PhotoLexicon, Volume 12, nr. 26 (December 1995) (en)

Berend Zweers

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf


The renown of the photographer Berend Zweers, who originated from Haarlem, is largely based on the artistic photos he produced using special photographic processes—portraits as well as shots of city and rural life—that helped shape the Dutch pictorialist movement in photography arising soon after the turn of the twentieth century. Zweers was specialised in the carbon printing technique and also experimented with the tricolour carbon printing. In addition, he was commonly involved in organisational activities. At the local level, Zweers was frequently approached for civic and commercial commissions as a professional photographer.




Berend Zweers is born on 8 September in Haarlem at Grote Houtstraat 174 as the son of Berend Zweers Sr., a furniture-maker, and Dorothea Rees. For the first thirteen years of their marriage (they wedded on 16 February 1859), Berends’ parents had remained childless.


Zweers Sr. dies on 10 April. At this time, the family is registered at Zijlvest 547 in Haarlem.


Zweers’ mother, Dorothea Rees, dies on 23 January. Zweers moves to Nijmegen, where he registers with the city on 3 March. He resides at Valkhof C6, where the photographer Matthieu van Hout (born in Gorinchem 12 January 1857) is the main tenant. Van Hout’s portrait studio is housed in the same building. Also living at this at address are Louis Oscar van Straaten and August Künzler.

On 5 September, Zweers moves to Bloemerstraat BN 123 in Nijmegen, where he lives with the widow Ernst-Stevens. Zweers already refers to himself as a ‘photograaf’ (‘photographer’).


On 19 July, Zweers writes himself out of the Nijmegen population register. He moves to Gouda, where he registers at Oosthaven 81, ‘Neighbourhood B’, on 22 July. On 24 October, Zweers weds Sara Maria ten Pierik (born in Haarlem on 4 February 1873). Zweers’ wife registers with the Gouda population register on 4 November.

Zweers shows his work for the first time at the Internationale Fotografie-Tentoonstelling (‘International Photography Exhibition’), held at the Militiezaal (‘Militia Hall’) in Amsterdam.


Zweers’ first and only child, a daughter named Maria Wilhelmina, is born in Gouda on 25 July. On 12 December, the family moves to Zweers’ former childhood home at Grote Houtstraat 174 in Haarlem. Zweers sets up a photo studio on the ground floor. The official date of the family’s departure from Gouda is 31 December.

Ca. 1903-04

Zweers photographs the courtyards (‘hofjes’) of Haarlem (twenty in total). The project is commissioned by the managing board of the Vereeniging Haerlem (‘Haarlem Association’). These photos are taken for the publication De Haarlemsche Hofjes (‘The Courtyards of Haarlem’) by J. Craandijk from 1904.


In October, Zweers becomes an ‘aspirant member’ of the NCvFK (Nederlandse Club voor Foto-kunst, ‘Netherlands Club of Photographic Art’).


Zweers becomes a board member of the NCvFK.


Zweers is involved in the founding of the ‘Vereeniging tot vorming eener verzameling fotografieën in het Museum van Kunstnijverheid te Haarlem’ (‘Association for the Formation of a Collection of Photographs in the Museum of Applied Arts in Haarlem’) on 16 May.


Zweers makes a collection of photos taken in Italy accessible for viewing to ‘Monseigneur Callier’ of Haarlem, as confirmed in a thank-you letter dated 2 June 1916 from the Diocese of Haarlem that accompanies the return delivery of said photos (probably landscapes and cityscapes—it is unclear whether this refers to photos actually taken by Zweers himself, as there are no extant sources indicating that Zweers had traveled to Italy prior to this time).


Zweers travels to Italy. He takes stereoscopic shots (stereo glass positives) of landscapes and cities.


Around 1920, Zweers becomes a member of the NFPV (Nederlandse Fotografen Patroonsvereeniging, ‘Netherlands Photographers Guild’).

On 30 September, Zweers departs for Arosa, Switzerland, for health-related reasons. He remains here for an extended period of time, taking stereo shots of landscapes and cities.

Upon his return from Switzerland, Zweers moves to Bussum on 17 August 1921. He resides at Meerweg 26.


On 4 August, the Zweers family again registers in Haarlem, officially arriving from Bussum.


In its issue of 12 December, the magazine Bedrijfsfotografie (‘Corporate Photography’) states that Zweers has applied to become a member of the NFPV. Accordingly, it would appear his membership circa 1920 was short in duration.


At a meeting of the NFPV on 16 January 1930, Zweers is named as a board member of the association’s new chapter for ‘Haarlem and Environs’.

In 1930 or 1931, Zweers takes photos of the interior and exterior of the Elisabeth’s Gasthuis (‘Elisabeth’s Hospital’) in Haarlem, as well as its medical staff, for a jubilee book commemorating the 350th anniversary of this institution’s founding in 1581.


In January, Zweers cancels his board membership in the Haarlem chapter of the NFPV, as well as his membership in the national organisation.


The four remaining board members of the ‘Vereeniging tot vorming eener verzameling fotografieën in het Museum van Kunstnijverheid te Haarlem’—Adriaan Boer, B.J.V. van Hees, Johan Huijsen, and Berend Zweers—decide to dissolve the association and transfer its remaining possessions to the BNAFV (Bond van Nederlandse Amateur Fotografen Verenigingen, ‘Federation of Netherlands Amateur Photographers Associations’).


Berend Zweers dies on 21 February in Haarlem.


Sara Maria Zweers-ten Pierik dies on 15 November in Haarlem.


It was said that Berend Zweers was a fairly introverted, silent type of person, who received deserved recognition for his qualities as a photographer during his own lifetime, but who was soon forgotten after his death. As an anonymous someone wrote in the December 1912 issue of De Camera, ‘If Zweers was previously “low-spirited” and his works often reminiscent of choral music, sometimes leaning towards an excess of melancholy, he now moves in a lighter spectrum as well with major success.’ One can hardly imagine a more accurate description of Zweers’ pictorial photography. Indeed, in Zweers’ carbon print portraits and landscapes, the dark-brown tones are highly predominant.

Zweers was modest in his approach. On occasion, however, he could be quite harsh when writing about fellow colleagues, who he felt had treated him unfairly. One such person was P. Clausing Junior, a photographer who also lived in The Hague, who was obliged to experience this with regular frequency. As a jury member for an NFK (Nederlandse Fotografen Kunstkring, ‘Netherlands Photographers Art Society’) exhibition held at Pulchri Studio in The Hague in 1906, Clausing had once rejected a majority of Zweers’ submissions, consisting of tricolour photographs.

From an early age, Zweers had learned to stand on his own two feet. He lost his father at the age of four; he was nineteen when his mother passed away; and he had no brothers or sisters. Shortly after his mother’s death, Zweers departed for Nijmegen. It is conceivable that someone brought the young man’s attention to an advertisement placed in the 5 February 1892 issue of the Provinciale Geldersche en Nijmeegsche Courant (‘Provincial Newspaper of Gelderland and Nijmegen’), in which young people were being recruited for training in the profession of photography at the studio of Matthieu van Hout. One month later, Zweers moved to Van Hout’s to begin his study. Louis Oscar van Straaten and August Künzler, Zweers’ other housemates living at Valkhof C 6, were likely to have as well been apprentices of Van Hout. Van Straaten left Nijmegen soon after, but Künzler stayed on after working as a photographer for Van Hout.

In 1885, Van Hout had established his portrait studio in Nijmegen, with a clientele comprising members from circles of the well to do. Van Hout had a ‘Speciale Inrichting voor Vergrootingen’ (‘Special Device for Enlargements’), as stated in his advertisements in the Provinciale Geldersche en Nijmeegsche Courant. In addition, he produced portraits in ‘(…) Watercolour, Oil Paint, etc.’ or furnished with ‘Artistic Retouching’. In 1892, Van Hout also advertised with techniques such as ‘Grisaille and Platinotype’. Zweers therefore came in direct contact with special processes and professional retouching techniques. There is no doubt that he received a thorough training under Van Hout, who was granted permission to bear the title of ‘Hoffotograaf’ (‘Court Photographer’) in 1893.

It is not known whether Zweers was employed by Van Hout for the full three years that he spent in Nijmegen or whether he worked at any point as an independent photographer. Conceivably, he may have decided to set up a studio of his own upon leaving the Valkhof and moving to the Bloemerstraat in September 1892.

In any event, Zweers established a portrait studio in Gouda in 1895. During his time in this city, portraits are likely to have been his main area of work. An insubstantial number of photos have survived from this period, however, to make a justified conclusion. In addition to a number of (group) portraits, there are also cityscapes that Zweers produced during his years in Gouda. Another surviving image, in all likelihood a commissioned photo, depicts the company premises of the Goudse Machinale Garenspinnerij (‘Gouda Mechanical Yarn-Spinning Mill’) on the Turfsingel, (Streekarchiefdienst Hollands Midden Collectie, ‘Regional Archival Service Middle-Netherlands Collection’). In addition, Zweers apparently discovered the reproduction of artworks as an important source of income. At the Internationale Fotografie-Tentoonstelling (‘International Photography Exhibition’) at the Militiezaal (‘Militia Hall’) in Amsterdam in September 1895, the magazine Lux describes him as showing: ‘(…) sepia prints on Dutch paper produced after modern paintings.’ In 1896, Zweers himself wrote in an article published in the Tijdschrift voor Photographie (‘Magazine of Photography’), entitled ‘Rembrandt en zijn verlichting’ (‘Rembrandt and His Enlightenment’): ‘Frequently my working circle entails that I reproduce paintings, and in doing so, I visit the largest museums.’ Where lighting technique for portraits was concerned, Zweers had formed his own decided opinion from an early age, based on his study of paintings, and especially those of Rembrandt. His 1912 portrait of the artist Chris Lebeau illustrates his skills in this area, with a visual tension achieved through light accents and contrasts.

Upon returning to his birthplace of Haarlem, Zweers opened a photo studio in the former home of his parents at Grote Houtstraat 174. While portrait photography is certain to have been his first priority here as well, he also accepted other (Haarlem-related) commissions on a regular basis. The reportage on the courtyards (‘hofjes’) of Haarlem, for example, were commissioned by the Vereeniging Haerlem (‘Haarlem Association’) for the book De Haarlemsche Hofjes (‘The Courtyards of Haarlem’), published in 1904 with an accompanying text by J. Craandijk. The Stichting Elisabeth’s Gasthuis (‘Elisabeth’s Hospital Foundation’) commissioned a reportage on the interior and exterior of the hospital itself and its medical staff. These photos were intended for the jubilee edition Geschiedenis van het Elisabeth’s of Groote Gasthuis te Haarlem (‘History of the Elisabeth’s Grand Hospital of Haarlem’), published in 1931 to commemorate the anniversary of the hospital’s founding 350 years prior. The book included approximately twenty of Zweers’ photos, chosen from a larger series (thirty-four photos from this reportage are preserved in the Haarlem City Archive), without citation of authorship. In the same archive, photos of important public buildings in Haarlem and the artworks they hold—including sculptures in the Church of St. Bavo and paintings in the City Hall—as well as photos of the city’s official pharmacy on the Kampersingel have been preserved. The subject of these images suggests it was commissioned work, presumably for the city of Haarlem. The photos were intended to convey clear and comprehensible information. It is for this reason that Zweers took them in an objective manner, without any distracting manipulation, and printed them in techniques such as platinum and silver bromide, which provide sharp details and substantial nuances in the tints.

During his time in Haarlem, there is no mention of Zweers being involved in the photographic reproduction of paintings and other art objects any longer. He did not work for the Frans Hals Museum. Nevertheless, the possibility that he may still have received commissions in this area of specialisation cannot be ruled out entirely.

In a 1910 article on the topic of photographic art published in De Camera, Zweers made an interesting statement with regards to camera shooting technique. He described how, when preparing to take a landscape photo, his first step was to spend substantial time deciding exactly what it was he wished to photograph as well as the lighting he desired. It was not until after this preparatory stage that he went with his camera to his chosen spot. Zweers arranged his composition in a way that the image would take up the entire negative: ‘My goal is to adjust the camera in such a manner and to photograph the motif in such a way that the entire plate is filled. In doing so, one avoids the trimming process. The shots are taken directly in the dimensions desired. An enlargement can be beautiful, can be good, and yet much of the so very beautiful high lights [sic] are lost and little is preserved of the titillating contrasts.’

Anno 1910, filling the entire negative in advance so that the cropping of the print could be avoided was by no means a dogma, as it was later with New Photography. Many professional photographers, however, were working in this manner. While this was indeed because their ‘slow’ technique of working with glass plates obliged them to adopt an economical and well-considered approach, it was chiefly because they wanted to examine things closely before actually taking any shots. For subjects such as landscape photography, this approach might seem apparent. By this time, however, it was no longer necessarily a given. Amateurs ventured out with their hand cameras and dozens of interchangeable magazines with negative plates. Not until they were back home did they choose the shots that best lived up to their expectations.

Zweers worked with the gum printing technique from an early stage in his career, during his brief time in Gouda. Essentially, he was exceedingly quick at picking up on new impulses arriving in the Netherlands from abroad (the gum print had been ‘rediscovered’ in 1894 and could be seen at international exhibitions from 1895 on). None of Zweers’ gum prints are known to have survived. The same fate also appears to have befallen his prints produced with the bromoil printing process—then chiefly referred to as the ‘pigmogravure’. Consequently, there is no longer any way of assessing Zweers’ skill in these techniques. The source of information for the processes that Zweers applied was Adriaan Boer, who in 1927 reminisced on ‘Our Workers’ in Veertig jaren fotografie (‘Forty Years of Photography’), published on the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of the NAFV (Nederlandse Amateur Fotografen Vereniging, ‘Netherlands Amateur Photographers Association’). What has been preserved are platinum prints, silver bromide prints, tricolour carbon prints, and monochrome carbon prints in large formats. This last group was rightfully praised in magazine reviews. Dick Boer, who knew Zweers as a good friend of his father Adriaan, wrote a short memorial to Zweers shortly following his death in 1946, which was published in Focus: ‘Zweers was an excellent craftsman, who produced beautiful work, especially in the rich carbon print. This process was indeed perfectly suited to his somewhat melancholy nature.’ In addition to the dark-brown carbon prints to which Boer alluded, however, Zweers also made refined, light carbon prints on Japanese paper, which are almost transparent and therefore appear extremely delicate. A portrait of his wife, the cityscape of Haarlem on the ‘Short Spaarne’ River, and a study of naked children are among the subjects printed with this technique. As early as 1910, Zweers’ carbon prints were discussed in a positive light in the magazine Lux, in response to the first exhibition organised by the Nederlandsche Club voor Foto-Kunst (‘Netherlands Club of Photographic Art’) at the Concordia Building in Amsterdam. The author of the review bore the initials ‘B.Z.’. Could this have possibly been Zweers himself, praising his own work?

In 1906, Zweers submitted thirteen examples of the tricolour carbon printing process to a joint exhibition of the NFK and the AAFV (Amsterdamse Amateur Fotografen Vereniging, ‘Amsterdam Amateur Photographers Association’), held at the Pulchri Studio in The Hague. When learning that eight of his photos had been rejected, however, Zweers responded by publicly attacking the exhibition’s jury. He accused one jury member, P. Clausing Jr. of Haarlem, of impartiality and a total lack of knowledge when it came to tricolour carbon prints. The chairman of the NFK, Chris Dewald, wrote in the association’s official trade publication, the Fotografisch Maandschrift (‘Photographic Monthly’), that the refusal had been based solely on the poor quality of the prints, which could even ‘(…) be described as complete failures.’ Particularly objectionable was the qualification ‘photos in natural colours’, as Zweers had called his entry. Dewald defended Clausing’s understanding of the issues by stating facts: Clausing had apparently followed a course in tricolour carbon print-making at the ‘Neue Fotografische Gesellschaft’ (‘New Photographic Company’) in Berlin and presented a lecture on this very topic. It is not known whether Zweers was aware of Clausing’s knowledge in this area. Another possibility Zweers perceived that some kind of local competition was now being continued at the level of national exhibitions. H. Deutmann, another member of the NFK, also became involved in the discussion in the Fotografisch Maandschrift, arguing that many NFK members had already been working with the tricolour carbon printing process and managed to achieve results that were superior to Zweers, but that they had found the results as yet too unripe to place them on exhibit. Deutmann’s words, however, betray more the disappointment experienced by those who feel they have been pre-empted in showing off their skill. Zweers’ surviving tricolour carbon prints can no longer be assessed based on their original quality. The colours appear to have changed too dramatically over time. If the magenta colour was originally as overbearing as it is today, then one can understand the critique. Dewald’s observations seem to confirm this. When it comes to the technique that was applied, which entailed the placement of layers of colour on top of one another, no errors of note are to be observed. Similarly, the sharpness of the image is still in good condition.

In 1910, Zweers explained his preference for the carbon printing technique in De Camera: it was not so much because it was the best possible printing process—in his view, the oil print was perhaps even better—but primarily because one remained ‘through and through a photographer’. The drawing tool was to remain in the hands of those who were capable of representing their impressions without the assistance of photographs. In having this opinion, Zweers sided with those photographers who wished to apply their technical means in a pure way, such as Eilers had always propagated. Zweers was clearly no proponent of working with retouches and other manipulative interventions, even though he had been taught these by Van Hout.

Portraits of his wife and his daughter, landscapes, cityscapes, and austere nude studies were all included in Zweers’ artistic repertoire. The carbon prints he showed at exhibitions and that were published in the photography magazines attest to his affinity with the possibilities of expression in the same vein as concepts of light and form such as encountered in Impressionism and the Jugendstil movement. The reflection of the mood and the rusticness of rural life are what shape the content of Zweers’ landscapes and cityscapes. Photographing in the mist gives a beautifully diffused light, and for this reason, it was a much-appreciated stylistic tool in Pictorialism. Zweers’ carbon print Korte Spaarne (‘Short Spaarne [River]’) in Haarlem from 1910 serves as a representative example of this. His polder landscapes possess an atmospheric spatial effect, created by the substantial attention given cloud-filled skies. The horizon is situated in the middle of the photo, or sometimes just below it. The lines of perspective in the landscape—accentuated, for instance, by a polder gully—intensify this spaciousness. The manner in which farmers appear in Zweers’ photo is highly reminiscent of how people are portrayed in the British landscape shots of Peter Henry Emerson: they labour away directly in the scene’s foreground, yet despite giving the impression that this is the natural situation, their poses are designed to attain the most favourable composition and fall of light.

Zweers’ observable preference for vertical and narrow formats in his landscape photos, as well as in a number of his portraits, are characteristics derived from the Jugendstil movement, as well as the symbolic attribute of a white lily (innocence), the theme of the woman being a mystery, and the ornamental linear pattern of an umbrella, as well as large hats with ribbons and veils. Zweers bestowed titles on his portraits of his daughter, using the names of the four seasons. Clues are added to these photos to indicate the time of the year: flowers in the spring, a large hat worn for protection against the hot summer sun, the Honesty flower in the fall, and a cheerless state of mind in the winter.

In late 1911, Adriaan Boer launched the idea of assembling a historical photography collection at the NCvFK (Nederlandse Club voor Foto-kunst, ‘Netherlands Club of Photographic Art’). As a board member and advisor, Zweers was on the preparatory committee set up to give Boer’s idea form. To realise this plan, he managed to spark the interest of E.A. von Saher, who was the director of the Museum van Kunstnijverheid (‘Museum of Applied Arts’) in Haarlem. After consultation with the museum’s supervisory commission, in March 1912 the decision was made to further develop the plans. On 15 May, a constituting meeting took place, comprising the committee as well as respresentatives from the museum, at which time it was decided to set up a ‘Vereeniging tot vorming eener verzameling fotografieën in het Museum van Kunstnijverheid te Haarlem’ (‘Association for the Formation of a Collection of Photographs in the Museum of Applied Arts in Haarlem’). The plan took on concrete form with the organisation’s official founding the next day, 16 May. Von Saher was named as chairman, with B.J.V. van Hees (vice-chairman), Ernst Loeb (secretary), Adriaan Boer, Johan Huijsen, and Berend Zweers on the supervisory board. The collection—as yet to be formed—was to be placed under the museum’s supervision on loan. According to a notice placed by the board secretary Ernst Loeb in the magazine Lux in 1918, Berend Zweers was the person to be contacted for potential visitors wishing to obtain access to the collection at the Museum van Kunstnijverheid. Von Saher had previously passed away in this same year.

After the end of World War I, the board was able to resume its plans. Due to the lack of third-party interest in their endeavour and a shortage funds, however, the collection grew only at a very slow pace. In 1926, the Museum van Kunstnijverheid was shut down, and as a result, the association had lost its accommodation for the collection. In the period that followed, a number of objects were lost during the repeated moves to different storage places. In 1936, at which time the association was dissolved, the remaining collection of the ‘Netherlands Photographic Museum’—as the collection was still being referred to in the photography magazines—was handed over to the BNAFV (Bond van Nederlandse Amateur Fotografen Verenigingen, ‘Federation of Netherlands Amateur Photographers Associations’, and again transferred to the Print Room of Leiden University in 1955). Zweers’ remained as a board member of the association right up until the collection’s initial transfer.

Besides sitting on the board of the photography museum, Zweers was also on the boards of the NCvFK and the NFPV. In addition, he was a member of the NAFV and served on various exhibition juries, including the highly esteemed Delftsche Foto-salon (‘Delft Photo Salon’), an annual exhibition. The precise nature of his activity within these associations and juries is not known. Zweers’ devotion to promoting photographic art and raising peoples’ appreciation for the medium, however, is clearly reflected in the positions he held and in his personal involvement in the collective activities undertaken by fellow photographers.

Very few photos have survived to ensure Berend Zweers’ name for posterity: approximately one hundred prints and a couple hundred stereoscopic glass plates. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that he was a remarkable photographer. Zweers’ qualities are exquisitely demonstrated in the large-format carbon prints he produced for exhibitions. In the Netherlands and abroad, his pictorial photos earned him gold and silver medals on a frequent basis, thus generating interest for his own work as well as Dutch photography in general. Zweers’ work as a professional photographer was good, but unexceptional in terms of personal vision. His supervisory involvement in the building of a collection of historical photos and objects, as initiated by Adriaan Boer, helped contribute to the preservation of Dutch cultural heritage.


Primary bibliography

Rembrandt en zijn verlichting, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 24 (1896), p. 70-74 (idem, in Geïllustreerd weekblad voor fotografie 6 (1899) 40, p. 314-315).

B.Z. (= Berend Zweers?), Eerste Jaarlijksche Salon en Eenmans-Tentoonstelling, gehouden door de Ned. Club voor Fotokunst, 15-31 januari 1910 te Amsterdam, in “Lux” 21 (1 februari 1910) 3, p. 79-83.

B.Z. (= Berend Zweers?), De Eénpersoons-tentoonstellingen der A-F.-V. te Amsterdam. 2. P. Clausing Jr., in “Lux” 21 (1 maart 1910) 5, p. 126.

Eenige beschouwingen over Foto-kunst, in De Camera 2(15 april 1910) 14, p. 133-134 (met foto’s).

Een standbeeld voor de fotografie, in De Camera 2 (13 juni 1910) 18, p. 171.

[Ingezonden brief], in De Camera 2 (13 juni 1910) 18, p. 176.

[Ingezonden brief], in Fotografisch Maandschrift 7 (1 september 1911), p. 9.

[Advertentie], in De Fotograaf 1912.

B.Z. (= Berend Zweers?), De Jubileums-tentoonstelling der N. A.-F.-V., in “Lux” 23 (15 oktober 1912) 20, p. 543-551.

B.Z. (= Berend Zweers?), Jubileums-Tentoonstelling van den “Nederlandschen Fotografen Kunstkring” te Amsterdam, in “Lux” 23 (1 november 1912) 21, p. 588-590.

Ign. Bispinck, E.A. Loeb en Zweers, [Ingezonden brief], in Fotografisch Maandschrift 8 (februari 1913), p. 96-97.


images in:

J. Craandijk, De Haarlemsche hofjes. 26 Lichtdrukken, Haarlem, (Vereeniging “Haerlem”/De Erven F. Bohn) 1904.

Buiten. Geïllustreerd weekblad aan het buitenleven gewijd 1 (29 juni 1907) 7, p. 81-82.

Buiten. Geïllustreerd weekblad aan het buitenlevengewijd 1 (30 november 1907) 29, p. 347.

Jaarboek N.C.v.F.K. 1908, ongepag.

Fotografisch Maandschrift 4 (maart 1909) 7, na p. 105.

De Camera 1 (15 juni 1909) 18, p. 333.

Deutscher Camera Almanach 6 (1910), na p. 193

De Camera 2 (26 januari 1910) 8, bijlage na p. 81.

De Camera 2 (15 april 1910) 14, bijlage vóór p. 133.

De Camera 3 (15 januari 1911) 6, p. 47, bijlage na p. 54.

The Amateur Photographer & Photographic News 56 (1 juli 1912) 1448, p. 2, 20.

The Amateur Photographer & Photographic News 56 (8 juli 1912) 1449, p. 44.

De Camera 5 (1 december 1912) 3, bijlage na p. 27.

Focus 3 (30 maart 1917) 36, p. 473-474.

De Prins der geïllustreerde bladen 7 april 1917. p, 157.

Buiten. Geïllustreerd weekblad aan het buitenleven gewijd 11 (23 juni 1917) 25, p. 297-299.

Focus 7 (12 augustus 1920) 10, p. 190-193.

L.C. Kersbergen, Geschiedenis van het St Elisabeth’s of Groote Gasthuis te Haarlem, Haarlem (Johan Enschedé en Zonen) 1931.

Catalogus tent. Kunstfotografie um 1900, Essen/Hamburg (Museum Folkwang/Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe in Zusammenarbeit mit der Staatlichten Landesbildstelle) 1964, p. 47, afb. 25.

Mechteld de Bois e.a., Chris Lebeau 1878-1945, Assen/Haarlem (Drents Museum/Frans Halsmuseum) 1987, p. 268.

Museumbrief [Stedelijk Museum Het Catharina Gasthuis] (juni 1989) 26, ongepag.

M.R. Ziegler, Tovenaars met licht, in De Telegraaf 19 augustus 1989, Weekeinde, p.8.

[Folder] COVAM [Automatisering voor land- en tuinbouw], z.j. (1992), omslag.

Secondary bibliography

J. van Geuns, Internationale Fotografie-Tentoonstelling te Amsterdam, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 23 (1895), p. 131-136.

A.D. Lomanjr., De fotografie-tentoonstelling in de militiezaal te Amsterdam, in Weekblad voor Fotografie 2 (14 september 1895) 37, p. 193-194.

M.L. van der Schaaff, Nationale Fotowedstrijd en tentoonstelling te Leiden, in Geïllustreerd Weekblad voor Fotografie 14 (11 mei 1907) 19, p. 154-156.

Laura de Berk, De Internationale Tentoonstelling van Foto-Kunst, in Geïllustreerd Weekblad voor Fotografie 15 (8 augustus 1908) 32, p. 249-253.

C. Jeneson, Stedelijk Museum. II, in De Telegraaf (2-uur-editie) 16 februari 1909, p. 2.

The County Gentlemen on Land and Water 1912.

Antony Guest, Dutch photography at “The A.P. Little Gallery”, in The Amateur Photographer & Photographic News 55 (i7juni 1912) 1446, p. 600.

E.A. Loeb, Holländischer Brief, in Deutscher Camera AImanach 8 (1912/13), p. 85-91.

Alb. de Haas, Uit Haarlem. Kunstfotografie, in Onze Kunst 12 (januari/juni 1913) 13, p. 43-44.

Auteur onbekend, Ons Matglas, in Focus 1 (30 maart 1914) 9, p. 87.

E.A. Loeb, De Vijfde Delftsche Fotosalon, in Focus 3 (10 april 1916) 1, p. 2-4.

Auteur onbekend, Onze platen, in Focus 3 (30 maart 1917) 36, p. 475.

W.H. Idzerda, Schoonheid in de fotografie. Handleiding ten dienste van beginnende en gevorderde kunstfotografen, alsmede voor ieder belangstellende in de fotografie, Leiden (A.W. Sijthoff’s Uitgeversmaatschappij) 1918, p. 42, afb. 3.

Auteur onbekend, E.A. von Saher. †, in Focus 4 (20 februari 1918) 32, p.441.

A.B., De tentoonstelling te Rotterdam, in Focus 5 (30 mei 1918) 6, p. 86-88.

J.W. Boon (voorw.), Veertig jaren fotografie. Gedenkboekje uitgegeven door de Nederlandsche Amateur-Fotografen-Vereeniging ter gelegenheid van haar veertig jarig jubileum 7 sept-5 nov. 1927, Amsterdam 1927, p. 102-103 (idem, in Adr. Boer, Eenige bijzonderheden over Nederlandsche fotografen, in Bedrijfsfotografie 10 (14 januari 1928) 1, p. 20-21).

C.G. Leenheer en P. Brandsma, Gratis foto’s, in Bedrijfsfotografie 11 (24 oktober 1929) 43, p. 505-506.

P. Brandsma, Verslag der buitengewone [NFPV] vergadering Haarlem in Rest. Brinkman, dd. 16-1-’30, in Bedrijfsfotografie 12 (24 januari 1930) 2, p. 33-34.

Frits Gerhard, Een Fotografisch Museum, in De Fotograaf en Smalfilmer 51 (24 juni 1937) 13, p. 199-200.

D.B. (= Dick Boer), Berend Zweers †, in Focus 31 (2 maart 1946) 4, p. 50.

Aug. Grégoire, Honderd jaar fotografie, Bloemendaal (Focus) 1948, p. 28, 38 (met foto’s).

J. Geselschap, Goudse portretfotografen in de negentiende eeuw, in Gens Nostra. Maandblad der Nederlandse Genealogische Vereniging 16 (april 1961) 4, p. 85-87.

Catalogus tent. Het fotoportret. Nederlandse en Vlaamse portretfotografie van 1845-1922, Assen (Drents Museum) 1976, ongepag., afb. 10 (idem: Catalogus tent. Het groepsportret 1845-1922, Eindhoven (Stedelijk Van Abbe Museum) 1977).

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1839-1920, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978, p. 75-76, 79, 108 (met foto’s).

Flip Bool en Kees Broos (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1920-1940, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1979, p. 105, 160.

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf en Caroline A. Rehorst-de Westenholz, Fotografie, in Catalogus tent. De tijd wisselt van spoor, Laren (Singer Museum) 1981, p. 155-167, 250-251.

Catalogus tent. Kunstfotografie in Nederland rond 1900, Deurne/Antwerpen (Provinciaal Museum Sterckshof) 1982, ongepag.

Catalogus tent. Zien en gezien worden. Fotografische zelfbespiegeling in Nederland van ca. 1840 tot heden, Nijmegen (Nijmeegs Museum ‘Commanderie van Sint-Jan’) 1983, p. 12, 79, 95.

Catalogus tent. Kunstfotografie rond 1900, Brussel (Gemeentekrediet, Passage 44) 1983, p. 272-277 (met foto’s).

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf (red.), Het Fotografisch Museum van Auguste Grégoire. Een vroege Nederlandse fotocollectie, Den Haag (SDU) 1989, p. 107, 110-115 (met foto’s).


in De Camera:

Ambassadrice, Uit Dresden, 1 (15 juni 1909) 18, p. 334, 338.

E.A.L. (= E.A. Loeb), Onze voorjaarswedstrijd, 1 (15 juni 1909) 18, p. 341-343.

Adr. Boer, Verborgen krachten, in 2 (28 december 1909) 6, p. 56-57.

E.A.L., Wat er omgaat, 2 (26 januari 1910) 8, p. 74-75.

Auteur onbekend, Verbetering, 2 (9 februari 1910) 9, p. 84.

Invictus, Wat er omgaat, 2 (15 mei 1910) 16, p. 151-152.

P. Clausingjr., Wat er omgaat [ingezonden brief], 2 (29 mei 1910) 17, p. 161-162.

Ant. IJ. Smits, Geachte Redactie [ingezonden brief], 2 (13 juni 1910) 18, p. 177-178.

Auteur onbekend, Uitslag van onzen wedstrijd, 2 (15 september 1910) 24, p. 229.

Auteur onbekend, Een Duitsch oordeel over het Hollandsche werk te Brussel, 2 (15 september 1910) 24, p. 233.

A.B., De Salon der Nederl. Club voor Fotokunst, 3 (15 januari 1911) 6, p. 48-50.

Auteur onbekend, De technieken op den Salon der N.C.v.F.K., 3 (1 februari 1911) 7, p. 64.

Auteur onbekend, Nederlandsche Club voor Foto-Kunst, 3 (1 februari 1911) 7, p. 65.

Auteur onbekend, Foto-verzameling in het Museum van K.N. te Haarlem, 4 (15 maart 1912) 10, p. 89.

Auteur onbekend, Een aardige fotopuzzle, 4 (15 juli 1912) 18, p. 154.

Antony Guest, Hollandse fotografie in Londen, 4 (15 augustus 1912) 20, p.173-174.

RS., Salon Nederl. Club voor Fotokunst, 5 (1912/1913), p. 29-30.

Auteur onbekend, Hollandsch werk in Engeland, 5 (1912/1913), p. 37.

Auteur onbekend, Intern. Salon van Fotografische kunst te Gent, 5 (1913), p. 131.

H. de Boer, De Vierde Delftsche Foto-Salon, 5 (15 oktober 1913) 24, p. 207-209.

Auteur onbekend, De Delftsche Salon, 5 (15 oktober 1913) 24, p. 211-212.

H. Deutmann, De tentoonstelling van een deel der bekroonde fotografiën van het Int. Gevaert-Concours in de kunstzalen van de Firma D’Audretsch te Den Haag, 5 (1914), p.48-51.

Auteur onbekend, The London Salon, 7 (1915), p. 223-224.

Auteur onbekend, De Rotterdamsche Foto-Tentoonstelling, 10 (1918), p.155-157.

Auteur onbekend, Bij onze platen, 11 (1919), p. 41.


in Fotografisch Maandschrift:

C.M. Dewald, Tentoonstelling’s opmerkingen, 1 (juli 1906) n , p . 150-153.

C.M. Dewald, Nabetrachting over de fotografie-tentoonstelling in “Pulchri Studio”, 1 (augustus 1906) 12, p. 164-167.

C.M. Dewald, Tentoonstelling Leeuwarden, 1 (augustus 1906) 12, p. 167-169.

H. Deutmann, De inzending van driekleuren-fotografiën van den heer B. Zweers te Haarlem op de Nat. tentoonstelling in “Pulchri Studio”, 1 (augustus 1906) 12, p. 170-172.

Auteur onbekend, Het oordeel van het Buitenland over de Hollandsche afdeeling der tentoonstelling te Dresden, 4 (juli 1909), p. 183-184.

P. Clausing Jr, De eerste jaarlijksche salon der Ned. Club voor Fotokunst, 5 (februari 1910), p. 103-104.

Auteur onbekend, De Delftsche Tien, 6 (1 november 1910), p. 44-45.

G. Middendorp, Ingezonden stukken, 7 (1 oktober 1911), p. 36-37.

C.M.D. (= C.M. Dewald), Ingezonden stukken, 7(1 oktober 1911), p. 37-38.

P.C., Een museum voor artistieke fotografie, 7 (1 juni 1912), p. 164-165.

J.B., Alweer een wonderbare uitvinding op fotografisch gebied, 8 (1 september 1912) 1, p. 11-12.

C.M. Dewald, Fotografisch Museum, 9 (1 maart 1914), p. 100-103.


in “Lux”:

Auteur onbekend, Internationale Fotografie-Tentoonstelling. Amsterdam, 8-22 september, 6 (1895), p. 483-489.

A., De Internationale Tentoonstelling van Fotografische Kunst in het Stedelijk Museum, 19 (1908), p. 395-412.

Auteur onbekend, Nederlandsche Club voor Fotokunst, 19 (1908), p. 501.

Auteur onbekend, Gemengde mededeelingen, 20 (1909), p. 28.

J. Huijsen, Onze fotografen op de Wereldtentoonstelling te Brussel, 21 (15 juli 1910) 14, p. 357.

Optimist, Ingezonden stukken. Sluit de gelederen!, 21(1 september 1910) 17, p. 440-443.

A. van Dijk, Notulen van de Maandelijksche Vergadering op Woensdag 7 Februari, 23 (15 februari 1912) 4, p. 114.

E.A.L. Boas, Notulen der Huishoudelijke Vergaderingvan 21 Februari 1912, 23 (15 maart 1912) 6, p. 167-168.

Auteur onbekend, Een Museum voor Fotografie in Nederland, 23 (1 juni 1912) 11, p. 308-309.

Ernst A. Loeb, De Salon der Nederlandsche Club voor Foto-Kunst, 23 (1 december 1912) 23, p. 613-616.

P.H. Cool, Bloemendaalsche Amateur-Fotografen-Vereeniging […].Jaarverslag over 1912, 24 (15 februari 1913) 4, p. 93-94.

Ign. Bispinck, “Salon international d’Art Photographique” te Gent, 24 (15 augustus 1913) 16, p. 370-372 (idem, in Fotografisch Maandschrift 9 (1 september 1913) 1, p. 3-6).

Cornelis Veth, De vierde jaarlijksche Delftsche Foto-Salon in Amsterdam, 24 (1 december 1913) 23, p. 521-525.

C.M. Dewald, Fotografisch Museum, 25 (1 maart 1914) 5, p. 125-128.

Auteur onbekend, Gemengde mededeelingen. Vereeniging Nederlandsch Fotografisch Museum, 29 (1918), p. 381.


NCvFK (kandidaat-lid in oktober 1908, bestuurslid vanaf 1910).

NAFV (erelid).

NFPV, 1920, december 1929 – januari 1932 (bestuurlid van 16 januari 1930 – januari 1932).

Bestuur “Vereeniging tot vorming eener verzameling fotografieën in het Museum van Kunstnijverheid te Haarlem”, vanaf mei 1912.

Jury van toelating, Derde Jaarlijksche Delftsche Foto-salon, Delft 1912.

Jury, Wedstrijd voor vakfotografen uitgeschreven door De Camera, 1913.


Derde prijs, afdeling C (artistieke fotografie), Nationale Foto-tentoonstelling, Leiden 1907.

Bronzen medaille, Tentoonstelling van kinderportretten, Den Haag 1908.

Prijs, Harlingen 1908.

Gouden medaille, Nationalen Fotografie-Wedstrijd, uitgeschreven door de Vereeniging tot bevordering van het Vreemdelingenverkeer en tot Verfraaiing van Zeist, Zeist 1908.

Eerste prijs, Voorjaarswedstrijd uitgeschreven door het tijdschrift De Camera, 1909.

Zilveren medaille, Internationale Photographische Aussstellung, Dresden 1909.

“Grand-Prix” en gouden medaille, afd. fotografie, Internationale Kunsttentoonstelling, Napels 1909.

Eerste en extra prijs (Albada-Stereo-Camera), Wedstrijd uitgeschreven door het tijdschrift De Camera, 1910.

Prijs, 26e Jaarlijksche Tentoonstelling, Birmingham 1910.

Gouden medaille, Exposition Universelle, Brussel 1910.

Gouden medaille, Internationale Fotografietentoonstelling, Budapest 1910.

Zilveren medaille, Internationale Fotografie Tentoonstelling, Riga 1910.

Eerste prijs (gouden medaille), Internationale Tentoonstelling van Fotografie, Toulouse 1910.

Prijs, Londen 1911.

Prijs, Worchester 1911.

Gouden medaille en prijs van 300 Francs, Internationale wedstrijd 1911-1912 uitgeschreven door de firma Gevaert, 1913.


1895 (g) Amsterdam, Militiezaal, Internationale Fotografie-Tentoonstelling.

1902 (g) Turijn, Esposizione Internationale de Fotografia Artistica.

1906 (g) Den Haag, Pulchri Studio, Nationale Tentoonstelling van Fotografieën.

1906 (g) Leeuwarden, Nijverheids Tentoonstelling.

1907 (g) Leiden, Nationale Foto-tentoonstelling (Vereeniging tot Bevordering van het Vreemdelingenverkeer).

1908 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Internationale Tentoonstelling van Foto-Kunst.

1908 (g) Den Haag, Koninklijk Zoölogisch Botanisch Genootschap, Tentoonstelling van kinderportretten.

1908 (g) Zeist, Nationalen Fotografie-Wedstrijd.

1909 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, (voor-tentoonstelling van de werken die naar de Internationale Photographische Ausstellung in Dresden gaan).

1909 (g) Dresden, Internationale Photographische Aussstellung.

1909 (g) Napels, Internationale Kunsttentoonstelling.

1910 (g) Amsterdam, Concordia, Eerste faarlijksche Salon N. C.F.K.

1910 (g) Birmingham, 26e Jaarlijksche Tentoonstelling.

1910 (g) Brussel, Exposition Universelle.

1910 (g) Budapest, Internationale Fotografietentoonstelling.

1910 (g) Delft, Korenbeurs, De Delftsche Tien.

1910 (g) Riga, Internationale Fotografie Tentoonstelling.

1910 (g) Toulouse, Internationale Tentoonstelling van Fotografie (Photo-Club Toulousain).

1911 (g) Amsterdam, Concordia, Salon der Nederlansche Club voor Fotokunst.

1911 (g) Hamburg, Ausstellung für Bildniss und Figurenbild (Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Amateurphotographie Hamburg).

1912 (e) Amsterdam, Gebouw “Lux”.

1912 (g) Haarlem, Museum van Kunstnijverheid, Salon Nederl. Club voor Fotokunst.

1912 (g) Londen, The A.P. Little Gallery, (NCvFK).

1913 (g) Amsterdam, Gebouw “Lux”, Vierde Jaarlijksche Delftsche Foto-salon.

1913 (g) Delft, Concertzaal van Stads Doelen, Vierde Jaarlijksche Delftsche Fotosalon.

1913 (g) Gent, Paleis van Schoone Kunsten, Salon International d’Art Photographique

1914 (g) Den Haag, Kunstzalen van firma de D’Audretsch, [tentoonstelling van deel der bekroonde werken Internationale Gevaert-concours].

1914 (g) Haarlem, Museum van Kunstnijverheid, [eerste tentoonstelling collectie Fotografisch Museum].

1915 (g) Londen, The London Salon of Photography.

1918 (g) Rotterdam, Rotterdamsche Kunstkring, Tentoonstelling van Fotowerk (Amateur-Fotografen-Vereeniging “Rotterdam”).

1920 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Zevende Jaarlijksche Nationale Tentoonstelling van Fotowerken (NAFV).

1939 (g) Den Haag, Gemeentearchief, Honderd jaar fotografie (Collectie Auguste Grégoire).

1964 (g) Essen, Museum Folkwang, Kunstfotografie um 1900.

1964 (g) Hamburg, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Kunstfotografie um 1900.

1976 (g) Assen, Drents Museum, Het fotoportret. Nederlandse en Vlaamse portretfotografie van 1845-1922.

1977 (g) Eindhoven, Stedelijk Van Abbe Museum, Het groepsportret 1845-1922.

1978 (g) Leiden, Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal, Belicht Verleden. Fotografie in Nederland 1839-1920 (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1981 (g) Laren, Singer Museum, De tijd wisselt van spoor.

1982 (g) Deurne/Antwerpen, Provinciaal Museum Sterckshof, Kunstfotografie in Nederland rond 1900.

1983 (g) Brussel, Passage 44, Kunstfotografie rond 1900.

1983/1984 (g) Nijmegen, Nijmeegs Museum ‘Commanderie van Sint-Jan’, Zien en gezien worden. Fotografische zelfbespiegeling in Nederland van ca. 1840 tot heden.

1989 (g) Gouda, Stedelijk Museum Het Catharina Gasthuis, Het Fotografisch Museum van Auguste Grégoire.


Gouda, Streekarchiefdienst Hollands Midden.

Haarlem, Gemeentearchief (archiefonderzoek Carla van der Stap).

Heemskerk/Leiden, Erik J.A. Zevenhuizen (ongepubliceerd werkstuk kunstgeschiedenis: De fotografische musea in Nederland. Overzicht van de pogingen die er sedert 1910 in Nederland zijn ondernemen om te komen tot een museum voor de fotografie, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden 1988).

Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiecentrum (archiefonderzoek Ingrid Grootes).

Naarden, Stadsarchief.

Nijmegen, Gemeentearchief (archiefonderzoek Marga Altena).


Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (Prentenkabinet).

Gouda, Streekarchiefdienst Hollands Midden.

Haarlem, Gemeentearchief.

Haarlem, Stichting Nederlands Foto- & Grafisch Centrum (Spaarnestad Fotoarchief).

Leiden, Prentenkabinet van de Rijksuniversiteit Leiden.