodine and bromine cases, for 1/2 and 1/4 plates (boites jumelles) [‘twin cases’]; 5n. A ‘Hoofdleun met leden’ [‘headrest with parts’]; 50. Balances with Weights; 5p. A Bottle with glass valve; 5q. A Polishing plate for glass plates; 5r. A ‘Sekondeklepper’ [‘A Second clapper’]; 5s. A package of sanitised cotton wool.
Bilordeaux, A. see: Bilordeaux, Adolphe
Bilordeaux, Adolphe (Paris)
(1855) 4. Collodion: 4a. [Christ’s] Submission, from a sculpture by Chatrousse; 4b. The Crucifixion, after a bas-relief by Justin; 4c. The Resurrection, after a bas-relief by Chatrousse; 4d. Héloïse and Abelard, after a group of the same
(1860) 20. Three large portraits; 21. La fête flamande [‘The Flemish Feast’]; 22. Ecce Homo; 23. Mater dolorosa; 24. The alchemist; 25. La halte et 1’arrivée [‘The Stop and Arrival in the Netherlands] 26. Jésus rencontre les filles saintes [‘Jesus meets the women saints’]; 27. Jésus dépouillé [‘Jesus is stripped’]; 28. Saint Gerome; 29. Saint Mary Magdalene; 30. Toilette de matin [‘Morning Toilet’]
(1860) 31. Three photographs of modern paintings; 32. Faust and Marguerite, after the painting by Ary Scheffer; 410. Dante and Beatrice, after the painting by Ary Scheffer
Bisson Frères (Paris)
(1855) 44. 4 Photographs, from negatives on collodion; 44a. Pavillon de 1’Horloge du Louvre (‘Clock Pavilion of the Louvre’); 44b. Entry to the Library of the Louvre; 44c. Stairway of the Castle at Blois; 44d. Frontispiece of the southern door of the Nôtre Dame church
(1858) 15a. Frontispiece of a door of the Nôtre Dame church; 15b. Pavillon
Turgôt van de Tuileriën [‘Turgôt Pavilion of the Tuileries’]; 15c. Pavillon Richelieu van de Tuileriën [‘Richelieu Pavilion of the Tuileries’]
(1860) Collodion: 33. Deposition from the Cross, after Rubens; 34. De kruisdraging [‘Christ Carrying the Cross’]; 35. Traveling musicians, after Teniers; 36. Vierge Marthe (‘Virgin Martha’); 37. Old woman from Normandye [sec]; 38. Bonne femme a la tulipe [‘Happy woman with tulip’?]; 39. Family concern, after Schalcken; 40. Grand’mère et l’enfant [‘Grandmother and child’]; 41. Portrait of the French empress; 42. View of the Mont Blanc; 43. Aiguille du Drù and the Aiguille verte; 44. Le grand St. Bernard [‘The Great St. Bernard’ Pass]; 45. View of the Mont Blanc, view of the garden; 46. Mer de Glacé [‘Sea of Ice’ Glacier]; 47. Valley of Chamouny; 48. The Cathedral of Antwerp; 49. City Hall of Leuven; 50. The Court of Justice in Rouen; 51. Climbing the Mont Blanc; 52. The Cloister of St. Trophime in Arles; 53. View of Freiburg; 54. Cloister of Moissac, gallery; 55. Library of the Louvre; 411. Palais de Justice [‘Court of Justice’], Rouen
(1855) 8. A ‘lijst en portefeuille’ [Frame and portfolio] with 22 Photographic images produced at the Photographic printing office of the aforementioned firm, in an exceptional manner, by which the durability is certain
Boer, H.G. de (Amsterdam)
(1855) 9a. Photograph on silver (daguerreotype), of a painting; 9b. A frame with Photographs, on paper and glass
Bom, G. Theod. (Amsterdam)
(1860) 51-61. Six views of old buildings, in Bourges; 62-70. Nine photographs after paintings, plates, etc.
Borin, Charles (Paris)
(1860) 71. A collection of stereoscopic objects on paper; 72. A ditto on glass; 73. Two megaloscopes with objects
Brockmann, F. & O. (Amsterdam)
(1855) 10a. 6 Frames with Photographic images, after paintings and watercolours from negatives on collodion; 10b. 6 Portraits from negatives, on collodion (without retouching)
Buffa & Zonen, F. (Amsterdam)
(1858) 3a. 7 Images of Buildings, Landscapes and Prints, by Fratelli Alinari; 3b. 1 view of Venice by Michele Kier; 3c. 1 Photograph after a painting; 3d. 3 ditto after engravings
Caro & van Loo (Rotterdam)
(1858) 5a. 1 Portrait; 5b. 1 ditto of a 100-year-old Man; 5c. 2 Photographs after bas-reliefs
Castro, D.H. de (Amsterdam)
(1858) 31. A Device for immersing glass plates in the silver and iron bath in daylight
Claudet, A. (London)
(1855) 11a. 6 Stereoscopes, on support, with 18 coloured stereoscopic images on silver (daguerreotypes); 11b. Pocket stereoscope; 11c. 6 Portraits on silver (daguerreotypes)
Claudet, Henri en Frantz (London)
(1855) 47. 4 Photographs, from negatives on collodion
(1860) 74-76. Three views in Spain
Cohen, J. (The Hague)
(1860) 412-417. Six portraits of groups. Collodion; 418. Daguerreotype, representing the unveiling of the Statue of H.M. William II in 1854
Colliau, E. (Paris) (1860)
77. Silenus, after Van Dyck, from an engraving (collodion); 78. Copy of a painting by Viger D. (collodion); 79. Street in Rouen (papier ciré sec); 80. Harfleur (Seine inferieure; – papier ciré) [‘lower Seine; – waxed paper’]
Cuccioni (Rome) (1860)
81. View of the Coliseum in Rome
Delahaye, N.B. (Paris)
(1855) 52a. 4 Glass troughs with supports and glass hooks for immersing plates covered in collodion; 52b. 1 glass pitcher for pouring pyrogallic acid; 52c. 1 box with encaustic for ‘lustreren’ [‘waxing’] the positive copies; 52d. 2 Small bottles of Delahaye’s collodion; 52e. 2 ditto with varnish for negative and positive collodion plates; 52f. 3 Small bottles of pure melted nitric acid silver; 52g. 1 Bottle with cadmium bromide; 52h. 1 ditto with granulated iodine chlorobromide; 52i. 2 ditto ‘metceroleine’ [?] preparations; 52j. Bottles with various materials for Photographic use
Delehaye & J. Sluijts see: Delehaye & J. Sluyts
Delehaye & J. Sluyts (Antwerp)
(1858) 38a. Photographs produced on wood; 38b. Photographs after famous Paintings by Rubens, Quinten Metzy’s [sec], Van Dyck, etc.; 38c. Four photographic Portraits, with one on glass; 38d. Photographs from nature
Delesserd, Benjamin see: Delessert, Benjamin
Delesserd, Eduard see: Delessert, Edouard
Delesserd, M. Benjamin see: Delessert, Benjamin
Delessert, Benjamin (Paris)
(1855) 49. Photographic images of the work of Antoine Raimond. 6 Parts
(1858) 25. Photographs after etchings of Marc Antoine Raimondi
Delessert, Edouard (Paris)
(1855) 50. 40 Photographic views of the island Sardinia
Deutman see: Deutmann, F.W.
Deutman, F.W. see: Deutmann, F.W.
Deutmann, F.W. (Amsterdam)
(1855) 12a. Photograph, after a painting by C. Kruseman, from a negative on collodion; 12b. 2 ditto views from nature. (The gardens of Natura Artis Magistra [the zoo] in Amsterdam); 51a. 5 Photographs from life from negatives on collodion, of which one retouched; 51b. Photography on silver (daguerreotype), representing the Waterfalls of Niagara, produced from nature by an American artist; 51c. 2 Portraits with and without retouching from negatives on collodion; 51d. 1 ditto; 51e. The Palace in Amsterdam, from a negative on collodion; 51f. A stereoscopic portrait on silver; 51g. Views of Amsterdam on silver for the stereoscope.
(1858) 11a. 3 Stereoscopes on support; 11b. 12 photograph. portraits (1 on glass); 11c. A photographic Device for producing stereoscopic objects, of mahogany, on a tripod furnished for this purpose; 11d. Stereoscopic Images; 34. 1 Device for Photography (so-called half plate)
(1860) 82. A portrait, sans retouche [‘without retouching’]; 83. An idem, avec retouche [‘with retouching’], of the same person; 84. An idem, coloured, of the same person; 85. Three different portraits; 86-87. Two stereoscopes on support, with greatly enlarging achromatic lenses; 88. A ditto; 8g [89?]. Photographic portraits for the stereoscope; 477. A photographic device with support for stereoscope
Deutmann, W.F. see: Deutmann, F.W.
D’hoy, Ch. (Ghent)
(1855) 14. Seventeen photographs, from negatives, on collodion
(1855) 13. Four Photographs: 13a. 1 male portrait, life-size, a positive collodion; 13b. 2 portraits, from negatives on collodion; 13c. 2 frames with different Photographs, from negatives on collodion
Disderi & Co. (Paris)
(1860) 90. Photographs in enamel
(1860) 91-92. Two views of Rome
(1855) 48. Two frames with Photograph
Emden, A. van (Amsterdam)
(1860) 93. Microscopic photographs
Emden, J. van (Amsterdam)
(1858) 24a. A complete photographic Device for half Plate, with chemical preparations; 24b. A Stereoscope with 12 photographic representations; 24c. Microscopic Photographs
Eijk, [LL.M.] J.A. van (Amsterdam)
(1855) 15a. A Photograph on silver (daguerreotype), after the marble statue ‘ de trouwe Vriendschap’ [‘the loyal Friendship’] by Mr. L. Royer; 15b. A ditto, after a drawing in ‘sapverf’ [‘juice paint’]; 15c. Print of Photograph on silver, through electric light; 15d. Photograph (the house with the heads in Amsterdam), from a negative on paper (without retouching); 15e. Photographic portrait on silver
(1858) 21. Photographic prints according to the latest discovery of Niépce de St. Victor: 21a. A Photograph with ‘nitric acid uranium silver’ (see the Volksvlijt, p. 169); 21b. 2 ditto with ‘nitric acid uranium silver’ and mercury chloride; 21c. A ditto with ‘nitric acid uranium silver’ and gold chloride; 21d. A ditto with ‘nitric acid uranium’ and gold chloride; 21e. 2 Photographs on dry waxed paper; 21f. 2 Photographs on silver; 21g. 1 ditto collodion
(1860) 94. House with the Heads (on wet paper); 95. View from ‘Flora’ of the Exhibition Building of the Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt (papier ciré) [‘waxed paper’]; 96. Spanish ladies, Copy of an engraving (collodion); 97. ‘Overvloed’ [‘Abundance’?], Copy of an engraving (collodion); 98. The [female] fortune-teller, Copy of an engraving (collodion); 99. The Sunamitic woman, Copy of an engraving (collodion); Prints of coloured photography [reproduced] from Niépce de St. Victor: 100. House with the Heads, as red chalk (pierre sanguine) [‘bloodstone’] (uranium en bloedloogzout) [‘uranium and blood-lye salt’]; 101. ‘Overvloed’ as above (uranium en bloedloogzout) 419. Les offres réciproques [‘The reciprocal deals’], after an engraving by Wiener; 420. La Maitresse d’école [‘The School Mistress’], after idem; 421. ‘Zoo d’ouden songen, zoo pepen de jongen’ [‘As the old ones sang, so do the young ones squeak’], after an engraving; 422. Images for the theory of stereoscopic viewing. See de Volksvlijt 1859, p. 152
Fierlants, Edmond (Brussel)
(1860) 102-104. Reliquary of St. Ursula, in the St. John’s Hospital in Bruges. [Reproduction] after Memling; fourteen pieces, of which ten in natural [sec] size and four at 1/9 thereof; 105. Two wings of the Adoration of the Three Kings in the St. John’s Hospital. After Memling; 106. Sybille persique (‘Persian Sybil’). After idem. In the space as above [St. John’s Hospital]; 107. Portrait of Nieuwenhove. After idem. In the space as above; 108. Madonna. After idem. In the space as above; 109. Death of Mary. After idem. In the space as above; 110. Baptism of Christ, attributed to Memling, at the Academy in Bruges; 111. Photograph of a drawing by Jan van Eijck. Academy in Bruges; 112. Death of Maris, after H. v. der Goes. As above; 113-114. Two portraits, of Rubens, in the collection of the Countess de Beaufort; 115. Portrait, [Reproduction] of Rubens, in the collection of Saceghem; 116. The lady with the glove, after Van Dyck, in the cabinet of Count Dubus; 117. The lady with the glove, as above, in the natural [sec] scale of the painting; 118. Portrait, of Th. de Keijser, in the cabinet of Count Dubus; 119. Mary’s youth, after De Crayer, museum in Brussels; 120. Landschap, after Hobbema, in the Pieron Collection in Antwerp; 121. The study chamber of Erasumus, after Leys, in the collection of Baron Goethals; 122. Luther’s youth, after Leys; 123. Portrait, after A. Robert; 124. Portrait of Duquesnoy, after Van Dyck, in the natural [sec] size of the painting, in de gallery of Koning Leopold; 125. Eight photographs of heads, from Memling’s painting ‘the baptism of Christ’, in the natural size of the original; 126. Two photographs of heads, from Memling’s painting, ‘the holy Christopher” 127. Procession of the invited to the Wedding, after Leys, (somewhat smaller than the original). All of these photographs were treated in a colour bath with ‘phosphorzuurgoud’ (‘phosphoric acid gold’?), according to Maxwell Lyte
Flacheron, F. (Rome)
(1860) 128. View of the Coliseum in Rome
Gaudin & Frère, Alexis (Paris)
(1855) 18a. A dark Room, with achromatic lens for 1/4 plate, furnished for producing Photographs on silver, paper, and glass; 18b. A Stereoscope of rosewood, with ivory eyepieces, adjustable stand in a small box of mahogany wood; 18c. A small mahogany case with 12 silver plates for Stereoscope; 18d. A ditto with 12 glass plates for idem; 18e. A flacon, holding 45 grams of gold salts of Engler and Gaudin
Geissler, W. (Amsterdam) (1858)
12a. Stereoscopes; 12b. Stereoscopic images
(1860)129-130. Two views of Spain
Ghémar, Brothers (Brussels)
(1860) 131-142. Twelve photographs, after drawings by Madou; 143. Two idem, after statues; 144. Photograph, after a painting; 145. Portrait of the Ducchess of Braband [sec]; 146. Thirty-two portraits; 147. Nineteen cartes-de-visite
(1855) 17a. 1 Frame with 4 Photographs on silver (daguerreotypes); 17b. 2 Photographs (academic studies) after negatives, on collodion; 17c. 1 Stereoscope with 6 objects; 17d. 1 Small box with colours
Graaf Jhz., T.C. de (Amsterdam)
(1855) 53. A frame with Photographic studies on paper
Groote & Romeny [or Romenij] (Amsterdam)
(1858) 9. 1 Cabinet with 55 chemical preparations, for photography
(1860) 150. A cabinet, with a collection of chemicals for photographic use; 481. A small box with photographic chemicals
(1855) 54. 1 Stereoscope with eyepieces, which can be retracted and protracted via a pinion
Henneman & Co. (London)
(1855) 19. Photographs, from negatives, on collodion; 19a. 1 Frame, in which portraits of ‘Zoeloe-Kaffers’ [‘Zulu kaffers’], from life; 19b. 2 coloured portraits; 19c. Various photographic engravings on steel (see de Volksvlijt, 1855, pag. 5); 19d. 1 Mirror-stereoscope, with 4 views of the exhibition in London in 1851
Hennemann & Co. see: Henneman & Co.
Hooft, H.P.N, ‘t (Rotterdam)
(1860) 151. Microscopic photographs; 152. Microscopes for use of the aforementioned
Horn, W. (Prague)
(1855) 55. A copy of the Photographisches Journal, published by the exhibitor
Jacobs, A. (Amsterdam)
(1858) 35a. 2 Stereoscopes, of which one with adjustable lenses; 35b. 2 Gutta-Percha Receptacles; 35c. 1 Box with dry paints; 35d. 7 Passe-partouts of various kinds; 35e. 3 oval Frames; 35f. 7 Photographic Medallions; 35g. 12 Stereoscopic Objects
(1860) 153. A complete photographic device with bellows; 154. A complete photographic device (full size); 155. A complete photographic device (half ditto); 156. A complete photographic device (fourth ditto); 157. A photographic device for the stereoscope; 158. A photographic device for microscopic photographs. All with the thereby accompanying tripods; 159. An iconometer; 160. ‘kopieerramen’ [‘printing frames’]; 161. glass boxes; 162. horizontal porcelain receptacles; 163. standing ditto; 164. horizontal gutta-percha receptacles; 165. standing ditto; 166. glass ditto; 167. Two ‘pieds à câler’ [‘footrests’?]; 168. Glass-plate-holder of gutta-percha; 169. Polishing shelves; 170. An iron headrest; 171. A wooden ditto; 172. gutta-percha tray for pyrogallic acid; 173. Funnels of gutta-percha; 174. Funnels of glass; 175. Measuring cylinders divided in grams; 176. Balance with weight; 177. Tongs for baths; 1 78. ‘Drooghoutjes’ [‘wooden clothespins’]; 179. Paint boxes for retouching; 180. Diamond for cutting glass; 181. Oil lamps; 182. Various frames; 183. Various passe-partouts; 184. Various portrait holders; 185. Stereoscopes; 186. Stereoscopic objects on glass and paper; 187. Envelopes for stereoscopic images; 188. Chemicals for photographic use; 189. Treated photographic papers; 190. Untreated photographic papers; 191. ‘Opzetpapieren’ [‘Mounting papers’] for photographers
Jager, A. (Amsterdam)
(1858) 41a. 2 Stereoscopes; 41b. Stereoscopic objects on paper; 41c. ditto ditto on silver; 41d. ditto ditto transparent on glass
(1860) Prints of photographs after the following art prints: 192. Horse market, after Rosa Bonheur; 193. The Compromise of Nobles, after DeBièfre; 194. Le retour au chateau [‘The Return to the Chateau’], after De Dreux; 195. Seul au rendez-vous [‘Alone to the Rendezvous’], after Idem; 196. Joies d’une mêre [‘A mother’s joy’], after P. la Roche; 197. Le petit mendiant [‘The Little Beggar’], after Idem; 198. Birthday, after Dubasty; 199. Mother’s grave, after T. Brooks; 200. Mother’s blessing, after Idem; 201. Mother’s dream, after Idem; 202. Le bonheur de la familie [‘The Happiness of the Family’], after Hunin; 203. Lecture de la bible [‘Reading of the Bible’], after Idem; 204. The past and the future, after Miss Margareth Gillies; 205. The bouquet of beauty, after C. Baxter; 206. Thine is the kingdom, the power and the glory, after S.W. Reynolds; 207. L’oubli des douleurs [‘Forgetting Sorrow’], after Gallait; 208. Derniers moments du comte d’Egmond [‘Final Moments of the Count of Egmond’], after Idem; 209. Christ the Consolator, after Ary Scheffer; 210. Christ the Remunerator, after Idem; 211. Jesus Christ, after Idem; 212. Die Katzchen [‘The Kitten’]; 213. Die Geschwister [‘The Siblings’]; 214. Vendange in the south of France; 215. Die besorgte Mutter [‘The Concerned Mother’]; 216. Did you ring Sir?; 217. Cherry Sir?; 218. Oh!!
Jamin, D.F. (Amsterdam)
(1855) 20. Eight Photographic portraits on silver (daguerreotypes)
Johnson, David (Northgate Blackburn)
(1855) 21. Six Photographic images on paper, from negatives on collodion; 21a. Waterfall and bridge; 21b. The birthplace of Sir Robert Peel; 21c. The Forest Path; 21d. A Fragment of Bolton Abbey; 21e. View of a ‘werf’ [dock or shipyard]; 21f. A portrait
Kayser, F. (Utrecht)
(1858) 32a. 1 Photography positive on glass; 32b. 3 Photographs on paper
Kellenbach Jr., C.F. (Rotterdam)
(1855) 23a. 8 Photographs, from negatives, on collodion; 23b. 2 ditto, from life; 28c. A Photograph on silver (daguerreotype); 23d. 3 images for the stereoscope (All without retouching)
(1858) 1a. 4 Portraits; 1b. 1 Copy after a Painting in oil paint; 1c. 1 Cityscape (the Beursbrug [‘Stock Exchange Bridge’] in Rotterdam)
(1858) 4. 8 Cityscapes of Amsterdam, by an ‘English’ Artist
Kolk, B. van der (Brussels)
(1860) 219. Christ on the cross, after the painting by A. van Dyck, by Radoux; 220. The Nightwatch, from a drawing by Craayvanger, after the painting of Rembrandt, by Fierlants; 221. The Sicilian Bride, after the painting by Portaels, by Fierlants. Aforementioned photographs have been published by the exhibitor
Krone, H. see: Krone, Hermann
Krone, Hermann (Dresden)
(1855) 22a. 4 Portraits on silver (daguerreotypes); 22b. 2 ditto, after paintings in oil paint; 22c. 5 Photographs on paper, from negatives, on iodine and bromine-preserving collodion (without retouching); 22d. 1 ditto (retouched); 22e. 1 ditto. Brouwenbeeld [‘Vrouwenbeeld’?, ‘Statue of a woman’?]; 22f 1 ditto, Masquerade group of the Dresden artists festival; 22g. 6 ditto, Views of Dresden; 22h. 6 ditto, Views in Saxon Switzerland; 22i. 3 ditto, with oil paint (retouched); 22j. 1 ditto,
Still life, from nature; 22k 1 Pocket stereoscope, with 7 objects
(1860) on collodion: 222. The wine-seller, from nature; 223. A landscape, Neurathen; 224. Idem, retouched; 225. A landscape, Steinschlender [?]; 226. Idem, retouched; 227. A landscape, the Amsel Falls; 228. Idem, retouched; 229. Copy of a ‘carton’ [‘illustration’?], 1/3 of the size; 230. A photograph; 231. A portrait group; 423-438. Sixteen different views in Germany; 439-464. Twenty-six idem, smaller format; 465. ‘Afscheid van Koenraad van Zwaben’ [‘Farewell to Conrad of Swabia’], after a ‘carton’ [‘illustration’?]
Laarman, J.H. (Amsterdam)
(1855) 24. Photographic prints from negatives on collodion, by Mr. Wegner, in Amsterdam, in 1853, produced for the illustration of a book
Lamiche, F.B. (Paris)
(1860) 232. Amor and Psyche, after Pradier
Laurent, J. & Casthelaz (Paris)
(1855) 27a. A small chest with a complete collection of chemical preparations for Photography on glass and paper; 27b. Various preparations for ditto
Le Gray see: Le Gray, G.
Le Gray, G. (Paris)
(1860) 148. ‘La Gioconda’ [‘The Mona Lisa’], after the painting by L. da Vinci, in the Louvre; 149. View of the sea, from nature (instantané) [‘instantaneous’]; 479-480. Two seascapes, on instantaneous collodion
Le Mercier, Lerebours, etc. (Paris)
(1855) 57. Six Photolithographs
Le Mercier, Lerebours, Barreswill et Davanne (Paris)
(1858) 36. Three Photolithographs
Lemkowich, Edward (Batignolles near Paris)
(1855) 16. Ten Photographic portraits from negatives, on collodion, without retouching on silver and paper, from negatives on collodion
Lesec, H. see: Le Secq, H.
Le Secq, H. (Paris)
(1855) 25. Seven Frames with Photographs, from negatives, on paper (procédé sec et humide) [‘process dry and wet’]
(1860) 233. Window of the main church in Reims; 234-239. Six Photographs after dead wild game
Liesegang, Eduard (Elberfeld)
(1860) 466-472. Seven landscapes on collodion; 473-475. Three portraits on collodion; 476. A photographic device with double-lens for half plate
Lovell Reeve (London)
(1858) 16. Tenerife, a Book, illustrated with photo-stereographs with stereoscope, by Prof. Piazzi Smyth, in Edinburgh
Lowenstam, H. (Amsterdam)
(1858) 6a. 1 Photograph after a Painting by Metzu, in the cabinet of Mrs. Douair. van Loon; 6b. 1 Passe-partout with miniatures; 6c. 17 Portraits (all without retouching)
Lutze & Witte (Berlin)
(1855) 26. Photographs: 26a. 2 Cityscapes, from negatives, on collodion; 26b. 5 Portraits, ditto ditto; 26c. 1 small chest with chemicals for Photography; 26d. 1 ditto, with 7 negative collodions
Lijte, J.M. (London)
(1855) 56. A frame with 4 views
(1855) 60a. A frame with various kinds of paper, suitable and prepared for the production of Photographic images; 60b. The mountain Calvary, Photograph after a bas-relief of Revillon, by Bisson Frères, on Marion paper
Marville, Charles (Paris)
(1855) 58.6 Photographs from nature from negatives on paper (Papier sec) [‘Dry Paper’]
Mastenbroek & Deeleman (Amsterdam)
(1858) 7. 1 Étagère [‘shelf rack’] with 29 small bottles [of] Chemicals, for photography and 1 sheet gelatin
(1860) 242. An étagère with a collection of chemicals for photographic use
(1860) 248. Photograph, after the painting by Lazerges
Michiels J.F. (Brussels)
(1860) 243-246. Four views in Belgium; 247. Het heilig avondmaal [‘The Last Supper’], after the engraving by R. Morghan, after L. da Vinci
(1855) 61a. 3 Photographs on silver (daguerreotypes), with and without retouching; 61b. 1 ditto study from life; 61c. 3 ditto views in Paris; 61d. 1 ditto so-called produced instantanée [‘instantaneous’] or sudden
Minutoli, Alex. Baron von (Liegnitz)
(1855) 28a. Two Book volumes, entitled: Vorbilder für Handwerker und Fabrikanten, u.s.w., erhaltend [‘Models for Artisans and Manufacturers, etc., preserved’]; 152 Photographiesche Tafeln [‘152 Photographic Plates’]; 28b. 25 Photographs from the Album für Künstler [‘Album for Artists’], etc. The Photographs, sub a and b, are all from nature from negatives, on collodion, virtually all without retouching; 28c. 3 positive copies, as they are taken from the negatives; 28d. A Photograph as above, ‘opgezet’ [‘mounted’?], but without apparatus
Montizon, De Prins de (London)
(1855) 47bis. [?] 30 different Photographs from negatives on collodion, depicting Animals taken from nature
(1858) 30. 6 Photographic Images of Animals, from life
Motte, Ph.H. de la (Manchester)
(1858) 23. 13 photographic Images of the Exhibition in Manchester
Mouhot, C. see: Mouhot, Charles
Mouhot, Charles (The Hague)
(1855) 31. Eleven Stereoscopic portraits on silver (daguerreotypes), with and without retouching, with 2 stereoscopes; 59a. 10 Photographic studies, from negatives on collodion (without retouching); 59b. 2 ditto retouched
Mouhot, H. (The Hague) (1855)
29a. 1 Frame with various Photographs on silver (daguerreotypes); 29b. A Photograph on silver (daguerreotype) after a drawing with chalk by Johnson; 29c. 7 different portraits, on silver. (No. 2, 5 en 15, according to a personal method of the exhibitor)
(1855) 30a. 16 Photographic images from negatives, on collodion; 30b. 2 Idem; 30c. 24 Idem, on Bristol paper; 30d. 12 Stereoscopic images on paper; 30e. 12 Stereoscopic images, coloured; 30f. 12 Ditto, Seascapes; 30g. 12 Ditto, on glass, coloured; 30h. 6 Ditto, on glass, with protein; 30i 6 Ditto, on ditto, with ditto; 30j. 6 Flacons collodion; 30k. 6 Ditto, with varnish, for preserving negatives on collodion
(1860) 249-290. A collection of forty-two photographs, the majority from nature in Algeria, taken on collodion
Münnich, Dr. J.T. see: Munnich, Dr. J.T.
Munnich, Dr.J.T. (Haarlem)
(1860) on dry collodion: 291-303. Thirteen different cityscapes; 304. A cabinet with transparent photographs on glass
(1860) 240-241. Two photographs from the Oeuvre of Rubens, by Leba. Brussels. This work is being published by the Exhibitor
Nègre, Charles (Paris)
(1855) 32. Fifteen Photographs, from negatives, on collodion: 32a. The church Nôtre Dame in Paris; 32b. The City Hall in Paris; 32c. The Louvre in Paris; 32d. The Library of the Louvre; 32e. An organ-player of Arles; 32f. Savoyards and Neapolitans; 32g. Various subjects; 32h. Sailing into the Port of Marseille; 32i. The Papal Palace in Avignon; 32j. The Church of St. Gilles in St. Gilles (near Nimes); 32k. Portal of the Church of St. Trophime in Arles; 32l. The same, the right side; 32m. The same, the left side; 32n. The Castle of Tarscon; 32o. The banks of the Rhone near Arles; 32p. A frame with various Heliographic figures (see De Volksvlijt, 1855, p. 7)
(1860) Heliographic engravings on steel, printed with printer’s ink in the usual way: 305. View of Hesdin, after an old drawing with the pen; 306. Chartres Cathedral, porte royale; 307. Idem, Tympanum of a deur to the W.; 308. Details of the porte royale; 309. View of the Cité (old city of Paris), after a drawing with E.I. ink; 310. Photograph, after a painting 1’Homme [‘Gentleman’], by C. Nègre
Niépce de St. Victor (Paris)
(1858) 43. 3 different prints of Positives with uranium-silver, new Process invented by the exhibitor
Oosterhuis, P.C. (Amsterdam)
(1858) 29a. Stereoscopic Portraits and Views on silver; 29b. Idem on paper; 29c. Idem trasparent on glass; 29d. Photographic Views; 29e. Photographs on silver
Oosterwijk van Baak, J. van en HJ. van Baak (Amsterdam)
(1858) 27. Prints of Photography on waxed Paper: 27a. Cityscapes (negative and positive); 27b. 2 Portraits with positive collodion
Oppenheim, F.A. (Dresden)
(1855) 33. Photographic prints of images on paper (procédé sec et humide) [‘dry and wet process’], from nature, (zonder retouche) [‘without retouching’]: 33a. The Acropolis of Athens; 33b. The eastern front of the Athenic Parthenon; 33c. The eastern front of the Erechtheion; 33d. The temple of Nike (Athens), seen from the N.E.; 33e. The Caryatids; 33f. Two fields from the frieze of the Parthenon (Athens); 33g. Nike with the sandals (Athens); 33h. Temple of Theseus and Herakles (Southwestern front) in Athens; 33i The new Agora (Athens); 33j. Monument of Lysicrates (Athens); 33k. Temple of Olympian Jupiter (Northeastern front) in Athens; 33l. De Alhambra (Entry of the Court of the Lions) in Granada; 33m. Patio de los Liones (Western polygon) in Granada; 33n. Patio de la Alberia, sala de los ambajadores in Granada; 33o. Niche in the Sala de los ambajadorca in Granada; 33p. Puerta alta (Western portal of the Main Church) in Burgos; 33q. Puerta Sarmental (Eastern portal of the Main Church) in Burgos; 33r. Hospital del Rey in Burgos; 33s. Puerta de la entrada in Jerusalem in Sevilla; 33t. Monument of Henry the Lion on the Burgplatz in Brunswick [Germany]; 33u. Old Wooden Building in Brunswick; 33v. The Zwinger in Dresden
(1858) 13. A view in the Alhambra in Granada
(1860) 311. The Zwinger in Dresden; 312. The Old City Hall in Prague; 313 Statue of Charles IV, idem; 314. The Ring, idem; 315. Main Church in Regensburg; 316. Choir of the Main Church in Regensburg; 317. Side portal of the Main Church in Regensburg; 318. City Hall in Regensburg; 319. Main Church in Ulm; 320. City Hall in Ulm; 321. The Church of Our Lady in Esslingen; 322. The Stiftskirche in Stuttgart; 323. The Tower of Goetz von Berlichingen in Heilbronn; 324. City Hall in Heilbronn; 325. The Castle portal of Tubingen; 326. The Castle of Heidelberg; 327. View of the Monastery in Maulbronn from the interior; 328. Freiburg im Breisgau; 329. The Main Church of Freiburg; 330. Six different representations of Strasbourg Cathedral, taken from varying distances; 331. The Side portal of the Cathedral; 332. Two Transepts of the Cathedral; 333-344. Twelve Fountains in Germany. The St. George- and Ring Fountain in Prague. The ‘Schöne-Tugend-Rathhaus’ fountain in Nuremberg. The Mercury-Augustus-fountain in Augsburg. The others without special names in Ulm, Rottenberg, Urach, Freiburg, Dresden; 345. The wounded cupid, after a cast in plaster, present at the Mengsche Museum in Dresden (the original by Raphael Sanzio has been lost); 346. Copy of a drawing by Raphael, from the intaglio at the Museum in Dresden; 347. An Angel group, after the drawing by Raphael, as above; 348. The Massacre of the Innocents in Bethlehem, after the drawing by Raphael, in the possession of the Queen Dowager of Saxony
Photo-Galvanographic Society (London)
(1858) 17. Prints from Heliography, according to the invention of Pretsch
Plumier, Alphonse (Brussels)
(1855) 62. A Frame with 6 Photographs from negatives on collodion, with and without retouching
Plumier, V. see: Plumier, Victor
Plumier, Victor (Paris)
(1855) 34a. Four Photographic portraits, on paper, from negatives on collodion (without retouching); 34b. Photograph on silver (daguerreotype)
(1858) 19. Portrait of Niépce de St. Victor; 40. Photographs with uranium-silver, according to the invention of Niépce de St. Victor
Pruter, C. (Hamburg)
(1855) 35a. 6 Photographs after negatives on collodion; 35b. 3 ditto from life (without retouching); 35c. 1 ditto after a lithograph; 35d. 2 Photographs on silver (daguerreotypes); 35e. 2 Transparencies on collodion; 35f. 2 Photographs, produced by Halgraff in 1834
(1860) 349-351. Three views in Belgium
Renard, F.A. (Bourbonne sur Bains)
(1855) 37. A frame with Photographic images from negatives on collodion (without retouching)
Rensing, Carl (Deventer)
(1855) 38a. 5 Photographs on silver (daguerreotypes), from life; 38b. 5 Photographs, enlarged microscopic objects, depicting the wings of insects; 38c. Device for polishing plates (1858) 10. 12 Photographs
352-358. Seven photographs, after paintings by modern Masters; 359. Sleeping Cat, from nature
Riffaut, Mr. and Mad. (Paris)
(1855) 36. Heliographic Engravings on steel, according to the invention of Niépce de St. Victor: 36a. Yaks or Chinese oxen, from a pencil drawing by Rosa Bonheur; 36b. La Conversation, after a ‘prentteekening’ (‘print drawing’) by Portail; 36c. View of the Louvre, Pavillon de 1’Horloge; 36d. Portrait of Emperor Napoleon III, after a Photograph; 36e. The Library of the Louvre; 36f. Portrait of Mad. Arsène Houssaye (see the Volksvlijt, 1855, p. 7)
(1858) 18. 2 Heliographic Engravings on Steel, according to the invention of Niépce de St. Victor: 18a. Yaks or Chinese oxen; 18b. La Conversation Rumine, de (Paris) 360-392. Thirty-three photographs (Taupenot process, dry collodion with protein)
Sassenberg, G. van (Amsterdam)
(1860) Dry Collodion: 393- 399- Seven different cityscapes
(1855) 63a. 2 Stereoscopes for the far- and near-sighted; 63b. 1 Photography on silver (daguerreotype), retouched
Schaarwachter, J. see: Schaarwachter, Julius
Schaarwachter, Julius (Nijmegen)
(1858) 28a. 1 Photograph without retouching; 28b. 1 ditto with ditto; 28c. 33 Flacons, chemical preparations; 28d. 1 piece of Parchment Washcloth
(1860) 400. An étagère with a collection of chemicals for photographic use; 401. A vertical glass receptacle for silver with hook (half plate); 478. A second timer for photographic use
Schakel, C. (Amsterdam)
(1858) 33. Glass receptacles for photographic use
(1858) 22. 3 Photographs after Paintings and Prints
Schuijt tot Castricum, H.C. (The Hague)
(1855) 39a. 1 floor plan on stone, with print according to a photolithographic processing, invented by the exhibitor, whereby tracing and de-tracing is avoided; 39b. 1 view of The Hague, processed as above; 39c. 3 views of The Hague, printed on papier ciré [‘waxed paper’] 39d. 1 portrait from a negative on collodion (without retouching); 39e. 10 unoloured and coloured portraits according to a new method on silver (daguerreotypes); 39f. 1 view with ‘beeldjes’ [‘small statues’?] on silver (from nature); 39g. 1 small bottle with ‘bi-chloro-de-chaux’ [‘bichloride of lime’] for Silver plates.
Staatsdrukkerij, K. K. (Vienna)
(1858) 39a. Photograph of the Church of St. Steven in Vienna; 39b. Microscopic Photograph with an enlargement of 4,000 times
Staatsdrukkerij, De Keizerlijke (under the Management of the governing council Dr. Auer) (Vienna)
(1855) 64a. Eight Photographs from negatives on collodion, in portfolio; 64b. Photographic maps of the environs of Vienna, at reduced and enlarged scale, obtained on collodion by means of ‘doorvallend licht’ [‘light falling through’] with the negatives; 64c. Photographic copies, after original engravings by various masters; 64d. Microscopic Photographs, with an enlargement of 4,000 to 10,000 times; 64e.-g. frames with different Photographs
(1855) 40. Five Frames with Photographs, from negatives on papier ciré [‘waxed paper’]
Torres, J. (Amsterdam)
(1858) 8. 6 Portraits
Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt (Amsterdam)
(1855) 41a. A steel plate, in which a Heliographic engraving (after an etching by Rembrandt) by Mr. Charles Nègre, of Paris; 41b. Print of aforementioned plate, obtained at the plate printing company of the [‘Widow’] A. Koning & J.F. Brugman, of Amsterdam; 41c. Enamelled iron Receptacles for Photography
(1858) 26a. 4 Views of the Exhibition in Munich; 26b. 7 Microscopic Photographs; 26c. Glassed iron Receptacles for photographic Use
Verveer, Maurits (The Hague)
(1860) 402. Four ‘Tableaux’ [‘Plates’], with photographs
Vrolijk, J. (Amsterdam)
(1858) 2. 6 Portraits
Weeveringh, J.J. (Haarlem)
(1860) As publisher: 404-405. Two photographs, by Bingham of Paris, from the work Nederlandsche Kunst [‘Dutch Art’]
Wegner see: Wegner, Louis
Wegner, F. see: Wegner, Louis
Wegner, Louis (Amsterdam)
(1855) 42. Five Photographs, from negatives on collodion, with and without retouching
(1858) 20a. Photographs without retouching; 20b. ditto retouching
(1860) 403. A collection of portraits
Weveringh, J.J. see: Weevering, J.J.
Wotke, Dr. (Rotterdam)
(1858) 42a. Photographs on silver. Daguerreotypes; 42b. 1 ditto on paper
Catalogus der Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie, gehouden door de Vereeniging van Volksvlijt, exhibition catalogue, Amsterdam 1855.
[announcement exhibition 1855], in Bulletin de la Société Française 16 March 1855.
[announcement exhibition exhibition 1855], in La Lumière 5 (17 March 1855) 11, cover.
Author unknown, Kunstberigten, in Algemeene Konst- en Letterbode 67 (7 April 1855) 14, p. 110.
[announcement exhibition 1855], in Amsterdamsche Courant 10 April 1855.
Author unknown, Kunstberigten, in Algemeene Konst- en Letterbode 67 (12 May 1855) 19, p. 150.
Author unknown, Een blik op de Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie gegeven in de zalen der Maatschappij Arti et Amicitiae I, in Amsterdamsche Courant 31 May 1855.
Author unknown, Een blik op de Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie gegeven in de zalen der Maatschappij Arti et Amicitiae II, in Amsterdamsche Courant 5 June 1855.
Author unknown, Fine-art gossip, in The Athenaeum 7 July 1855, p. 794.
Author unknown, Exposition Photographique à Amsterdam, in La Lumière 5 (23 June 1855) 25, omslag.
Catalogus der Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie, gehouden door de Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt, exhibition catalogue, Amsterdam 1858.
C. Kramm, De levens en werken der Hollandsche en Vlaamsche kunstschilders enz. dl II, Amsterdam (Gebroeders Diederichs) 1858, p. 374.
Author unknown, Tentoonstellingen in Nederland. Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie, in De Volksvlijt 5 (1858), p. 402-403.
Author unknown, Tentoonstelling van Photographie in het lokaal der Vereeniging van Volksvlijt, in Amsterdamsche Courant 27 July 1858.
E.L. [= Ernest Lacan], Exposition de la Société Internationale d’Industrie d’Amsterdam, in La Lumière 8 (14 August 1858) 33, cover.
[announcement exhibition 1860], in Algemeen Handelsblad 7 October 1859.
[announcement exhibition 1860], in Algemeen Handelsblad 14 November 1859.
Catalogus der Tentoonstelling van Photographie, Heliographie, enz. gehouden door de Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt, in het Lokaal aan de Hooge Sluis, W.644, exhibition catalogue, Amsterdam 1860.
[announcement exhibition 1860], in Algemeen Handelsblad 18 January 1860.
J.A. van Eijk, Exposition Photographique d’Amsterdam, in La Lumière 10 (31 March 1860) 13, p. 49-50.
G.A. Evers, Hoe de fotografie in Nederland kwam. VI. De eerste tentoonstellingen (1855 en 1858), in “Lux”. Foto-tijdschrift 26 (1 September 1915) 17, p. 331-339.
Aug. Grégoire, Honderd jaar fotografie, Bloemendaal (Focus) 1948, p. 17-18.
Jan Coppens, Mr. Jan Adriaan van Eijk (1808-1887), Amateurfotograaf, in Jaarboek Amstelodamum 70 (1978), p. 344-359.
Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf, Fotografie in Nederland 1839-1920, The Hague (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978, p. 35, 68.
Mattie Boom, “Een waarlijk volkomen begoocheling”. Stereofotografie in Nederland, in Jong Holland 2 (1986) 3, p. 2-13.
Mattie Boom, Een geschiedenis van het gebruik en verzamelen van foto’s in de negentiende eeuw, in Leids Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 10 (1995), p. 273-294.
30.04-25.06.1855 Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie [‘Exhibition of Photography and Heliography’].
12-31.07.1855 The Hague, Teekenakademie aan den Boschkant [‘Drawing Academy on the Boschkant’], Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie.
19.05-31.07.1858 Amsterdam, Lokaal Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt op de Bloemmarkt [‘Locale of the Association for Industry on the Bloemmarkt’], Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie.
circa 01.01-18.03.1860 Amsterdam, Lokaal aan de Hooge Sluis W.664 [‘Locale on the Hooge Sluis W.664’], Tentoonstelling van Photographie, Heliographie, enz. [‘Exhibition of Photography, Heliography, etc.’].
Collections with catalogues
Amsterdam, City Archives (1855, copy without supplement originating from P.F. Greive).
Amsterdam, Art Historical Institute of the University of Amsterdam (1855, copy without supplement, 1858 and 1860, all three originating from J.P. Six).
The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek [‘National Library of the Netherlands’] (1855).
Leiden, Print Room of Leiden University (1860, copy without supplement).
Leiden, Leiden University Library (1855).
Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae.
A remark concerning the images
Only figure 8 is known to have actually been shown at the exhibition of 1855. The remaining illustrations were selected as examples of work by photographers participating in the cited exhibitions. A choice has been made for similar kinds of works produced in the same techniques listed in the catalogues, as well as examples from the series mentioned.