PhotoLexicon, Volume 14, nr. 28 (April 1997) (en)

Erich Salomon

Oscar van der Wijk


The German photographer Dr. Erich Salomon was an exceptionally important figure in Dutch photography. In the late 1920s, he belonged to a new generation of photographers who produced enquiring reportages for illustrated magazines covering every aspect of society. Salomon developed himself as a specialist in inconspicuously photographing people at the highest levels of politics and society. He was the first photographer in the Netherlands to photograph sessions of parliament, the Raad van State (‘Council of State’), and the Hoge Raad (‘Supreme Court’). Just prior to the outbreak of World War II, Dutch photographers—inspired by the high quality of Salomon’s photos—managed to produce reportages that were no less in calibre. After 1938, Salomon’s photos appeared in Dutch magazines only on a sporadic basis.




On 28 April 1886, Erich Franz Emil (Erich) Salomon is born, as the son of Emil Salomon (1844-1909), owner of a banking firm in Berlin, Germany, and Therese Schuier, who belongs to a family of publishers.


Erich Salomon begins his studies at the Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium (a prep or grammar school) in Berlin.


Salomon quits his study to become an engineer at the Technische Hochschule (‘Technical College’). He begins studying law in Munich, and later, Berlin.


Erich Salomon marries Maggy Schuler (born 11 August 1889 in Rotterdam) at Hotel De Witte Brug in The Hague. Maggy is a distant relative of Erich’s.

The couple moves to Hölderlinstrasse 11 in Berlin, where they reside until 1933.


On 31 July, Otto Erich (Otto) Salomon is born.

Salomon graduates from the legal department of the University of Rostock (Germany).


During World War I, Erich Salomon is taken captive.

For the rest of the war, Salomon remains captive in various French prisoner-of-war camps.


After the war, Salomon discovers the family capital has been greatly reduced as a result of inflation. Salomon works at various jobs until 1925, at which time he finds employment with the publicity department of the publishing/printing company Ullstein in Berlin.

In 1920, Salomon’s youngest son, Dirk Franz Emil (Dirk), is born.


Salomon purchases a Contessa-Nettel, a large-format press camera.


Salomon writes an article about a deadly thunderstorm and hires a photographer to take the accompanying photo. The photographer receives most of the fee, much to Salomon’s dismay. Salomon purchases a large-aperture 4.5×6 cm plate camera, the Ermanox.


On 19 February, Salomon’s first covert photos are published: three photos taken during the Krantz Process, a murder case involving youths in the Berlin neighbourhood Stieglitz.

Shortly hereafter, Salomon establishes himself as an independent photographer. On 14 May, his name is cited alongside one of his published photos. In this year, Salomon begins making numerous reportages on politicians attending different international conferences.


Salomon organises the slide presentation ‘Mit Frack und Linse durch Politik und Gesellschaft’ (‘With Tails and Lens through Politics and Society’) at the Hotel Kaiserhof in Berlin, on the occasion of his forty-fifth birthday. He invites approximately 400 guests from circles of politics and society. In the fall, his photobook Berühmte Zeitgenossen in unbewachten Augenblicken (‘Famous Contemporaries at Unguarded Moments’) is published.


Salomon works almost exclusively with Leica cameras. Sometimes he modifies these cameras, in order to operate them from a distance. He also mounts the virtually inaudible ‘Compur Shutters’ onto these Leicas.

In the 12 November 1932 issue of Wereldkroniek (‘World Chronicle’), photos are published of the Dutch council of ministers in a meeting.

During Christmas, Salomon and his family stay with relatives in The Hague. Due to growing political tensions in Germany, he decides not to return to Berlin.

Salomon and his family move in with his parents-in-law at Waalsdorperweg 98 in The Hague.


Salomon considers emigrating to the United States. Up to now, he has not been able to find sufficient work. He is, however, photographing more frequently in Great Britain.


In the winter of 1935-36, Salomon photographs people in the highest circles of Dutch politics and law. In February, his first article appears in Het Leven. Geïllustreerd (‘Life. Illustrated.’).


Salomon manages to make numerous reportages of Princess Juliana and her husband, Prince Bernhard, from the time of their engagement in September 1936 through 1938. In late September, Salomon is present at the emergency session of the Tweede Kamer (‘Second Chamber’ = the Dutch House of Representatives) concerning the devaluation of the Dutch guilder. A significant majority of Salomon’s reportages appear in Het Leven.


Salomon participates in the photography exhibition Foto ’37 at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.


Salomon’s possessions at his Berlin apartment are transferred to The Hague, including the remainder of his photo archive.


In July, the cabinet crisis is a fact, including the definitive departure of Prime Minister Dr. H. Colijn from the Binnenhof (‘Inner Court’, the seat of the Dutch government).


In March, Salomon makes his last reportage. He portrays Dr. L.E. Visser, who celebrates his twenty-fifth anniversary as president of the Hoge Raad (‘Supreme Court’) on 1 March.


Erich and Maggy Salomon’s neighbourhood in The Hague is evacuated. They travel with their youngest son, Dirk, to a boarding house at Bennekomsche Weg 4 in the town of Renkum.

Salomon deposits his negatives into two canning jars, which he buries near the house of one ‘Mr. Telders’ in Heelsum. When Salomon returns for a brief visit to The Hague, a meter man observes that gas is being used in the ’empty’ house and warns the German authorities. Salomon is arrested and imprisoned at the prison camp in Scheveningen. Later, he is transferred to the Westerbork Transit Camp.


On 18 January, Salomon, his wife, and his son Dirk are deported from Camp Westerbork to Theresienstadt in Czechoslovakia. On 16 May, they are transferred to Auschwitz, where they are killed on 7 July.


In January, Mr. Telders of Heelsum contacts the photographer Gertrud Dombrowsky to enquire whether any members of the Salomon family are still living. Dombrowsky informs Erich Salomon’s son, Otto, who changed his name to Peter Hunter during the war. Through this contact, Hunter manages to retrieve his father’s negatives.


Peter Hunter puts together a memorial exhibition of his father’s work on behalf of the Photokina in Cologne, Germany.


The book Erich Salomon. Portret van een tijdperk (‘Erich Salomon. Portrait of an Era’) is compiled by Peter Hunter and Han de Vries, and published by Uitgeverij De Bezige Bij. The German publishing company Ullstein also brings out a German edition.


The DGPh (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photographie, ‘German Society of Photography’) establishes the ‘Dr. Erich Salomon Prize’, an annual award for ‘publications, (…) which make use of photography as an independent means of publicity in an exemplary manner’.


Peter Hunter transfers Erich Salomon’s archive to the Berlinische Galerie in Berlin. The archive comprises approximately 1,700 glass plate negatives of 4.5×6 cm, 400 slides of 8.5×10 cm, and 7,000 35 mm negatives on 500 film rolls and strips. The Berlinische Galerie also comes into the possession of large quantities of prints, including those from the exhibition at the Ilford Gallery held in London in 1937.


Erich Salomon was born as the fourth child in a Jewish middle-class family in Berlin. Salomon loved doing handicrafts, and during his years in secondary school, he worked as a carpenter. After the Gymnasium (a prep or grammar school), Salomon briefly studied zoology, prior to starting his studies as an engineer at the Technische Hochschule (‘Technical College’). It was the death of a friend during an internship at the Schwarzkopff locomotive factory and the subsequent death of his father in 1909 that motivated Erich Salomon’s decision to follow in his father’s footsteps by entering law school. This education would later prove to be advantageous for his photographic work in the courtroom.

Upon his return to Berlin after being held in French prisoner-of-war camps, Salomon came to learn that the family capital of more than one-million marks had diminished significantly due to the post-war economic crisis. To both support his family and to maintain the spacious apartment in the Charlottenburg neighbourhood of Berlin, Salomon undertook a variety of jobs with tremendous enthusiasm. It was a striking advertisement for his own taxi company published in the distinguished newspaper Vossische Zeitung in 1925 that landed him a position in the publicity department of Ullstein, the Berlin publishing company that put out the newspaper.

Prior to 1927, Salomon’s experience with photography had only been minimal. His first encounter was an assignment to photograph advertising signs situated along the railway lines, equipped with a borrowed camera. It was his job to gather proof verifying the illegal removal and disappearance of these signs for use in legal proceedings. It was the technical possibilities of photography that interested Salomon most. In an article featured in a popular science magazine, he proposed that there were three matters of importance for a photo’s success, when taken under difficult lighting conditions: large-aperture objectives, a tripod, and high-sensitivity film or plates. Salomon’s own photo dealer subsequently drew his attention to the small, large-aperture Ermanox camera for glass negatives of 4.5 x 6 cm, which was virtually unknown. It turned out that with this camera one could use faster shutter speeds indoors, when the time exposure previously had to be set on a second camera. Additionally, Salomon was also able to hold and operate the camera easily with just one hand.

This ultimately brought his attention to the problems faced by photographers working for the illustrated magazines. It was during these years that photographers had managed to make their way into the courtrooms, where they tried to secretly capture court proceedings using their large press cameras. In part because they were unable to work with flash lighting, the quality of these shots was never good. Due to their distracting presence, they were also quite quickly expelled from the courtroom. Thanks to the small format of the Ermanox, Salomon was able to build the camera into a hat, a briefcase, and even into an arm sling. The next thing he did was to enter the courtrooms of Berlin in the winter of 1927-28. On 19 February 1928, one of his first courtroom photos appeared in the newspaper Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung. Its publication gave him the confidence to quit his job and to establish himself as a freelance photographer. As an employee working for the publisher Ullstein, Salomon had already suspected there was a big demand for such revealing photos, with people willing to pay good money. Salomon’s background as an attorney proved to be a big advantage when it came to making courtroom reportages, as he was able to follow events with a knowledge of what was going on.

After having photographed a number of court cases, Salomon soon expanded his scope of work to include political and societal circles. With his education and background, he knew how to act as if he belonged in these groups. It was an attitude that gave him a major advantage over other photographers. Salomon was dressed according to specification and moved around as if he was an invited guest. Never, however, was his discretely positioned Ermanox far beyond his reach. Employing a lengthy shutter release cable, he maintained his contact with the camera—only to click the shutter precisely at the right moment. It entailed a moment of reserved calm, while someone was conducting a conversation or gesturing. He was looking for a meaningful gesture or a telling facial expression. Salomon managed to approach the most complicated conversational situations with tremendous psychological insight and capture them in an enthralling composition.

Salomon’s publications were a sensation because, time and again, he was able to capture individuals in higher circles with images that were highly expressive. He was also aware of the uniqueness of his reportages, which he underscored by requiring that magazines publish his name alongside his photos. This was something that had virtually never occurred prior to this time. Salomon requested and received phenomenal amounts for exclusive rights to his photos, and it was for this reason that, by as early as 1929, he himself had become a celebrity. He traveled throughout Europe, attended conference after conference, photographed leading bankers, scientists, and judges, attended concerts, and traveled for months across the United States at the invitation of the American monthly Fortune—all with his camera in tow. Salomon viewed himself as a ‘photo historian’, and in no way did he hesitate to emphasise this. The people he decided to single out were apparently every bit aware of this, as they more or less appreciated being photographed by him. To get someone’s permission to be photographed, Salomon not only turned to the public relations people, but he also sought direct personal contact with the individual concerned—something that was highly unusual for the time.

In December 1932, Salomon was traveling with his wife Maggy Salomon-Schuler to her parents’ home in The Hague for Christmas. In the aftermath of the Nazi takeover on 30 January 1933, the couple decided not to return to Berlin. As a Jewish photojournalist, Salomon was virtually unable to sell his photographs to German magazines any longer. He was also quite well aware of the fact that he would no longer have permission to photograph German diplomats or politicians. When it came to international conferences, this would severely limit his options. Being a renowned journalist of Jewish origin, Salomon was also in personal danger back in his own country.

After the Nazi takeover, only one more reportage by Salomon was ever published in a German magazine. In June 1933, Die Dame published a reportage on the art treasures of Baron von der Heydt in his villa in Zandvoort, Netherlands. This reportage marked the last time that Salomon worked with an Ermanox camera. For this reportage, he also used the new 35 mm system, the Leica.

In technical terms, Salomon’s old camera had been surpassed by the Leica. The Ermanox was only able to hold a single, fragile glass negative, which had to be changed after every shot. Not only did this cost valuable seconds, but it also made the photographer’s presence just that much more obvious. With the Leica, by contrast, one could take thirty-six shots quickly, without being noticed. Interchangeable lenses for the Leica were also coming on the market, equipped with large-aperture lenses that were becoming increasingly bigger. In order to capture a scene with various lenses simultaneously, Salomon sometimes placed two Leicas on one tripod. In addition, the greater depth of field made the setting of adjustments less critical.

In spite of the technical advantages of the Leica system, Salomon’s reportages remained the same, in terms of content as well as composition. Naturally, it was easier just to take a series of shots with the Leica of any given scene. By this time, however, he had long grown accustomed to doing this with the Ermanox. With this ‘cumbersome’ plate camera, he had learned how to take shots, one after the other, at great speed. These were sometimes published in a series, just as later with the 35 mm series. Furthermore, Salomon was skilled at assessing the photographic quality of a given subject, so that virtually every shot of the same subject was usable. On the contact strips of his Leica shots, one finds very few unusable negatives.

Despite losing out on the German market, Salomon continued to photograph in the same impassioned manner. This was indeed exactly what the press photo agencies expected of him. As the Union Photo of Paris wrote to Salomon in 1937: ‘(…) please only images with Salomon’s wit, or those that nobody but you can do.’

Salomon’s obligatory stay in the Netherlands literally made him ill: he entered into a long-lasting, deep depression. Throughout 1933 and the year that followed, he photographed very little. He also toyed with the idea of emigrating to the United States. Salomon had made numerous reportages in the US during the years 1930-32. He knew his way around American political and diplomatic circles. In a letter to Ralph MacAllister Ingersoll of the magazine Fortune, Salomon wrote in 1934: ‘There is nothing holding me in this country [the Netherlands]’. At this point, the Netherlands still had no significance for Salomon. Even the reportages he produced in the Netherlands prior to 1933 were intended for foreign magazines and newspapers. For important reportages, Salomon made series: one for Germany, one for the United States, one for France, and one for the United Kingdom. For the Netherlands, he produced a couple of ‘Einzelbilder’ (‘single images’). The only reportage he made specifically for the Dutch press was on the topic of a cabinet meeting under Prime Minister Ruys de Beerenbrouck in 1932. They were the first photos to be taken of a Dutch cabinet meeting. Instead of looking into the camera while sitting upright and posed, the ministers were actually actively participating in a meeting. Salomon’s name, of course, was mentioned in the caption of the 12 November 1932 issue of the weekly Wereldkroniek (‘World Chronicle’) as the photographer of these ‘two rare photos’. The caption stated further that ‘(…) our employee the journalist-photographer Dr. E. Salomon (…) [who] has brought photographing without posing into fashion and whose photos of international conferences and important persons have acquired a world reputation.’ For Salomon, these photos were only of secondary importance. What he really wanted was to make a reportage for the managing board of BPM (Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, ‘Batavian Petroleum Company’). Salomon was granted permission to do so, however, only after submitting his photos of the Dutch cabinet, as a kind of test of skills. The board meetings of the most powerful oil concern in the world took place in The Hague, under the direction of the Dutch general director, Sir Henri Deterding. Here as well, what one observes in Salomon’s reportage is the liveliness of the discussions. In March 1933, sixteen photos of this meeting, as well as shots of BPM’s office building appeared in Fortune. The Dutch newspaper De Telegraaf was the first to cover the topic, having previously featured a single photo of the meeting in its issue of 17 December 1932. The cost of publishing the entire reportage had perhaps been deemed prohibitive by magazines and newspapers in the Netherlands.

In the period prior to 1933, Salomon’s photos occasionally appeared in the Dutch weeklies Wereldkroniek and Het Leven. Geïllustreerd. The first magazine placed chiefly photos that he had taken in the Netherlands, such as a reportage on a buffet during the 1930 Hague Convention and shots of the world-famous conductors Willem Mengelberg and Bruno Walter, as well as the Italian tenor Benjamino Gigli. The fashion reportage in the Wereldkroniek of 21 March 1932 on Schuler, a prestigious fashion house in The Hague, was done on a personal note, as it was owned by Salomon’s parents-in-law. Het Leven, by contrast, only featured reportages that were politically newsworthy, e.g. the numerous international conferences. In 1933, these were followed by two lively reportages on events in the United States, but these had been made by Salomon in the past. In the same year, Wereldkroniek as well published two of his earlier reportages. It would be another two years before Salomon started making extensive reportages in the Netherlands.

In 1935, Salomon began photographing at international conferences once again, traveling to places such as Geneva and Lausanne, Switzerland. In 1936, he also made several trips to the United Kingdom, where his eldest son, Otto Salomon (since World War II, he goes by the name of ‘Peter Hunter’), was to oversee the press agency for his father’s reportages. Salomon was able to publish much of his new work in the UK. It was not uncommon for photos of topics concerning the Netherlands to appear in British rather than Dutch magazines. Just as with the German magazines in the past, a portion of Salomon’s work concerned current events, while another part focused on diplomatic and society circles. His network of social contacts that had been built up over the years is certain to have helped him substantially, despite the fact that many of the faces on the political stage that he had once known were now replaced by others. It is difficult to determine what exactly kept Salomon from emigrating to the Great Britain, as his son Otto had done. He also quickly let go of his idea of moving to the US, perhaps under the influence of his new success in Europe. Perhaps it was because his wife’s family lived in the Netherlands and Salomon and his family were now firmly settled there. The Dutch policy of neutrality and the renowned ‘Hollandse Waterlinie’ (‘Hollandic Water Line’) are also certain to have given him confidence in the future.

The year 1936 marked the beginning of a long-term collaboration between Salomon and the magazine Het Leven (‘Life’). In the winter of 1935-36, he received permission to photograph in the highest political and legal circles of the Netherlands. Equipped with his camera, Salomon entered both chambers of the Staten-Generaal (‘States General of the Netherlands’), as well as sittings of the Ministerraad (‘Council of Ministers’) and the Raad van State (‘Council of State’). He was also able to photograph the various chambers of the Hoge Raad der Nederlanden (‘Supreme Court of the Netherlands’) during a number of court hearings. These five reportages received broad public interest in Het Leven. The reportage on the Hoge Raad in May and June was furnished with an attorney’s concise textual commentary. On 22 February 1936, eleven of the photos that Salomon had taken of a debate in the Eerste Kamer (‘First Chamber’ = the Senate) were published in Het Leven. The photos were accompanied by lively captions, without going too much into the debate’s actual content. One text read: ‘Our minister-president, Dr. H. Colijn, has defended the governmental decree in the Senate in a superb manner (…)’. The unique character of this reportage was also mentioned: ‘For the first time, the modern camera has found its way into the sanctuary of the Senate and has photographed the minister and senators during a major debate. It was the famous photographer Dr. Erich Salomon, ‘le roi des indiscrets’ [‘the king of the indiscrete’] who took this spectacular series of photos specifically for Het Leven (…)’. Colijn was in every photo: listening and thinking, but more than anything, talking while making broad gestures with his arms. A series of seven photos gave almost film-like account of the manner in which Colijn debated with members of the senate. Salomon had photographed the statesman chiefly for his proverbial leadership and power of persuasiveness—not just because he was the prime minister. Colijn, in turn, enjoyed having his picture taken by this famous photographer. He was also one of the first politicians in the Netherlands to acknowledge the pervasiveness of the rapidly rising mass media. In the weeks that followed, the readers of Het Leven were surprised with lively photos in and around the chambers of the Senate and the House of Representatives (the ‘Tweede Kamer’, or ‘Second Chamber’). Salomon did not have permission to wander about the chambers on his own. It was a different situation than what he had experienced in the past: at the German Reichstag, Salomon had been given the freedom to photograph whatever he wished, including the German chancellor’s seat. In the Netherlands, by contrast, he was apparently only allowed to photograph from the public tribunes. While some of the photos were taken with a wide-angle lens in order to fit the entire debate in the frame, Salomon primarily used his telephoto lens. The pronounced feature of the chairman of the Senate, W.L. Baron de Vos van Steenwijk, as well as the members of small parliamentary groups—e.g. the senators of the NSB (Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging, Dutch ‘National Socialist Movement’), including M(ax) V.E.H.J.M, de Marchant et d’Ansembourg and A.J. van Vessem—were isolated from their surroundings using a telephoto lens. Only in the hallway was he able to get a close-up of a number of the senators.

The reportage on the Hoge Raad was published on 30 May 1936, several months after the parliamentary photos. Characteristic of these photos are the austere compositions and the stately, serious faces—befitting the highest court in the Netherlands. In essence, Salomon approached a subject of this nature in virtually the same way as seen in his 1928 photo of Dr. Erich Frey, a top-ranked attorney in Germany. These were the only courthouse photos that Salomon took in the Netherlands. This was the last time that Salomon would photograph the Dutch parliament for the time being. He had captured the functioning of both house chambers and targeted virtually every member of parliament. Following the long and persistent effort of various organisations, including a letter in June 1937 submitted by the NIP (Nederlandse Illustratie Pers, ‘Netherlands Illustration Press’), Dutch photographers were also finally granted permission to take photographs in the parliament. In late 1937, Henk Smits and Wiel van der Randen were the photographers allowed to photograph debates. The photos they brought back to their editorial boards were not significantly different. This likely resulted from the same restriction that photographs could only be taken from the public tribunes. Salomon himself was in no way affiliated with any organisation. He had no need of this kind of support, as he approached those in charge entirely in his own fashion. He focused his efforts chiefly on establishing a direct contact with dignitaries by winning the favour of their personnel, whom he offered to photograph as well.

For a number of Dutch politicians, Salomon was already a well-known name prior to his arrival in the Netherlands. In 1930, he had photographed the reception of the participants at the Hague Convention at the ministerial residence of Beelaerts van Blokland, then the minister of Foreign Affairs. The reportage featured not only the minister, but als W.L. Baron de Vos van Steenwijk, who had for years been chairman of the Senate. One year before, in 1929, Salomon had photographed Prime Minister Colijn during the last speech of the German minister of Foreign Affairs, Gustav Stresemann, at the League of Nations. In 1937, Salomon visited the home of Prime Minister Colijn, to photograph him together with his family in domestic surroundings. He also made portraits of various ministers. These photos were important for breaking the ice. Although they are posed, the politicians in these portraits come across quite natural. Salomon would hand these photos over as leverage to photograph on another occasion, making it virtually impossible for anyone to deny his request.

The members of the Council of State approached Salomon differently. In this case, there were no photos from a previous meeting. Instead, he showed the council his book Berühmte Zeitgenossen (‘Famous Contemporaries’) from 1931. The photos in this book made a big impression and gave the council members the assurance they needed to go along with his proposed reportage. The film negative strips from Salomon’s reportages illustrate how he went to work. He first took a series of shots, prior to the start of any official meeting or gathering, so that the men could grow accustomed to his presence. He then took several long shots, photographing the conversation as he usually did—never forgetting which figures were most prominent. As it appears in the 7 March 1936 issue of Het Leven, the reportage on the Council of State does not include Salomon’s ‘preparatory’ shots. In terms of composition, however, these shots are quite exceptional. During his meetings with the magazine’s editorial board, there is no doubt that Salomon had shown them some of his other published works. The reportage of 11 December 1935 on the French parliament that was published in the French pictorial magazine Vu is very similar to his reportage on the Dutch parliament produced in 1936. Salomon is certain to have used the former work as a basis. As in the former reportage, photos were taken from a high vantage point and showed both a full and a virtually empty chamber, with small groups of parliamentary members talking together. The public tribunes were not forgotten: Salomon was greatly interested in the various aspects of the parliamentary process. Another similarity with the reportage in Vu was the lack of any pressing reason for the photos to be published. A curiosity with regards to the functioning of the representative assembly was the sole basis for making the reportage.

It was not until September 1936 that Salomon came with a first reportage that had substantial newsworthiness. On the night of 26/27 September, Colijn’s third cabinet finally let go of the Gold Standard under heavy pressure. Forewarned by the press releases, Salomon rushed to the ‘Department of Colonies’, where the cabinet was discussing the consequences of a devaluation of the guilder. There he managed to photograph a number of ministers through a half-open door. The next day, he went on to photograph the dramatic session in the House of Representatives. In no way did the photos conceal the trouble that Colijn and his ministers were having with their decision. Salomon’s photos were submitted on an exclusive basis to Het Leven, in spite of the rather late publishing date of 3 October. This act indicates the soundness of the relationship between the photographer and the magazine. The very same issue also featured no less than ten of Salomon’s photos showing the just engaged Princess Juliana and her fiancé, Prince Bernhard, including one shot taken during a radio address.

After the announcement of the couple’s engagement on 8 September 1936, a strong feeling of Orange national pride emerged in the Netherlands. The approaching wedding, which was to take place in January 1937, people’s worries about the economic crisis became secondary. Additionally, this form of nationalism provided a counterweight to unstable political developments occurring abroad. On 13 September 1936, Salomon was quick to photograph the princely pair during a church service in The Hague, without being noticed. He is certain to have immediately sensed the tremendous selling potential of reportages focusing on the royal family: up until the birth of Princess Beatrix in January 1938, Salomon could be spotted in the family’s vicinity with remarkable frequency. Due to the royal family’s popularity, he was able to sell numerous photos, not only to the Dutch magazines, but also to those in the United Kingdom, where there was substantial interest in Salomon’s series. This was chiefly thanks to the photo agency of his son, Otto, who by this time was also taking photos in the UK. Colijn was the only Dutch political figure known outside the Netherlands; for the rest, photos of the Dutch political scene were not that much in demand. The majority of publications abroad were therefore only interested in Juliana and Bernhard. From the time of their engagement, they were frequently in the public eye.

It was not just the decorum that Salomon wished to capture. He was not in attendance at the ‘sogenanntes Photographiergesicht’ (‘so-called Photographing View’, as he described such a shot in Berühmte Zeitgenossen) photo opportunity, with the princely couple attempting to ride a tandem bike in the palace garden. Nor did Salomon take state portraits, because royal poses of this nature showed little individuality. Salomon preferred instead to look behind the scenes and to photograph situations never before captured by any other photojournalist. During the princess and prince’s joint radio address on 29 September, he managed to capture the right mood, precisely at a moment when the German-born Prince Bernhard, surrounded by a variety of dignitaries, calmly spoke several words in the Dutch language. During the couple’s wedding ceremony on 7 January 1937, Salomon was no doubt present at the Grote Kerk (‘Great Church’) in The Hague. The next day, the photos of the consecratory celebration were featured in a special edition of Het Leven. Photos of official festivities organised in connection with the wedding, which were typically private in nature, were subsequently published in consecutive issues. The ‘indiscreet’ photographer was expected to keep a low profile, certainly during the more formal events, when Queen Wilhelmina was in attendance. The queen’s radiance at the moment she enters a hall at Noordeinde Palace can still be observed in these photos.

One obligation of the young wedded couple was to attend a meeting of the Council of State. The first meeting they attended together, on 8 April 1937, was anything but easy. At first they tried to follow the discussions. In no time, however, they were bored and subdued, waiting for the session to be over. They were in no way disturbed by Salomon, who photographed them with a telephoto lens unnoticed and in an almost callous way. Het Leven placed eight photos on a single page, without further commentary. The caption in the British Daily Sketch of 6 May 1936, by contrast, described the scene perfectly: ‘They arrived with the best of intentions – to study and take interest in the problems of their country. (…) But it may have been a very long meeting.’ Not until a couple of years later would the couple actually become involved in affairs of state.

The atmosphere on board the cruisers ‘Gelderland’ and ‘Java’, with which the princely couple traveled to the UK in late May 1937, was far more relaxed. Salomon was the only photographer to accompany them on this trip. Countless shots were taken, which convey a picture of princely life beyond official protocol. In London, Salomon again turned to society life. He visited the Royal Opera House Covent Garden, as well as the Dutch and Austrian legations. He was accompanied by his son, who had also achieved a certain notoriety as a photographer in society circles by this time.

Back in the Netherlands, Salomon was invited to participate in the seminal photography exhibition Foto ’37 at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam. The exhibition presented an international overview of the latest developments in the field of reportage and other genres of photography. Indicative of Salomon’s renown were the two pages made available to him in De Groene Amsterdammer for the magazine’s special exhibition issue dated 19 June, entitled ‘Het oog in de hand’ (‘The Eye in the Hand’), in order to expound his experiences as a photojournalist. The five published photos, including three taken in the Netherlands, were rcent. Indirectly, Salomon was conveying the view that these later photos were qualitatively very much worth the effort. In his article, entitled ‘Het onbescheiden oog—Beroemdheden voor de lens’ (‘The Indiscreet Eye—Celebrities in Front of the Lens’), he highlighted his close relationship with people in the highest circles.

Starting with his wedding reportage on Juliana and Bernhard, in 1937 he attended one festivity after another in the sphere of Dutch politics and society, which were usually held in The Hague. Despite the relatively limited newsworthiness of these events, Salomon still managed to get many of his photos published in a wide variety of magazines. They also included photos of senators at a dinner hosted by the president of the Dutch Senate at the Hotel des Indes. These are quite unique shots, which no Dutch photographer could possibly have taken. During this period of economic malaise, the meals themselves were not photographed; the after dinner discussions that followed, by contrast, were covered extensively. Salomon photographed the gentlemen conversing with each other in such a manner that the photos shared characteristics with group portraits in Dutch painting of the seventeenth century. One year later, he took a similar photo at the South African legation, aptly referred to as ‘The Syndics of the Drapers’ Gild’, after the famous painting by Rembrandt. Apart from the fall of Colijn’s last cabinet in 1939, little was going on in Dutch politics for Salomon to photograph. During the final cabinet session, he photographed Colijn’s last attempt to defend his cabinet policy in a lengthy series of shots. He also photographed the statesman, who had stepped down, on the Binnenhof at the time of his departure from Dutch politics.

From 1938 on, the Dutch magazines were featuring fewer photos by Salomon. The competition had increased substantially. During public events, such as concerts and sessions of parliament, other photographers were managing to shoot photos that were similar to Salomon’s. In February 1938, the young photographer Aart Klein photographed the composer and pianist Sergei Rachmaninoff. In a single image, Klein captured both the composer’s concentrated facial expression as well as the attentive public in a photo that was highly reminiscent of Salomon’s work.

When it comes to many published photos, determining at a later point which photos were actually taken by Salomon proves to be a daunting task. Consciously and unconsciously, Dutch photojournalism seemed to have attained the professional level of Erich Salomon. Thanks to him, we can today reconstruct a clear picture of Dutch politics, cultural life, and ‘high society’—to the degree that this existed in the Netherlands—in the brief period just prior to the outbreak of World War II. The number of internationally renowned conductors and musicians visiting the Netherlands photographed by Erich Salomon in those years was substantial. Most of the reportages centre around the royal house. Various topics therefore come together in this respect. Not only did the royal family attend Willem Mengelberg’s concerts and the princely couple sit in on a meeting of the Council of State, but Prince Bernard carried on an amicable conversation with Prime Minister Colijn during a lunch at the Rotterdam Chamber of Commerce. The foreign reportages that Salomon produced up until 1938 made it into Dutch magazines and newspapers only on a sporadic basis.

The growing tension between Nazi Germany and the rest of Europe was what motivated Salomon’s decision to bring his Dutch photographic material into safety. On the eve of World War II, it appears he was very much aware of his reportages’ inherent historical value. In June 1939, Salomon sold approximately 100 photos to the Hague City Archives and transferred twenty-two canisters containing negatives to the registry office of the House of Representatives in The Hague. Salomon kept the negatives of the royal house and the House of Representatives for himself: only at the very last minute did he bury them in two preserving jars, beneath the chicken coop at the address of one ‘Mr. Telders’ of Heelsum, where he had gone into hiding. Unfortunately, Salomon would never get an opportunity to retrieve his photographic material. After the war, Salomon’s son, Peter Hunter, expended great effort in tracking down his father’s negatives and photos. When the photographic material was finally excavated, it turned out that one of the jars had been inadequately sealed. As a result, the negatives were badly damaged by moisture. It was not until December 1957 that Peter Hunter received the other twenty-two canisters—based on a tip from J. van Rhijn, a photographer in Rotterdam and subsequently via the RVD (Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst, ‘Netherlands Government Information Service’)—which contained the 35 mm negatives that Salomon had handed over to the House of Representatives’ registry office just prior to the war. Thanks to Hunter’s efforts, the work of Erich Salomon has not been forgotten. The first post-war retrospective held during the Photokina of 1956 in Cologne, Germany, was of great importance for the rediscovery of Salomon’s work. Without reservation, Erich Salomon is seen as one of the founding fathers of photojournalism.


Primary bibliography

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When they were not looking, in Pearsons Magazine [Londen] 1935.

Toen zij niet keken, in Oké (juni 1936) 12, p. 38-47.

Windsor Castle at night. An Experiment in Modern Photographic Technique, in The Queen 10 september 1936, p. 30-31.

De foto-reporter op jacht. In een auto achter Toscanini aan, in Haagsche Courant 11 maart 1937.

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images in:

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21 februari 1939.

8 juni 1939.


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2 januari 1937.

27 januari 1937.

12 februari 1937.

19 februari 1937.

24 februari 1937.

27 februari 1937.

1 maart 1937.

9 maart 1937.

11 maart 1937.

15 maart 1937.

16 maart 1937.

17 maart 1937.

18 maart 1937.

9 april 1937.

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29 juni 1937.

3 augustus 1937.

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25 augustus 1937.

20 november 1937.

25 januari 1938.


in Het Leven. Geïllustreerd:

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6 oktober 1928.

5 september 1931.

3 oktober 1931.

14 november 1931.

9 juli 1932.

16 juli 1932.

30 juli 1932.

28 januari 1933.

19 augustus 1933.

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22 februari 1936.

29 februari 1936.

7 maart 1936.

14 maart 1936.

30 mei 1936.

6 juni 1936.

15 september 1936.

19 september 1936.

3 oktober 1936.

17 oktober 1936.

31 oktober 1936.

7 november 1936.

21 november 1936.

28 november 1936.

5 december 1936.

8 januari 1937.

9 januari 1937.

16 januari 1937.

23 januari 1937.

20 februari 1937.

27 februari 1937.

6 maart 1937.

20 maart 1937.

27 maart 1937.

24 april 1937.

22 mei 1937.

29 mei 1937.

5 juni 1937.

12 juni 1937.

19 juni 1937.

3 juli 1937.

25 september 1937.

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23 oktober 1937.

30 oktober 1937.

31 januari 1938.

30 april 1938.

7 mei 1938.

4 juni 1938.

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18 februari 1939.

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5 augustus 1939.

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in Wereldkroniek:

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2 november 1929.

11 januari 1930.

21 maart 1931.

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5 november 1932.

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14 januari 1933.

27 mei 1933.

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29 februari 1936.

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Secondary bibliography

Auteur onbekend, Der Photo-Reporter, in Berliner Tageblatt 7 mei 1931.

Hans Sahl, The Photographer as Reporter, an Interview with Dr. Erich Salomon, in Gebrauchsgraphik international juli 1931, p. 58-64.

Friedrich Sieburg, Ueber die Unbeliebtheit der Reporter, in Frankfurter Zeitung 6 oktober 1931.

Paul Elbogen, Das Kabinett des Dr. Salomon, in Das Leben december 1931, p. 5-11.

Auteur onbekend, Dr. Erich Salomon, Historian, in Fortune januari 1932, p. 94.

L.H. Robbins, Secret snapshots of current history, in The New York Times Magazine 19 juni 1932.

L.H. Robbins, On the hunt with an indiscreet camera, in The New York Times Magazine 26 juni 1932.

Tuinzing, Foto’s van Dr. Erich Salomon, in Bedrijfsfotografie 17 (13 december 1935) 25, p. 473.

Auteur onbekend, R.P.S. Proceedings pictured by Erich Salomon, in The Photographic Journal juli 1935, p. 408.

Auteur onbekend, Snapping the Great, in The Newspaper World 20 juli 1935, p. 25, 30.

Auteur onbekend, Dr. Erich Salomon – Houdini of Photography, in Photography 4 (september 1935) 37, p. 1-2.

Auteur onbekend, Mr. Churchill wants the blood of the candid camera man, in The Newspaper World 20 november 1937, p. 12.

Noel Arlion, The curse of the Candid Camera, in The Australasian 11 januari 1941, p. 44-45.

Peter Hunter, He photographed Europe in decay, in Picture Post 36 (9 augustus 1947) 6, p. 7-11.

Beaumont Newhall, The History of Photography from 1839 to the present day, New York (Simon and Schuster) 1948, p. 189-191 (herz. en uitgebr. ed.: Londen (Secker & Warburg) 1982, p. 219-221, 259-260).

Kurt Safranski, Dr. Salomon. The last of the photo pioneers blazed new trails in candid’s primitive days, in Popular Photography augustus 1948, p. 56-59, 104, 106, 108.

Peter Hunter, Een camera virtuoos, in Panorama 13 augustus 1948.

Wilson Hicks, Words and Pictures. An Introduction to Photojournalism, New York (Harper) 1952, p. 31-32, 40, 82, 86.

v. C, Daar heb je die Salomon weer. Dr. Erich Salomon de voorloper van de moderne fotografie, in De Spiegel (20 juni 1953) 38, p. 2-6 (met foto’s).

Jacquelyn Judge, Available light in today’s photography, in George B. Wright (red.), Available light and your camera, New York (American Photographic Book Publishing) 1955, p. 1-9.

Fritz Gruber, Der erste “available light” Photograph, in Foto Magazin juli 1955, p. 40.

Catalogus Photokina 1956, Keulen (Messe- und Ausstellungs-Ges.) 1956, p. 139-141 (met foto’s).

Kurt S. Safranski, Dr. Salomon, in Foto Prisma (1956) 10, p. 526-530.

M. v. Blankenstein, Ongekende stunter, in Het Parool 29 september 1956 (met foto’s).

Theo Ramaker, Dr. Erich Salomon: koning der onbeschaamden, in Het Parool 29 september 1956, PS (met foto’s).

Auteur onbekend, Erich Salomon. De vader der fotojournalistiek, in Vrij Nederland 29 september 1956.

Peter Hunter, Koning der indiscretie, in De Telegraaf 6 oktober 1956, p. 9.

Auteur onbekend, Diogenes mit der Kamera, in Jüdische lllustrierte (oktober 1956) 9, p. 7-9.

Auteur onbekend, Dit zijn niet zo maar foto’s, in Revue 8 oktober 1956, p. 44-45.

Peter Hunter, Salomon, in Photography Magazine 12 (januari 1957) 1, p. 32-37, 47.

M.C. (= Martien Coppens), Toen camera, oog en hart nog één waren, in Fotografie 7 (1957) 1, p. 5.

Francis Delorme, Een bewogen tijd vond zijn grote fotograaf, in Fotografie 7 (1957) 1, p. 6-11, 21-22.

C. De belangrijkheid van de Photokina, in Fotografie 7 (1957) 1, p. 21-22.

M. Neven Du Mont, Piek of the Post, another tribute to Dr. Erich Salomon, in Photography Magazine februari 1957.

JJ. Hens, Dr. Erich Salomon, baanbreker der candid-fotografie, in Foto 12 (april 1957) 4, p. 122.

Tom Hopkinson, The invisible cameraman, in The Observert 5 mei 1957.

Auteur onbekend, Dr. Erich Salomon wordt herdacht in Londen, in Het Parool 10 mei 1957.

Auteur onbekend, The Uninvited, in Photo Guide Magazine juli 1957, p. 552.

Jacob Deschin, Pioneering Candid Photographer, in New York Times 10 september 1957, p. 44.

Auteur onbekend, Foto’s van Erich Salomon in het Prentenkabinet. Diplomaten 1928-1938, in Het Parool 12 december 1957.

Auteur onbekend, Fotograaf dr. Salomon, artistiek ‘Koning der Onbescheidenen’, in Het Vrije Volk 13 december 1957.

Bslr., Foto’s van dr. Erich Salomon – “le Roi des Indiscrets” – in Leidens Prentenkabinet, in Algemeen Handelsblad 14 december 1957.

C.Th. Wilbert-Reisberman, Diplomaten zijn gewone mensen in het “Prentenkabinet”. Unieke fotocollectie wordt voor het eerst in Nederland vertoond, in Nieuwe Leidsche Courant 14 december 1957.

R.N. Degens, Foto’s bij verrassing – het verhullende werk van Erich Salomon, in Trouw 14 december 1957.

Casper de Groot, Erich Salomon. Een fotograaf die een Legende werd, in Vizier 14 december 1957, p. 8-11.

Besselaar, Foto’s van Dr. Erich Salomon. In Leidens Prentenkabinet, in Algemeen Handelsblad 14 december 1957.

R.N.D., Foto’s bij verrassing. Het onthullende werk van Erich Salomon, in Trouw 16 december 1957.

Auteur onbekend, Erich Salomon. Fotojournalistiek 30 jaar oud, in Haagsch ePost 28 december 1957.

Beaumont en Nancy Newhall (inl. en red.), Masters of Photography, New York (Braziller) 1958, p. 134-139 (met foto’s).

Peter Pollock, The Picture History of Photography. From the earliest beginnings to the present day, New York (Harry N. Abrams Inc.) 1958, p. 336, 346-349, 419, 561, 599.

Auteur onbekend, Dr. Erich Salomon: koning der indiscretie. Boeiende foto-expositie in Prentenkabinet te Leiden, in De Gelderlander 4 januari 1958.

R. Nieman, Dr. Erich Salomon een persfotograaf van grote allure, in Elseviers Weekblad 11 januari 1958, p. 17.

Noud van den Eerenbeemt, De koning van de “onmogelijke” foto, in Panorama (januari 1958) 2, p. 4-6 (met foto’s).

Peter Hunter, “Photographers” Holland. A guide to the very photographic country of Holland, in Photography Magazine 13 (februari 1958) 2, p. 22-27, 63.

M.W. (= Minor White), Erick Salomon: The Unguarded Moment, in Aperture 6 (1958) 3, p. 117-120 (met foto’s).

Peter Hunter, Dr. Erich Salomon. Father of Modern Photojournalism, in Camera 35. Magazine of Miniature Photography (1958) 4, p. 268-277.

Theo Ramaker, Erich Salomon, in Fotorama (juli 1958) 13, p. 571.

Peter Hunter, Historicus met de camera. De man, voor wie geen deur gesloten bleef, in Katholieke Illustratie (2 augustus 1958) 31, p. 14-18.

D. Jackson, A look back at the first Candid Camera, in Modern Photography augustus 1958, p. 62.

Peter Stackpole, [titel artikel onbekend], in US Camera augustus 1958, p. 8, 48.

John Faber, Erich Salomon, in The National Press Photographer november 1959, p. 6.

Peter Hunter, Dr. Salomons Leica. Only yesterday, photojournalists were pioneers, in Leica Photography 12 (1959) 4, p. 22-24.

John Faber, Great Moments in News Photography. From the historical files of the National Press Photographers Association, Edinburgh etc. (Thomas Nelson & Sons) 1960, p. 52-53.

L. Fritz Gruber (ed.), Fame: Famous Portraits of Famous People by Famous Photographers, Londen etc. (Focal Press) 1960, p. 114.

Dick Boer, Dr. E. Salomon geëerd, in Focus 40 (13 mei 1961) 10, p. 277.

Helmut Gernsheim, Creative photography. Aesthetic trends 1839-1960, Londen (Faber and Faber) 1962, p. 208.

Han de Vries en Peter Hunter-Salomon, Erich Salomon. Portret van een tijdperk, Amsterdam (De Bezige Bij) 1963 (Duitse ed. Portrat einer Epoche., Berlijn/Franfurt am Main/Wenen (Ullstein) 1963; Amerikaanse ed.: Portrait of an Age, New York (MacMillan) 1966).

R. Nieman, Erich Salomon, discrete kroonprins der persfotografen, in Elseviers Weekblad 7 december 1963.

L. Fritz Gruber, Grosse Photographen unseres jahrhunderts, Düsseldorf/Wien (Econ Verlag) 1964, p. 52-57 (met foto’s).

Rudolf Bakker, De mensen van de jaren 30, in Haagse Post 4 januari 1964, p. 11.

J.J. Hens, Dr. Erich Salomon. “Portret van een tijdperk”, in Foto 19 (februari 1964) 2, p. 78-84 (met foto’s).

Bernd Lohse, Porträt einer Epoche, in Der Bild-Journalist (1964) 2/3, p. 73.

Heinrich Stöckler, Porträt einer Epoche, in Leica Fotografie (1964) 2, p. 76-79.

Edna Bennett, History of Photography in Germany, in US Camera & Travel november 1964, p. 62, 79, 95, 96.

Helmut en Alison Gernsheim, A concise history of photography, Londen (Thames and Hudson) 1965, p. 51, 246-247, 250, 252.

Bernd Lohse, The Legendary Twenties, in Camera april 1967, p. 8-9.

Auteur onbekend, Fotografie: discreet of indiscreet, in Haagsche Courant 3 mei 1967.

Jacob Deschin, Trickster with a tripod, in New York Times Book Review 13 augustus 1967, p. 6-7.

Margaret Weiss, Erich Salomon: Candid Historian, in Saturday Review 9 september 1967, p. 56.

Cornell Capa, The Concerned Photographer, in Infinity oktober 1967, p. 5.

Auteur onbekend, King of the indiscreet: Dr. Erich Salomon, in Creative Camera mei 1968, p. 164.

Manuel Gassel, 1929-1939: Ein Jahrzehnt im Spiegel seiner Photographen, in Du juli 1968, p. 468.

Erich Auerbach, in The British Journal of Photography 4 oktober 1968, p. 864.

Helmut en Alison Gernsheim, The History of Photography, Londen (Thames & Hudson) 1969, p. 448.

Catalogus tent. Foto-portret, Den Haag (Haags Gemeentemuseum) 1970, p. 85.

Dick Boer en Paul Heyse Sr. (hoofdred.), Focus Elsevier foto en film encyclopedie, Amsterdam/Brussel (Elsevier) 1971, p. 493.

Bernd Lohse, Dr. Erich Salomonpreis, in Color Foto-Journal (1971) 10, p. 23-25.

Auteur onbekend, Dr. Erich Salomon-Preis, in Fotomagazin 1 november 1971, p.6.

Auteur onbekend, Die Grossen waren seine Beute, in Stern (7 november 1971) 46, p. 62-72.

Tim N. Gidal, Deutschland-Beginn des modernen Photojournalismus, Luzern/Frankfurt/M (Verlag C.J. Bucher) 1972, p. 14-16, 29,42-47 (met foto’s) (serie: Bibliothek der Photographie, Band 1).

R. Smith Schuneman (red.), Photographie Communications, New York (Hastings House) 1972, p. 42-44, 53, 110, 159.

Hedley Donovan e.a. (ed.), The Camera, New York (Time-Life Books) 1972, p. 164 (serie: Life Library of Photography).

Helmut Gernsheim, Dr. Erich Salomon 1886-1944 – Historian with a camera, in Creative Camera januari 1972, p.438-445.

Auteur onbekend, Seine Kamera schrieb Geschichte. Dr. Erich Salomon, in Fotomagazin (1972) 1, p. 40-43.

Helmut Gernsheim, Erich Salomon, in Photo Classics III, Londen (Photo-Graphic Editions) 1972, p. 438.

Annemarie Böker, Erich Salomon, in Bild der Zeit maart 1972, p. 88.

Yves Bourde, Salomon a créé Ie reportage indiscret, in Photo april 1972, p. 56.

Ben van der Velden, Erich Salomon fotografeerde zijn tijd, desnoods uit zijn hoed, in NRC Handelsblad 1 september 1972.

Berthold Beiler, Dr. Erich Salomon – Leidenschaft der Bildjagd, in Fotografie september 1972, p. 14-21.

John Szarkowski, Looking at Photographs, New York (Museum of Modern Art) 1973, p. 108-109.

Peter Hunter, Dr. Erich Salomon – De eerste echte persfotograaf, in Avenue december 1973, p. 107-111.

Catalogus tent. Erich Salomon. Obevakade ögonblick/Unguarded Moments, Stockholm (Fotografiska Museet) 1974.

Cecil Beaton en Gail Buckland, The Magie Image. The genius of photography from 1839 to the present day, Londen (Weidenfeld and Nicolson) 1975, p. 162-163.

Peter Hunter-Salomon, Erich Salomon, in Le nouveau photocinema (december 1975) 41, p. 44, 55-57.

Mary Bruine, Erich Salomon’s World, in Herald Tribune 20 februari 1976.

kfm, Dokumente einer Epoche, in Frankfurter Allgemeine 2 maart 1976.

Birgit Lahann, Politiker vor der Kamera, in Die Welt 22 mei 1976.

Peter Pollock, The Picture History of Photography, New York (N. Abrams Inc.) 1977, nieuwe ed., p. 106.

Petr Tausk, Die Geschichte der Fotografie im 20. Jahrhundert. Von der Kunstfotografie bis zum Bildjournalismus, Keulen (DuMont) 1977, p. 78-80, 85, 286.

Auteur onbekend, Chronist met der Kamera. Erich Salomons Photographien im Kunsthaus Zürich, in Neue Zü̈rcher Zeitung 12 maart 1977.

Robert Delpire e.a., Erich Salomon, Millerton (N.Y.) (Aperture) 1978, (serie: The Aperture History of Photography Series, no. 10).

David Mellor (ed.), Germany-The new photography 1927-33, Londen (Arts Council of Great Britain) 1978, p. 108-112, 127-129.

Andreas Seltzer, Smokings mit Zubehör. Zu den Fotografien Erich Salomons, in Volksfoto. Zeitung für Fotografie (1978) 4, p. 68-71.

W.W. Mäzen gesucht, in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 10 februari 1978.

Lily van Ginneken, Salomon laat politici als gewone mensen zien. Fotograaf in Weimar republiek, in de Volkskrant 2 september 1978.

B.Sp., Fotograaf Salomon herdacht, in Het Parool 2 september 1978.

Stan Huygens, ‘Candidcamera’ uit 1928, in De Telegraaf 6 september 1978.

Bas Roodnat, De onzichtbare fotograaf, in NRC Handelsblad 8 september 1978, Cultureel Supplement, p. 1, 6 (met foto’s).

Olivier Vrooland, Dr. Erich Salomon, in Foto 33, (oktober 1978) 10, p. 44-55.

Auteur onbekend, De handschoen opnemen voor het realisme, in Meesterfotografen 1840-1960, z.p. [Amsterdam] (Time-Life) 1979, 4de dr., p. 166-167.

Flip Bool en Kees Broos (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1920-1940, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1979, p- 92, 134-136, 142, 156.

Gisèle Freund, Photographie und Gesellschaft, Reinbek bei Hamburg (Rowohlt) 1979, p. 122-147.

Josef Kasper, Belichtung und Wahrheit. Bildreportage von der Gartenlaube bis zum Stern, Frankfurt am Main/New York (Campus Verlag) 1979, p. 25-69.

Rolf H. Krauss, Photographie als Medium – 10 Thesen zur konventionellen und konzeptionellen Photographie, Berlin (Verlag A. Nagel) 1979, p. 87-88.

Catalogus tent. Glanzlichter der Photographie. 30 jahre photokina Bilderschauen. Das imaginare Photo-Museum. Film als Kunst und Dokument, Keulen 1980, p. 131, 263.

Ian Jeffrey, Photography. A concise history, Londen (Thames and Hudson) 1981 (herdr. 1991), p. 178, 180, 186.

Catalogus tent. Dr. Erich Salomon 1886-1944. Uit het leven van een fotograaf, Amsterdam (Stedelijk Museum) 1981.

Flip Bool en Gerrit Jan de Rook (red.), Het Leven 1906-1941, Den Haag (Haags Gemeentemuseum) 1981, p. 9-10.

P. Heyse Sr. (hoofdred.), Focus Elsevier foto en film encyclopedie, Amsterdam/Brussel (Focus) 1981, p. 621.

Jörg Kirchbaum, Lexikon der Fotografen, Frankfurt am Main (Fischer Tachenbuch Verlag) 1981, p. 162-163.

[Vouwblad] Dr. Erich Salomon. Foto’s. 10 april t/m 24 mei 1981, Amsterdam (Stedelijk Museum) 1981.

Ella Reitsma, Het indiscrete oog van Erich Salomon. De vredesfotograaf van sluwe en gladde politici, in Vrij Nederland 18 april 1981, p. 19.

Auteur onbekend, Politieke foto’s van Salomon in het Stedelijk, in NRC Handelsblad 21 april 1981.

H.J.A. Hofland, Dr. Erich Salomon, een cynische jager, in NRC Handelsblad 24 april 1981.

Erik Beenker, De groten der aarde begraven onder een kippenhok in Heelsum, in de Volkskrant 2 mei 1981, Het Vervolg, p. 9.

Pauline Terreehorst, Een fotograaf in rokkostuum, in De Groene Amsterdammer 13 mei 1981, p. 17.

Willem K. Coumans, De argeloosheid van Erich Salomon, in Foto 36 (september 1981) 9, p. 51-53 (met foto’s).

Flip Bool en Ingeborg Leijerzapf, Fotografie, in Kathinka Dittrich (red.), Berlijn-Amsterdam 1920-1940 wisselwerkingen, Amsterdam (E.M. Querido’s Uitgeverij b.v.) 1982, p. 243-245.

Jean-Luc Daval, Photography. History of an Art, New York (Rizzoli) 1982, p. 174,177.

L. Fritz en Renate Gruber, The imaginary Photomuseum, Middlesex 1982, p. 15.

Peter Hunter, King of the Indiscret, in Camera Arts juli/augustus 1982, p. 46-55, 94-95.

Barbara Hartl, Der “König der Indiskreten” und seine frechen Tricks, in Fotomagazin (augustus 1982) 8, p. 82-87 (met foto’s).

Peter Hans Göpfert, Chronist mit Frack und Kamera – Berlinische Galerie zeigt in einer Ausstellung Fotos von Erich Salomon, in Berliner Morgenpost 17 september 1983.

Catalogus tent. Dr. Erich Salomon 1886-1944. Uit het leven van een fotograaf, Brussel (Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I) 1984.

Daniela Mrázková (tekst), Fotografie Pribeh, Praag (Maj) 1985, p. 100-101 (met foto’s).

Robert A. Sobieszek, Masterpieces of Photography. From the George Eastman House Collections, New York (Abbeville Press) 1985, p. 260-261, 344.

Jan Lederbogen, “… die Atmosphäre des Geschehens in natürlicher Weise erhalten”. Das lichtstarke Objektiv und seine Bedeutung für den Beginn des modernen Fotojournalismus, in Fotogeschichte 5 (1985) 16, p. 45-54.

Catalogus tent. Erich Salomon. Fotografien 1928-1938, Berlin (Berlinische Galerie) 1986.

Catalogus tent. Erich Salomon. Leica Fotografie 1930-1939, Berlin (Berlinische Galerie) 1986.

Janos Frecot, Die Arbeit am Erich Salomon-Archiv. Ein Zwischenbericht, in Fotogeschichte 6 (1986) 21, p. 59-63.

Timm Starl, Einzelne Flocken aus dem Schneegestöber – Pressefotos in Büchern, in Fotogeschichte 6 (1986) 22, p. 71-72.

Bas Roodnat, Tussen de fluwelen gordijnen. De historische foto’s van Erich Salomon, in NRC Handelsblad 13 juni 1986.

Mariëtte Haveman, Discreet indiscreet. De Leica-foto’s van de onzichtbare fotograaf Erich Salomon, in Vrij Nederland 27 augustus 1986, p. 15-16.

Max Kozloff, The privileged eye, Albuquerque (University of New Mexico Press) 1987,p. 103-105.

Tineke Luijendijk en Louis Zweers, Parlementaire fotografie, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1987, p. 11, 13-17, 21-29, 33-35 (met foto’s).

Auteur onbekend, Vijftig jaar parlementaire fotografie. Gevluchte Duitser Salomon zorgde met lichtsterke camera voor doorbraak, in NRC Handelsblad 10 juni 1987.

Els Barents, Dr. Erich Salomon 1886-1944, in Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf e.a., Roots + Turns. 20th Century photography in The Netherlands, Den Haag (SDU Publishers) 1988, p. 48-53, 170 (met foto’s).

Reinhard Kaiser (red.), Erich Salomon. Lichtstärke. Ermanox-Aufnahmen 1928 bis 1932, Nördlingen 1988.

Reinhard Kaiser (red.), Erich Salomon. Der unsichtbare Photograph. Ermanox-Aufnahmen 1928 bis 1932, Nördlingen 1988.

Colin Naylor (red.), Comtemporary Photographers, Chicago/Londen (St. James Press) 1988, 2de dr., p. 890-892.

Colin Osman en Sandra S. Philips, European visions – Magazine Photography in Europe between the Wars, in Marianne Fulton (red.), Eyes of Time. Photojournalism in America, Boston (Little, Brown) 1988, p. 75-103 (serie: A New York Graphic Society Book).

Auteur onbekend, Eerbetoon aan pionier verborgen camera, in De Telegraaf 25 juni 1988.

Timm Starl, Der Vordergrund als Ereignis. Zum andauernden Jubel um Erich Salomon, in Fotogeschichte 8 (1988) 28, p. 109.

Gunnar Schmidt, Realität und Kommentar. Zu einer Fotografie Erich Salomons, in Fotogeschichte 8 (1988) 29, p. 76-80.

Peter Hunter, Naar de verste uithoek van Engeland, in NRC Handelsblad 30 december 1988, Cultureel Supplement, p. 3.

Flip Bool en Kees Broos, Nieuwe Fotografie in Nederland, Amsterdam/Den Haag/Naarden (Fragment Uitgeverij/SDU/V+K Publishing) 1989, p. 33-34, 38, 106-109, 115.

Janos Frecot, Die Grenzen der Reproduzierbarkeit. Fotografie im Museum, in Fotogeschichte 10 (1990) 35, p. 61-65.

Ingeborg Leijerzapf e.a. (tekst), Het beslissende beeld. Hoogtepunten uit de Nederlandse fotografie van de 20e eeuw, Amsterdam (BIS) 1991, p. 72, 209.

Johan M. Swinnen, De paradox van de fotografie. Een kritische geschiedenis, Antwerpen/De Bilt (Hadewijch/Cantecleer) 1992, p. 165, 194.

Chris Kijne, De onbewaakte momenten van Erich Salomon. Chroniqueur van het interbellum, in VPRO-gids. (21-27 november 1992) 47, p. 8-10.

Rolf Bos, Fotojournalistiek begint bij Dr. Erich Salomon, in de Volkskrant 24 november 1992.

Renate van der Zee, Lef en charme achter de verborgen camera, in Haagsche Courant 24 november 1992.

Paul Hellmann, We zijn hier omdat we hier zijn. Peter Hunter, fotograaf in de schaduw van Erich Salomon, in NRC Handelsblad 11 juni 1993.

Karl Steinorth, In memoriam Dr. Erich Salomon, in Form 145. Zeitung fü̈r Gestaltung (1994) 1, p . 102.

Karl Steinorth, Dr. Erich Salomon. Fotografien aus der neuen Welt, in Profifoto (maart/april 1994) 2, p. 46-49.

Jacqueline Beckers, Erich Salomon. Meester fotograaf van het onverwachte, in Foto 49 (mei 1994) 5, p. 80-85.

Peter Hunter-Salomon, Dr. Erich Salomon: Vater des modernen Bildjournalismus, in Deutschland. Zeitschrift fü̈r Politik, Kultur, Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft (oktober 1994) 5, p. 60-63.

Auteur onbekend, Keuze, in de Volkskrant 8 september 1995.

Flip Bool, Veronica Hekking en Oscar van der Wijk (red.), Erich Salomon, emigrant in Holland. Foto’s 1933-1940/Peter Hunter, emigrant in London. Foto’s 1935-1940, Amsterdam (Focus Publishing B.V) 1996.

Anne van Marwijk, Charmante koning van de indiscretie, in Haagse Courant 21 maart 1996.

Michel Didier, Vader en zoon Salomon: vooroorlogse fotografen, in Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad 22 maart 1996.

Rolf Bos, Peter Hunter, in de Volkskrant 22 maart 1996.

HenkJ. Meier, Unieke foto-expo van vader & zoon Salomon, in Nieuwsblad van het Noorden 30 maart 1996.

Ronald Gans, Erich en Otto Salomon (Peter Hunter) samen apart te zien, in Nieuwsbrief Nederlands Fotogenootschap (april 1996) 13, p. 17.

Eddie Marsman, Een blik in de wereld van grijzende heren, in NRC Handelsblad 9 april 1996.

Willem Ellenbroek, De betrapte society van de wereld van gisteren. Foto’s van Erich Salomon en diens zoon Otto, in de Volkskrant 15 april 1996.

Herman Hoeneveld, Beroemd inzake beroemdheden. Erich en Otto Salomon, vader en zoon, in P/F. Vakblad voor fotografie en imaging (1996) 4, p. 8-9.

Auteur onbekend, Nieuw boek van Focus. Erich Salomon, emigrant in Holland. Photo’s 1933-1940. Peter Hunter, emigrant in London. Photo’s 1935-1940, in Focus 83 (mei 1996) 5, p. 11-18 (met foto’s).

Fred Lammers, Achteraf zijn mijn foto’s zo slecht nog niet, in Trouw 3 mei 1996.

Mary Ann Lindo, Emigrant in Holland, emigrant in Londen. Foto’s van vader en zoon Salomon, in Het Parool 14 juni 1996.

Eddie Marsman, Boeken, in NRC Handelsblad 22 juni 1996, Boeken, p. 2.

Eddie Marsman, Fotograaf Hunter hield naam van zijn vader levend, in NRC Handelsblad 12 februari 1997.


1935 (e) Londen, The Royal Photographic Society.

1937 (9) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, foto ’37.

1937 (e) Londen, Uford Galleries-Hogh Holborn.

1956 (e) Berlijn, Rathaus Berlin-Schöneberg.

ca. 1965 (g) Hamburg, Weltausstellung der Photographie (Exposition Mondiale de la photographie).

1956 (g) Keulen, Photokina.

1957 (e) Hamburg, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe.

1957 (e) Leiden, Prentenkabinet van de Rijksuniversiteit, Dr. Erich Salomon. Diplomaten. Foto’s 1928-1938.

1957 (e) Londen, The Royal Photographie Society.

1957 (e) Stuttgart, Landesgewerbemuseum.

1957 (g) Den Haag, World Press Photo.

1957 (g) Milaan, Unsecolo di fotografia dalla collezione Gernsheim (Triennale).

1958 (e) Rochester, George Eastman House.

1958 (e) New York, Time & Life Building.

1959 (e) Miami, University of Miami.

1959 (e) Washington D.C., Library of Congress.

1959/1960 (e) (rondreizende tentoonstelling langs Amerikaanse universiteiten, onder auspiciën van het Smithsonian Institute).

1963 (g) Keulen, Grosse Photographen dieses Jahrhunderts (Photokina).

1963 (g) Detroit, Wayne Saté University, Creative Photography.

1964 (g) Amsterdam, Kiekeboe Club.

1965 (g) Parijs, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Un Siècle de Photographie.

1970 (g) Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum, Foto-portret.

1971 (g) Berlijn, Sander-Salomon: Zwei Pioniere der Fotografie

1971 (g) Keulen, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photographie, Sander-Salomon: Zwei Pioniere der Fotografie (reizende tentoonstelling: 1972 Londen; 1973 Praag; 1974 Milaan; 1974 Genua; 1974 Trieste).

1972 (g) Keulen, Kölnischer Kunstverein, Photographen 1900-1970.

1973 (e) Zürich, Kunstgewerbemuseum.

1974 (e) Stockholm, Fotografiska Museet, Unguarded Moments – images of people, politics and society in Europe and USA 1928-1938.

1976 (e) Düsseldorf, Wittrock Gallery.

1976 (e) Parijs, La Photo Galerie (Rue Christine).

1977 (g) Kassel, Documenta.

1977 (e) Zürich, Kunsthaus [rondreizende tentoonstelling: Bonn en Tübbingen].

1978 (e) Berlijn, Landesbildstelle, [Ilford Gallery prints of 1937].

1979 (g) New York, Grey Art Gallery (New York University), Life: The First Decade.

1979/1980 (g) Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum, Foto ’20-’40.

1980 (g) Keulen, Das imaginäre Photo-Museum (Photokina).

1980 (g) San Francisco, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Avant-Garde Photography in Germany 1919-39 (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1981 (e) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Dr. Erich Salomon. ‘le roi des indiscrets’. foto’s 1928-1940.

1981 (e) Berlijn, Berlinische Galerie.

1981 (g) Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum, Het Leven 1906-41. Een weekblad in beeld.

1984 (e) Bradford, National Museum of Photography, Film & Television.

1984 (e) Brussel, Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I, Dr. Erich Salomon.

1984 (g) Haarlem, Spaarnestad Fotoarchief.

1984 (e) Jeruzalem, Israël Museum.

1984 (g) Keulen, Museum Ludwig, Sammlung Gruber.

1984 (e) Tel Aviv, Museum of Modern Art.

1986 (e) Berlijn, Berlinische Galerie, Erich Salomon. Leica Fotografie 1930-1939.

1986 (e) Londen, Goethe Institute.

1986 (e) New York, International Center of Photography, Erich Salomon, Leica Fotografie 1930-1939.

1987 (g) Den Haag, Haags Historisch Museum, Parlementaire fotografie.

1987 (e) Zürich, Photogalerie des Kunsthauses Zürich.

1988 (g) Houston, Sarah Campbell Blaffer Gallery, Roots + Turns. 20th Century photography in The Netherlands.

1988 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Roots + Turns. Traditie en vernieuwing van de fotografie in Nederland vanaf 1900.

1989 (e) Boedapest, Boedapest Museum.

1991 (g) Amsterdam, Nieuwe Kerk, Het beslissende beeld. Hoogtepunten uit de Nederlandse fotografie van de 20e eeuw (Collectie Stichting Dunhill Dutch Photography.

1994 (e) [rondreizende tentoonstelling van foto’s, gemaakt tijdens Salomons reizen door de V.S. (1930 en 1932), samengesteld door de Berlinische Galerie, ter gelegenheid van Salomons vijftigste sterfjaar: Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Keulen].

1995 (g) Rotterdam, Kunsthal, The Image of Politics.

1996 (e) Den Haag, Haags Historisch Museum, Erich Salomon in Holland. Foto ‘s 1933-1940.

Television programs

1992 (24 november) ‘Het onbewaakte moment’. Portret van verborgen-camera fotograaf dr. Erich Salomon (1886-1944) (NOS).


Amsterdam, ABN AMRO Bank N.V. (Historisch Archief).

Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum.

Amsterdam, Stichting Dunhill Dutch Photography.

Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit (Historisch Documentatiecentrum voor Nederlands Protestantisme (1800-heden). Archief Dr. H. Colijn).

Austin (Texas), Gernsheim Collection.

Bath, Royal Photographic Society.

Berlijn, Berlinische Galerie.

Berlijn, Ullstein Bildarchiv.

Bradford, National Museum of Photography, Film & Televion.

Den Haag, Algemeen Rijksarchief.

Den Haag, Gemeentearchief.

Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum.

Den Haag, Koninklijk Huisarchief.

Essen, Museum Folkwang.

Haarlem, Stichting Nederlands Foto- & Grafisch Centrum (Spaarnestad Fotoarchief).

Keulen, Ludwig Museum.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet van de Rijksuniversiteit Leiden.

New York, Museum of Modern Art.

New York, Time-Life Library.

Rochester, George Eastman House.

Rotterdam, Nederlands Architectuurinstituut (NAi)

Stockholm, Fotografiska Museet.

Washington DC, Library of Congress.

Washington DC, Smithsonian Institution.

Zürich, Stiftung für die Photographie (Kunsthaus).


Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.