PhotoLexicon, Volume 14, nr. 28 (April 1997) (en)

Sam Waagenaar

Loes van Harrevelt


Sam Waagenaar spent a substantial part of his life outside the Netherlands. Starting out as a sales attendant for a shoe import company, he soon went on to become the publicity director of the motion picture company MGM (Metro Goldwyn Mayer) in the Netherlands. Eventually, he went from being a film actor to a (photo-) journalist, filmmaker, and author. Waagenaar began photographing professionally as a journalist in 1945. He produced documentaries all over the world, which he then sold to newspapers and magazines in the Netherlands and abroad. Waagenaar’s humanistic photography was chiefly published in photo pocketbook editions.




Samuel (Sam) Waagenaar is born on 10 January in Amsterdam at Blasiusstraat 123 A. He is the third son of Godschalk (Gerrit) Waagenaar (1870-1942), a Jewish diamond cutter, and Duifje de Jong (1870-1942).


After having completed the HBS (Hogere Burgerschool, an upper-level secondary school programme), Waagenaar works for the shoe import company Smit & Co. on the Oudezijds Achterburgwal in Amsterdam.


In this year, Waagenaar writes his first commissioned article for the newspaper De Telegraaf. He becomes a ‘publicity director’ for MGM (Metro Goldwyn Mayer) and works at the company’s office on the Damrak in Amsterdam. Waagenaar is hired for this job because of his successful contribution to the publicity campaign for the motion picture Ben Hur.


Waagenaar informs the American consulate of his desire to emigrate to the United States. He receives notice that he will have to depart prior to 30 January 1930. On 29 December, he leaves the Netherlands.


Waagenaar takes his first photos with a Rolleiflex.

MGM names Waagenaar as the company’s ‘publicity and public relations director’ in Europe. After six months, he travels to Paris. During his first weeks there, he stays at a hotel on the Champs Elysées. He subsequently moves to Boulevard des Capucines 24.


Waagenaar travels to Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. He takes photographs in these countries. At the end of the year, he departs for Hollywood.


Waagenaar quits his job at MGM and returns to Paris, where he proceeds to write subtitles for films and does work for the newspapers. One of his clients is the press agency Vaz Diaz.


During the outbreak of World War II, Waagenaar remains in Eauze (Southern France). He eventually leaves France and travels to his family in Amsterdam. He then takes a train to Bordeaux, where he departs by ship to the US at the end of October. His brother Salomon (Sam I) emigrates as well. From 1939 to 1942, Waagenaar lives in Hollywood.


In November, Waagenaar plays a German soldier in the film Secret Mission. In this same year, he plays the role of the enemy in seven other anti-Nazi movies: Action in the North Atlantic, Bombers Moon, Five Graves to Cairo, Hangmen also Die, Hitler’s Madmen (later known as Hitler’s Hangmen), Unconquered, and The Moon is Down. The Germans deport Waagenaar’s parents. They are killed in Auschwitz.


Via the Office of War Information (OWI), Waagenaar is hired for a position in the US army at the beginning of the year. He stays at a training camp for espionage in the vicinity of Oshawa, Canada (Ontario), where he is schooled for three weeks in psychological warfare. In his next function, Waagenaar works as a Press Reconnaissance Officer for the propaganda department of the US army. He departs for London, where he serves as a representative of the United States on the editorial board of Vrij Nederland (not to be confused with the magazine of the same name that was being published inside the Netherlands). Waagenaar also writes airborne leaflets, which are dropped over the occupied territories.


After witnessing the invasion of Normandy, Waagenaar assists with the setting up of new radio stations and writes texts for the Metrotone News.

On 25 August 1944, Waagenaar photographs the liberation of Paris.

In December, Waagenaar returns to the US, where he writes about his experiences as a correspondent in London and Paris for the Los Angeles Times.


In May and June, Waagenaar is present at the founding of the United Nations in San Francisco as a correspondent for the INS (International News Service). In July, he departs for Europe on assignment for the same press agency. On his way, he stops at Amsterdam (to which he returns again several months later). Waagenaar spends ten months in Berlin. During his first three weeks as well as the very last week, he covers the Nuremberg trials. In October, he visits Auschwitz, Wroclaw, Gdansk, and Warsaw. Waagenaar begins to photograph on a regular basis.


In April 1946, Waagenaar leaves the INS and departs for Rome. This city serves as his home base until 1992.

Waagenaar works as a freelance (photo-) journalist for ABC, Camera Press, Newsweek, the North American Newspaper Alliance, Pix Inc. (Photo Agency), Rapho, La Tribune des Nations and Die Weltwoche.


Waagenaar travels to Caracas (Venezuela), Cuba, Curacao, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, and Port au Prince (Haiti). In Europe, he travels to Italy and Yugoslavia.


In October, Waagenaar travels to Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. He then takes a six-month trip across France, Spain, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Malta.


Waagenaar photographs in Tripoli, Libya.


Waagenaar takes an eleven-month trip around the world. His journey takes him from Rome to Amsterdam, New York, Hawaii, Kanton Island, Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Thailand, Burma, India, Lebanon, and Greece.

During his time in Hong Kong and Bangkok, Waagenaar makes two documentary films.


Waagenaar makes four documentary films in Europe. During film shooting in Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, and the Vatican, Waagenaar also takes photos that will appear in the photo pocketbook De kleine vijf (‘The Small Five’, 1960), published by Uitgeverij Bruna.


For the German publishing company Süddeutscher Verlag in Munich, Waagenaar makes a selection from the photos he shot in Asia. In addition, he is contracted to put together a photobook about the countries bordering the Red Sea. For this project, he travels for six months across Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, the city of Aden in Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. In this last country, he makes a film documentary for American television commissioned by NBC (‘National Broadcasting Company’).


For eight months, Waagenaar takes a second trip around the world. His journey includes the countries of Sri Lanka, Korea, and Vietnam. Waagenaar photographs President Sukarno at his palace in Jakarta.


Waagenaar travels to Spain in 1958, 1959 and 1960. He takes photos for the photo pocketbook Vrouwen van Spanje (‘Women of Spain’). The book is never published. From 1 November to 30 December 1959, Waagenaar photographs the people—primarily women and children—of Israel.


At the Fodor Museum in Amsterdam, the Women’s International Zionist Organisation hosts a traveling solo exhibition of the photos that Waagenaar shot in Israel.


Waagenaar is a jury member at the International Documentary Film Festival in Venice.


Waagenaar publishes Mata Hari’s biography. The BBC and German television produce documentaries based on this book. Waagenaar also writes a script for a theatrical play, which is adopted for German television.


Waagenaar takes a trip across Egypt.


After four years of research—interrupted by holiday trips to Bulgaria, Greece, Yugoslavia, and Romania—Waagenaar publishes the book Il ghetto sul Tevere (‘The Ghetto on the Tiber’), brought out by the publishing company Mondadori in Milan. In 1974, a Dutch-language edition appears under the title De Joden van Rome (‘The Jews of Rome’), as well as an English-language edition entitled The Pope’s Jews.


An illustrated edition of Mata Hari is published.


Waagenaar travels to Malaysia, Bangkok, India, Nepal, and the Himalayas.


Under the title Never a Dull Moment, Waagenaar puts his memoires to paper. The autobiography is never published.


Waagenaar returns to his native country of the Netherlands. He moves into the Rosa Spier House in Laren, a retirement home for artists.


On 18 November, Waagenaar donates many of his shots taken in Israel to the Tel Aviv Museum.

On 11 December, Waagenaar exhibits his work at the Rosa Spier House, under the title Sam Waagenaar kijkt naar mensen (‘Sam Waagenaar Looks at People’).


Waagenaar’s photos of the liberation of the city are exhibited in Paris. The Nederlands Fotoarchief (‘Netherlands Photo Archive’, the present-day Netherlands Photo Museum) contacts Waagenaar, who subsequently transfers his remaining negatives and prints to this institution.


Sam Waagenaar dies on 16 April in Blaricum.


Sam Waagenaar spent his youth in the Netherlands. For his enterprising and curious nature, however, only the rest of the world was big enough. In 1929, Waagenaar departed for the United States—in the middle of the economic depression—at the age of twenty-one. Not until 1992 did he return to his native country, to live out his remaining years after his many travels around the world. Waagenaar’s passion to observe and register what was going on in the world with his own eyes gave rise to an exciting photographic archive.

Waagenaar shot his first photos in his days of doing publicity for the motion pictures of MGM (Metro Goldwyn Mayer) in the Netherlands. It was perhaps his brother, Salomon Waagenaar, who encouraged him in his endeavour. Salomon had once worked as the representative of a photographer named Aisner, who made enlargements of MGM’s photos in Paris. These billboards were assembled from vast quantities of fragmentary enlargements, of which the seams could still be seen. Salomon Waagenaar managed to develop a system that allowed him to print off extremely large formats in one step. For this purpose, he used an enlarger approximately one metre in diameter. In Amsterdam, he went on to found the Photex Company, producing various works, including enlargements for the Dutch pavilion at the Paris World Exposition of 1937, for which he received an award.

The origin of Sam Waagenaar’s own professional photographic career dates back to circa 1945, when working as a correspondent for the INS (International News Service). At this time, he gradually began to do photographic reporting as well. Waagenaar photographed people living in neighbourhoods destroyed during the war, in Amsterdam, Berlin, and Poland. He also shot photos in Auschwitz and at the Nuremberg trials. In April 1946, Waagenaar quit his job with the INS and began his career as a freelance (photo-) journalist.

Waagenaar made his first travel reportages in the United States and during a holiday trip to Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia (1934). Just as with his later work, these photos convey his interest in different groups of people, each with their own specific way of life. Waagenaar was fascinated by facial expressions and physiognomic traits. His travels resulted in a large collection of portraits, or rather, a visual inventory of the world’s population. Waagenaar’s portraits intended for People at Crossroads, a book that was never realised, demonstrate this clearly.

Waagenaar was always looking for subtle forms of human emotion and aspects of everyday life, sometimes within the context of important societal or political changes. This is evident, for instance, in the photographic pocketbook Kinderen kennen geen grenzen (‘Children Know No Borders’, Bruna, 1958), in which Waagenaar shows the inner solidarity of the world’s population. This photography is completely in line with the traditions of Universalism and Humanism, which found its pinnacle expression in Steichen’s famous exhibition The Family of Man (1955).

In the second half of the 1950s, the photobook experienced an upsurge. For this reason, Waagenaar’s focus also eventually shifted from words to images. In 1957, his first photobook, entitled Asien (‘Asia’), was brought out by the Süddeutscher Verlag publishing company in Munich, Germany. It was Rudolf Reymer who had approached Waagenaar, asking him to make a selection of his Asian photos, which were then to be included in this photobook. As the owner of a photo agency in Berlin, Reymer had sold Waagenaar’s photos of Bali to Quick Magazine, a weekly that was also published by Süddeutscher Verlag. In this same year, Waagenaar’s contact with this German publishing house resulted in a second book: Länder am Roten Meer (‘Countries on the Red Sea’).

Asien distinguished itself from Länder am Roten Meer by its large number of portraits. The selection and grouping of the photos in this second work were more aesthetic, as opposed to documentary, in nature. In addition to human interest photography, significant space was devoted to the formal (graphic) qualities of the shots. There were also more photos of architecture and landscape included in this book.

Waagenaar also published photos in pocketbook editions brought out by the Dutch publishing company Uitgeverij Bruna. By shifting the focus entirely to people, Bruna was able to distinguish itself from the touristic photobooks of Uitgeverij Contact. In a series featuring the female population of various countries and cities, Nico Jesse’s Vrouwen van Parijs (‘Woman of Paris’) was a major success. Waagenaar’s shots are similar to those of his predecessor, Nico Jesse. Both photographers chose for an urban image determined largely by characteristic personalities and specific segments of the population. Intriguing individuals, such as women working at the city market, were what fired the readers’ imagination. These photographic pocketbooks gave people the feeling they were tourists, looking at the world from the comfort of their own home. The interest in women and children was largely motivated by commercial considerations, but it also fit well with the optimistic and occasionally propagandistic themes found in Bruna’s photo pocketbooks. The fairly one-sided picture presented by this photographic genre was somewhat nullified by Waagenaar’s interest in the background stories of the people he photographed.

Bruna allowed Waagenaar to choose his own subjects and do his own image editing. For several of the photo pocketbooks, Waagenaar also wrote the introduction himself, in the form of a dramatised travel diary. The photos were typically full-page and printed according to a thematic scheme.

Hein Kohn approached Waagenaar to produce a photographic pocketbook with the title Vrouwen van Rome (‘Women of Rome’, 1959). These photos were introduced with a text by Alberto Moravia, a friend of Waagenaar’s. The photo pocketbook De kleine vijf (‘The Small Five’, 1960) comprises photos of the countries in which the documentary film Letter to Five Countries had been shot: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, and the Vatican. This book as well included landscape photography, with Waagenaar devoting more attention to the formal qualities of his shots. He also wrote the introduction, which led to a better assimilation of the text and the images.

The propagandistic undertone that often characterised these pocketbook editions was particularly evident in the last books that Waagenaar made for Bruna in 1961: Vrouwen van Israël (‘Women of Israel’) and Kinderen van Israël (‘Children of Israel’). In these photos, one observes the optimism of a nation building itself up. Waagenaar himself wrote the texts for these photo pocketbooks on the women and children of Israel.

By the time Waagenaar had completed his series about the women of Spain (1958-60)—which was supposed to have been published with an introduction by Don Salvador de Madariaga—Bruna’s ‘women’s series’ had reached its commercial limit. Consequently, this photobook was never published. Another contributing factor was that photographers were now faced with different demands: the books on the women of Islam and the women of Japan were compiled with works by photographers at Magnum.

Waagenaar’s first encounter with journalism occurred in 1927, when writing an article for the Dutch newspaper De Telegraaf. The subject of the article was a meeting of the Kuomintang political party in Amsterdam, where he had presented a lecture.

After World War II, Waagenaar went on to produce reportages on various peoples of the world as well as current events. He was a photojournalist with a considerable awareness of history. In his view, history was an experience. Because Waagenaar personally financed his photography—which he sold to press bureaus and press photo agencies, combined with his own self-devised texts and ‘captions’—he was in a position to act upon his own instinctive involvement. Examples of his journalistic photography are the shots he took of the primitive living conditions in a camp for Chinese refugees in Hong Kong (1952) and his photos of Indonesian politicians in the 1950s. Waagenaar never limited himself to just plain documentation, but also formed his own opinions based on an analysis of his observations and the underlying factors. The reportages were virtually always accompanied by detailed ‘captions’ and (political) commentary.

For Waagenaar, the switch from journalistic reportages and documentaries to making film documentaries was a natural step in his career. His first films were made during his trip around the world in 1952. In Hong Kong, he filmed the border regions, the refugees, the economy, and life in the British colony. In addition to this first documentary, he made an entertainment film in Bangkok, Thailand.

In 1953, Waagenaar made four documentaries on various cities and countries. Among them was Hans Brinker’s Return, a film about the Netherlands, acquired by KLM Airlines. Letter to Five Countries was shot in Liechtenstein, Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and the Vatican. In this film, a traveller’s arrival is announced by letter in each country. These letters are delivered by local postmen who provide only a description of the characteristics of their country.

Next to follow was Athens Interlude, a film shot in Greece about an old photographer who takes portraits of tourists and tells them about his country.

Hunting Giants focused on whale hunting in the Arctic Ocean. The Miracle of the Midnight Sun was made in Scandinavia. In this last film, an old Laplandish man tells a saga meant to explain the origins of the midnight sun. The film was acquired by SAS Airlines. In 1956, Waagenaar made a documentary about Saudi Arabia for American television, entitled Ryadh. The New Oil Capital of Saudi Arabia.

Waagenaar shot his documentary films using a 16-mm camera. All of his films were solo productions: Waagenaar assumed responsibility for the financing, the script, as well as the film shooting and editing.

For his actors and actresses, he selected members of the local population. The manner in which Waagenaar dramatised his documentaries is similar to his photobooks from the 1950s, in which reality increasingly merged with fiction and his own personal vision.

Waagenaar photographed with a Rolleiflex and a Leica M3. Because he financed his projects himself, he dealt frugally with his negative material and shot his photos on a selective basis. He typically took 6×6 black-and-white shots. On occasion, he worked with 6×6 colour slide film (Ektachrome).

Waagenaar submitted his articles—accompanied by negatives and contact prints—to the press agencies, which made the enlargements themselves. He indicated the desired crop on the actual contact print: rarely was the entire image printed. As a rule, his portraits were tightly framed.

Waagenaar preferably portrayed people when not posing and in their natural surroundings. He occasionally shot photos against a uniform background, such as a wall. In non-Western countries, however, it was difficult to catch people off guard while involved in their daily activities. Members of the local population often assumed a forced pose on their own initiative, or asked for financial compensation in return. Waagenaar did his best to avoid poses of this kind.

Waagenaar’s life and his photography were both highly eventful. He expressed these extraordinary experiences in words and images, proving himself to be a remarkable and witty narrator. In the tradition of humanist photography, Waagenaar documented and analysed the peoples of the world, as well as the issues that concerned them. During the 1950s, the often touching and aesthetically appealing photographs found in photo pocketbooks were in great demand, particularly at a time when people were still optimistic about the post-war reconstruction and holding on to their belief in a better future. Yet Waagenaar’s primary goal had never been the commercial success of these books. On the contrary, he photographed as he saw fit, driven by curiosity, a social commitment, and an awareness of the historical value inherent to an image.


Primary bibliography

Kwomintang-bijeenkomst te Amsterdam. Verjaardag der Chineese Republiek, in De Telegraaf 10 oktober 1927.

Hollywood Portrait: George Pal, in Knickerbocker Weekly 7 september 1942, p. 10.

70.000.000 Enemies of the Japanese, in Knickerbocker Weekly 14 september 1942, p. 8.

The Story of Dr. Wassell, in Knickerbocker Weekly 8 maart 1943, p. 20-24.

The Heaviest Cross to Bear, in Los Angeles Times 8 mei 1943.

Gloria Jean, A Dutch Singer in Hollywood, in Knickerbocker Weekly 7 juni 1943, p. 18-24.

Plight of Japs’ Slaves Told, Editorials, in Los Angeles Times 16 juni 1943.

Inside France, in Los Angeles Times 20 januari 1945.

Zlowroga kreatura Hitlera, in Gros Wielkopolski 1946.

Berlin Art Colony Goes to a ‘Bawl’, in The Stars and Stripes 8 maart 1946.

GI Night Life in Berlin, Fun-starved Servicemen make most of Brief Play Period, in New York “See”Magazine mei 1946.

Germanica Inquieta, II Fantasia di Hitler a Danzica, in Supergiallo 1 december 1946.

Uit het puin van het Ghetto herrijst een nieuw Warschau, in Beiaard 17januari 1948.

Tussen Berlijn en Moskou (I). ‘Militia” beheerst Polen, in Ons Vrije Nederland 24 januari 1948, p. 3-5.

Tussen Moskou en Amsterdam (II). Frau Schulz en het Porcelein, in Ons Vrije Nederland 21 februari 1948.

Tussen Moskou en Amsterdam (Slot). De “Volkstuintjes” van Berlijn, in Ons Vrije Nederland 28 februari 1948.

Holland left-wingers open anti-U.S. offensive to sabotage Marshall Plan, in Los Angeles Daily News 9 juni 1948.

Italië geraakt in het drijfzand. Zal het Marshall-plan redding brengen?, in Vrij Nederland 12 februari 1949.

Kandahar is Traveler’s Oasis in Trip Through Afghanistan, in New York Herald Tribune 27 december 1949.

Ferien in Afghanistan, in Atlantis oktober 1951, p. 442 e.v.

Een Boeddhist wordt tot priester gewijd. Een veteraan uit Korea keerde huiswaarts, in Vizier 29 november 1952.

Festa al tempio di Bedulu, in Le Vie del Mondo juni 1953, p. 643-649.

Orkenbyen Hadramauth, in Aalborg Styftstidendes Sondag [1956], lm Lande des Königs Saud, in lllustrierte fü̈rAlle [1956], p. 8.

Hadramaut, in lllustrierte fü̈r Alle [1956]. Saudi Arabia: Portrait in Oil, in New York Times Magazine ïojuni 1956, p. 10-11.

Liechtenstein, in Hören und Sehen 8 juli 1956, p. 46-47.

Andorra. Ein Paradies hinter den Wolken, in Hören und Sehen 15 juli 1956, p. 46-47.

Vatikan. Ein Staat des Friedens in einer ruhelosen Welt, in Hören und Sehen26 augustus 1956, p. 46-47.

Decameré, vent’anni dopo, in Le Ore 3 november 1956.

De oliewoestijn van koning Saud. Diner met Koning Saud, in De Telegraaf 14 november 1956.

De oliewoestijn van koning Saud. De Vriendschap in de Arabische Liga, in De Telegraaf 15 november 1956.

De oliewoestijn van koning Saud. Riyadh: stad van splinternieuwe bouwvallen, in De Telegraaf 16 november 1956.

Ontwikkeling gesmeerd door olie, in De Telegraaf 17 november 1956.

Koning Saud: Vast in het zadel, in De Telegraaf 19 november 1956.

Hadramaut. “Land des Sonnenbrandes”, in Sieund Er 29 november 1956.

Wer Öl hat, kann Paläste bauen, in Schweitzer lllustrierte 3 december 1956, p. 44-45.

A “Lost Tribe” of Israël?, in The Sphere 8 december 1956, p. 418-419.

Der Sudanesische Salomon, in Schweitzer lllustrierte 31 december 1956.

Asien, München (Süddeutscher Verlag) 1957.

Lander am Roten Meer, München (Süddeutscher Verlag) 1957 (met foto’s).

Au pays des Mille et Une Nuits. L’Enfer de pétrole est pavé d’or, in L’Illustre 17 januari 1957, p. 9.

La zucca d’oro del deserto Arabo, in II Giorno 19 februari 1957.

Am Ölstrom der Welt, in Z.B. Illustrierte 1 mei 1957, p. 20-21.

Frei aber Obdachlos, in Schweizer Illustrierte 2 oktober 1957.

Hillary verdeelt zijn tijd tussen bijen en bergen, in De Telegraaf 26 oktober 1957.

Hillary gaat “gewoon” wandelen, in De Telegraaf 28 oktober 1957.

Bibeb e.a. (tekst), Kinderen kennen geen grenzen, Utrecht (A.W. Bruna & Zoon) 1958 (met foto’s) (serie: Zwarte Beertjes 155/156).

La Settimana più difficile 1958.

I colonelli di Giakarta: una nuova Corea?, in L’Europeo 23 februari 1958, p. 12-13.

Finale für Sukarnos (miß)gelenkte Demokratie?, in Die Woche 24 februari 1958, p. 9-11.

Nur ein König kann die Braut vor dem Unhold Retten!, in Die Woche 23 maart 1958, p. 2.

Amore e zucche in una vecchia leggenda maori, in L’Europeo 20 april 1958.

Saudi Arabien zwischen Mittelalter und Gegenwart, in Atlantis mei 1958, p. 249-257.

Eine Geisterstadt in Iriträa, in Atlantis juni 1958, p. 304-306.

Alberto Moravia (tekst), Vrouwen van Rome, Utrecht (A.W. Bruna & Zoon) 1959 (met foto’s) (serie: Zwarte Beertjes 267/268).

Egypten I Dag, in Sondag – Copenhagen 11 januari 1959.

Egypt Today, in Illustrated Weekly 8 maart 1959.

Vrouwen van Israël, Utrecht (A.W. Bruna & Zoon) 1960 (met foto’s) (serie: Zwarte Beertjes 319-320).

The little fïve/De kleine vijf/Les cinq petits/Die kleinen fünf. Liechtenstein San Marino Monaco Vatican Andorra, San Marino, Utrecht (A.W. Bruna & Zoon) 1960 (met foto’s) (serie: Zwarte Beertjes 157/158).

Kinderen van Israël, Utrecht (A.W. Bruna & Zoon) 1961 (met foto’s) (serie: Zwarte Beertjes 475/476).

Mata Hari, in Radio Corriere 9 april 1961.

Joannis, der Sanfte Kellner, Eine wahre Geschichte von Sam Waagenaar, in Elegante Welt april 1962.

Mauro, in King augustus 1962, p. 94-95.

De laatste week van Mattei, in Elseviers Weekblad 3 november 1962.

Bantzinger tekent Karsh, in Elseviers Weekblad 1 december 1962.

The murder of Mata Hari, Londen (Barder) z.j. [1964] (Ned. ed.: De moord op Mata Hari, Amsterdam (Becht) 1964; verschillende herz. ed. en vertalingen).

Bertuzzi non c’entra, in Messagero 30 november 1970.

Fu 1’OAS a uccidere Mattei, in L’Europeo 2 maart 1972.

Anti-Semitism in Italy, in Hadassah Magazinejuni 1973.

Il ghetto sul Tevere, Milaan (Mondadori) 1972 (Eng. ed.: The Pope’s Jews, Londen (Alcove Press) 1974; Ned. ed.: De Joden van Rome, Bussum (Van Holkema & Warendorf) 1974).

Il segreto di papa Pacelli, in Il Mondo 4 april 1974.

Ecumenism: Writer finds US leading the way, in Daily American 26 mei 1974.

An Unknown War Hero, in America 19 oktober 1974, p. 210-211.

L’Ebreo che salvò 1’Impero Romano, in La Rassegna Mensile di Israël september/oktober 1975.

Sam Waagenaar (samenstelling), Holland op z’n malst. Koddige en ernstige opschriften op luifels, wagens, glazen, borden, graven, en elders, Delft (Elmar) 1978.

Memorbook: History of Dutch Jewry from the Renaissance to 1940, in Hadassah Magazine augustus/september 1978.

De Mille – the mogul and the man, in Holland Herald (1978) 7, p. 26-33.

Tullia Zevi en Sam Waagenaar, In the Catacombs of Rome, in Jewish Chronicle 28 september 1979, p. 28-30.

Tullia Zevi en Sam Waagenaar, The Jewish Catacombs of Rome, A neglected Treasure of our Past, in Hadassah Magazine (december 1979) 4, p. 12-39.

Flying with Fokker, in International Herald Tribune 5 oktober 1982.

Hulp aan Joden nooit order Vaticaan, in Haarlems Dagblad 27 juni 1984.

Letters to the editor. When Yul Was Still Jules, in International Herald Tribune 2 november 1985.

Brieven. Mata Hari, in NRC Handelsblad 23 november 1985.

Insieme un’ultima settimana, in Synchron 6 oktober 1987, p. 12-18.

Zeep-verhaal uit nazi-tijd berust op waarheid, in NRC Handelsblad 11 mei 1990 (idem, in Ma’ariv 17 mei 1990).

Quella volta che lo Sceicco mi disse…, in Shalom 31 maart 1991.

Het wonder van Sannicandro: Groep katholieke Italianen ging leven naar joodse riten, in Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad 6 september 1991, p. 17-19.

Rina. Pro Memoriam opgedragen aan Rosa Spier, in Rosa Proza 1 (1994) 2, p. 7-9.

Mata Hari. Geslepen spionne of onschuldige schoonheid, Baarn (Tirion) 1995.


in La Tribune des Nations:

Hollywood: crise ou evolution, 28 mei 1948.

“Les protestations francaises n’y changeront rien”, déclare Ie général Lucius D. Clay dans une interview avec Sam Waagenaar, 3 december 1948.

Lettre d’Italie. L’Italie en quête de solutions, 25 februari 1949.

Les constituants Allemands sont sous pression, 11 maart 1949.

Les Allemands aux portes de la France. Une interview exclusive avec M. Tarbé de Saint Hardouin, 18 maart 1949.

‘L’Intéret de 1’Amerique est dans Ie relèvement rapide de 1’Allemagne” déclare Ie général Clay dans une interview exclusive avec notre envoyé spécial Sam Waagenaar, 1 april 1949.

Les grands reportages exclusifs de “La Tribune des Nations”. Brouillard sur Ie pays de mille et une nuits (I), Les Eaux de Teheran, 4 november 1949.

Les grands reportages exclusifs de la “Tribune des Nations”. Brouillards au pays des mille et une nuits (III). Il n’y a plus de la vie politique en Perse, 18 november 1949.

Les grands reportages exclusifs de “La Tribune des Nations”. A travers le désert Afghan, 9 december 1949.

Le voyage en Oriënt de Sam Waagenaar (VI). De Ghirisk a Kaboul… et soudain le désert disparait, 16 december 1949.

Le voyage en Oriënt de Sam Waagenaar (VII). Chah-I-Angier, un barrage dans le désert, [1949].

Le voyage en Orient de Sam Waagenaar (VIII). Sur les pavés de Kaboul, [ 1949].

Le voyage en Orient de Sam Waagenaar (IX). Le gouvernement afghan: une grande familie, [ 1949].

Le voyage en Orient de Sam Waagenaar (X). A Lahore on ne voit pas le sultan, 20 januari 1950.

Le voyage en Orient de Sam Waagenaar (XI). Inde et Pakistan: chiens de faience, 27 januari 1950.

Le voyage en Orient de Sam Waagenaar (XII). Avant de quitter 1’Inde, conseils aux touristes, 3 februari 1950.


in Die Weltwoche:

Konig Saud und die Aegypter, 14 december 1956, p. 17.

England halt an Aden fest, 15 februari 1957, p. 17.

Fidji-verlorenes Paradies, 8 november 1957, p. 33.

Zweigeteilter Sudan, 13 december 1957, p. 45.

Vom Everest zum Sudpol: Sir Edmund Hillary, 10 januari 1958.

Machtkampf in Indonesien. Finale für Sukarnos (miß)gelenkte Demokratie?, 2 maart 1958.

Yul Brynner, ein Schweizer Filmstar in Hollywood, 21 november 1958, p. 31.

Sardinien – die vergessene Insel, 22 april 1960.

Joannis der sanfte Kellner, 11 november 1960, p. 39.

Der letzte Gefangene auf Ustica, 20 oktober 1961.

Wie man Filme nicht machen soll. Das internationale Dokumentarfilm-Festival in Venedig, 27 juli 1962.

Bulgarien, Russland en miniature, 15 november 1963, p. 49, 51.


images in:

Hinab Madchen tauch!, in Kristall [1952], p. 728-729.

Tempelfest auf Bali, in Feuerritter 2 mei 1952.

Fishing in Fiji, in The Star Weekly Toronto 23 augustus 1952.

Bali Rice God who ran Amuck, in Star Weekly Toronto oktober 1952, p. 10.

A refugee Baby of Hong Kong Slums, in Chicago Tribune [ca. 1952].

Chinesische Flüchtlinge in Hong Kong, in Der Tagesspiegel [ca. 1952] 3573, p- 30.

Roppo, Sabino, Singapore, in Le Vie del Mondo juli 1953, p. 709-720.

The Fiji “Do”, in Xcitement in Pictures november 1956, p. 72-75.

Hal Lehrman, Arab Nationalism: A Reporter’s Notebook, in The New York Times Magazine [1956], p. 10.

Storks above the Nile, in Wolkenridder 9 februari 1957.

Schwarze Manner-Weisses Salz, in Z.B. Illustrierte juni 1957, p. 11.

Japan – Eisenbahn erster Klasse, in Neues Osterreich 9 juni 1957.

Rita Morton, Sinai. The Mountain where God Spoke to Moses, in The Word juli 1957.

Keyes Beech, Struggle for Power under the Palms, in Saterday Evening Post 12 oktober 1957, p. 36-37, 103.

Australiens Rundfunk. “Madchen für Alles”, in Hören und Sehen 26 oktober 1957, p. 60-61.

Alle drei sind zufrieden, in Frankfurter Illustrierte 12 april 1958.

Sam Waagenaar: Voor de kinderen van al mijn vrienden, in Het Vrije Volk 18 december 1958.

The Dead Depart on Bali, in The Malayan Monthly februari 1959, p. 32-33.

The Observer 24 mei 1959, p. 11.

Two of the pictures in Children of the World a “photo book” by Sam Waagenaar and others, in The Observer 6 september 1959.

The New York Times 6 maart 1960.

Auteur onbekend, Vrouwen van Israël, in Ma’ariv [1961].

Griechische Inselweine, in Merian november 1961.

Le Vie d’Italia augustus 1962, p. 983.

L.A. to Rome. With Nostalgia, in West 11 maart 1967, p. 30-31.

Unicef Nieuws (juni 1983) 180, omslag.

Unicef Nieuws (februari 1985) 190, omslag.

Rivista, in The Bologna Center Alumni Newsletter for Academie Year 1991-’92.

Marie de Thézy en Thomas Michael Gunther (red.), Images de la Liberation de Paris, z.p. [Parijs] z.j. [1994].

Secondary bibliography

Hedda Hopper, Looking at Hollywood, in Los Angeles Times 22 februari 1945.

Auteur onbekend, Sam Waagenaar Back, in The Hollywood Reporter 12 januari 1945.

Auteur onbekend, Rambling Reporter, in The Hollywood Reporter 24 januari 1945.

J.A. ‘Vrouwen van Israël’, in Vrij Nederland 2 november 1960.

Auteur onbekend, Sam Waagenaar – totale oplage: 200.000 boeken, in Het Vrije Volk 12 juli 1960.

Auteur onbekend, Vrouwen van Israël stellen zich voor in Goois Museum. Collectie foto’s van formaat, letterlijk en figuurlijk, in Gooi en Eemlander 24 maart 1961.

Barney Glazer’s Hollywood Hotline, in The Toronto Jewish Voice 12 november 1965.

Auteur onbekend, Bravo ma spericolato il pilota di Mattei, in Messagero 26 november 1970.

Sylvie Genevoix, Nous avons retrouvé le “press-book” de Mata Hari, in Figaro Madame 16 maart 1985.

Auteur onbekend, Mata Hari – Stichting gebelgd over uitspraak ‘twijfelachtige musea’, in NRC Handelsblad 26 november 1993.

Han Vogel, Honderd portretten uit de hele wereld, in Het Parool 9 december 1993, p. 18.

Auteur onbekend, Een veelbewogen leven, in De Telegraaf 14 december 1993.

Ben van der Velde, Het vege lijf I, in NRC Handelsblad 18 januari 1994.

Nicoline Baartman, Rosa Spierhuis vol bruisende jonkies, in de Volkskrant 8 oktober 1994, Vervolg, p. 3.

Miriam Notenboom, ‘Voor mij is geschiedenis absoluut een beleving’. Sam Waagenaar, ooggetuige van de twintigste eeuw, in Historisch Nieuwsblad 3 (1994) 5, p. 4-6.

Monique Marreveld, Globetrotter kwam overal op de juiste tijd, in Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad 2 maart 1995, p. 5-7.

Anne-Rose Bantzinger, Betaalbare grafiek in Rosa Spierhuis, in Het Parool 30 maart 1995.

Jan Blokker, Een onontwarbare knoeiboel, in de Volkskrant 8 juli 1995.

Pauline Micheels, Kiekjes van de vrijheid, Zenz Fotoalbum 5, in Trouw 18 mei 1996, p. 35.

Paul Arnoldussen, Een bestaan als in een jongensboek, in Het Parool 16 november 1996.

Auteur onbekend, Sara Waagenaar overleden, in Algemeen Dagblad 18 april 1997.


Jury Internationaal Documentaire Film Festival, Venetië 1962.


1960 (e) Amsterdam, Museum Fodor, Vrouwen van Israël. Foto’s van Sam Waagenaar.

1960 (e) Rotterdam, gebouw van Het Vrije Volk, Vrouwen van Israël. Foto’s van Sam Waagenaar.

1961 (e) Hilversum, Goois Museum, Vrouwen van Israël. Foto’s van Sam Waagenaar.

1993 (e), Laren, Rosa Spier Huis, Sam Waagenaar kijkt naar mensen.

1994 (g) Parijs, Hotel de Ville, Images de la Liberation de Paris.


1953 Hans Brinkers Return.

1953 Letter to Five Countries.

1953 Athens Interlude.

1953 Hunting Giants.

1953 The Miracle of the Midnight Sun.

1956 Ryadh. The New Oil Capital of Saudi-Arabia.

Radio Programs

1995 (23 februari) Een leven lang (NPS). ‘


Laren, Sam Waagenaar (mondelinge informatie, autobiografie, knipselcollectie en diverse fotoalbums).

Rotterdam, Stichting Nederlands Fotoarchief (nu Nederlands Fotomuseum. Archief Sam Waagenaar, aantekeningen Flip Bool, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand).


Amsterdam, Nederlands Filmmuseum (zeven films).

Jeruzalem, Beth Hatefutsoth. Museum of the Jewish Diaspora.

Jeruzalem, Israël Museum.

Rotterdam, Nederlands Fotomuseum.

Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv Museum (negatieven Vrouwen van Israël).

Washington, Holocaust Museum.