PhotoLexicon, Volume 12, nr. 25 (April 1995) (en)

Wegner & Mottu

Hans Rooseboom





Johann Ludwig (Louis) Wegener [sic] is born on on 6 July in Frankenthal (Germany) as the son of Johann Christoph Wegener and Eva Catharina Nebling.


After having studied in Munich (Germany), and Vienna (Austria), Wegner works as a lithographer in Lucerne and Zurich (Switzerland). It was during this period that Wegner is likely to have married Monica Stutz, who was born in Lucerne. In October 1844, the couple’s daughter is born.


Pierre Alexis Mottu is born on 14 March in Paris as the son of Jean Marie David Mottu and Alexandrina Elisabeth Oudin. The family is of Swiss origin.


In December 1849, Wegner settles in Amsterdam, arriving from Switzerland. In 1850, he moves in with A. Pietersen, a mirror-builder and daguerreotypist on the Nieuwendijk in Amsterdam.

According to the civil registry of 1851, Wegner first lives at Kalverstraat 115 (E 62). On 19 May of the same year, he moves to Prinsengracht 963 (AA 599). He is listed as a painter. Wegner’s name is not found in the Amsterdam city address books until the 1852-1853 edition. According to Carl Brun’s Schweizerisches Künstler-Lexikon (‘Swiss Artists Lexicon’), Wegner married Monica Stutz in Amsterdam in the year 1850. However, there is no marriage certificate in the Amsterdam archives to confirm this. It is therefore likely that Wegner was married in Switzerland prior to his arrival. In 1850 and 1852, Wegner participates in the Tentoonstelling van Kunstwerken van Levende Meesters (‘Exhibition of Artworks by Living Masters’), held in Amsterdam.


Wegner is awarded a gold medal at the Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie (‘Exhibition of Photography and Heliography’) in Amsterdam. This exhibition later also appears in The Hague.


E. Bour nominates Wegner for membership in the Société Française de Photographie (‘French Society of Photography’). However, two people are required for nominating new members to the society. In the 1857-’58 edition of the Amsterdam city address book, Wegner’s home address is listed as Prinsengracht 831 (BB 439).


Wegner’s receives an award for his entry to the Tentoonstelling van Photographie (‘Exhibition of Photography’) in Amsterdam.


Wegner participates in an exhibition hosted by the Société Française de Photographie.


In (or prior to) the year 1862, Wegner and Mottu become business associates. The company is henceforth called ‘Wegner & Mottu’.


Louis Wegner dies on 13 November. The company retains the name Wegner & Mottu.


On 28 July 1865, Mottu moves to Kalverstraat 179 (D 26) and sets up his studio at the same address. In October, he moves to Groenburgwal 56 (C 474): this concerns his residing address only

On 4 October, Mottu’s wife, Johanna Catharina Ganzoni, registers at this same address. In the years 1866 to 1870, two sons and a daughter are born.


In March, Hans Christian Andersen poses for Wegner & Mottu. Wegner had also previously portrayed the writer.

At the Algemene Tentoonstelling van Nederlandsche Nijverheid (‘General Exhibition of Dutch Industry’), held at the Paleis voor Volksvlijt (‘Palace of Industry’) in Amsterdam, the firm wins a silver medal.

1868- ’69

In 1868 or 1869, Mottu visits Jakob Husnik in Tabor (Bohemia, present-day Czech Republic ). He asks Husnik to manage a photolithographic printing company. Husnik turns down Mottu’s offer.


Between 1868 and 1883, an affiliate studio of Wegner & Motto is in operation in Utrecht: first in the garden of the restorer J. Wolters on the Leidseweg (L 153); starting ca. 1879, on the Hamburgerstraat (F 237).


In 1869, Mottu and the lithographer A. Kroon establish a lithographic and photolithographic printing company, where various processes are applied, including the photolithographic method devised by E.I. Asser.

In 1872, the collaboration is terminated. Kroon moves his lithographic printing company to the Reguliersdwarsstraat in Amsterdam.


While the studio on the Kalverstraat is being rebuilt, Mottu rents Pieter Oosterhuis’ studio at Plantage Middenlaan 11 (V 120).


In 1871, Mottu moves to Vondelstraat 76 (XX 25). In 1874, the couple has twins.


Mottu becomes the first president of the APV (Amsterdamsche Photographen-Vereeniging, ‘Amsterdam Photographers Association’).


In October, Mottu moves his home and studio to Rokin 138 (D 88). He transfers his studio on the Kalverstraat to Chr. Kirch. From February 1874 to September 1875, J.G.J. van Arum had previously been registered as a ‘Photograaf’ at this address.


According to J.M. Eder (Geschichte der Photographie, ‘History of Photography’), the company undertakes the production of “Trockenplatten für Porträte” (‘Dry plates for portraits’).


Mottu makes prints from negatives of the British photographer William John Alexander Grant, shot during several trips to the island of Nova Zembla with the ship ‘Willem Barents’ in the years 1878-1883. The ‘Comité voor de IJszeevaart’ (‘Committee for Polar Shipping’), which organised the expeditions, publishes the photos in the form of albums. Mottu publishes at least one photo of the ‘Willem Barents’ himself.


After Mottu’s wife dies in 1881, he remarries in 1885, to Eulalie Marie Jeanne Marie. In 1886, twins are born from this second marriage.


Mottu departs for Paris, but remains a partner in the firm. Pieter Jan Dekema runs the studio—that is, Dekema’s name is listed in connection with the studio, starting with the 1889-’90 edition of the Amsterdam city address book.


The studio on the Rokin is forced to relocate due to the construction of a new department store, the Maison de Bonneterie. In the same year, the studio of Wegner & Mottu reopens in the building called ‘New York’, located at the corner of the Keizersgracht and the Leidsestraat.


The business, by this time under the direction of Pieter Jan Dekema and Frans van der Waals, is dissolved as of 1 October 1913, though this does not yet mark the definitive end of Wegner & Mottu. During World War I, a flyer circulates announcing a reduction in price—imposed by the circumstances of World War I—which by no means implies a reduction in quality. The name of Wegner & Mottu appears for the last time in the 1917-’18 edition of the Amsterdam city address book. The address in this final period is Spui 7.


According to Carl Brun’s Schweizerisches Künstler-Lexikon (‘Swiss Artists Lexicon’), Louis Wegner studied in Munich (Germany) and Vienna (Austria) to become a lithographer, and in 1836, he reportedly began working in this profession in Lucerne and Zurich (Switzerland). The Rijksprentenkabinet (‘National Print Room’/Rijksmuseum Amsterdam) has four lithographs by Wegner in its possession: two printed by Grimminger, and two printed by Orell Füssli & Cie., with both companies located in Zurich. It is not known whether Wegner was already taking photographs prior to his arrival the Netherlands in 1849. A. Pietersen, a mirror-builder and daguerreotypist in Amsterdam with whom he initially lived, could perhaps have introduced him to the idea. On a label that can be dated to 1850, Wegner stated the following: ‘Daguerreotype Portraits of varying sizes for frames, etuis, broaches, cameos, etc./Silver Stylus Portraits and Lithographs, from nature and after daguerreotype or other paintings.’ Whether the term ‘silver stylus portraits’ is indeed a reference to salt prints rather than drawings, as has been suggested by G.A. Evers in his articles on early Dutch photography, remains uncertain. More likely is that Wegner produced drawings, as well as lithographs and daguerreotypes in his early days. For the Tentoonstelling van Kunstwerken van Levende Meesters (‘Exhibition of Artworks by Living Masters’) held in 1850, he as yet submitted three drawings and a lithograph (all portraits), and in the year 1852, four or six ‘prints of Photography’. It is not known what kinds of photos were submitted to the latter exhibition. Although initially accepted and included in the catalogue, a number of the photos were taken down from the wall by the exhibition committee, following complaints from a number of artists who maintained that photography was not to be counted as one of the arts. Wegner’s entry to the 1850 exhibition was accompanied by two notes, which clearly demonstrate he had not yet fully mastered the Dutch language. For the 1852 exhibition, he simply wrote his message in German. After this time, Wegner no longer participated in the exhibitions that followed. It is not known whether he was ever active as a portrait draftsman or lithographer at a later point in his career.

In the second half of the 1850s, Wegner produced a number of large-format portrait photos (besides the standard carte-de-visite portraits) that may be included among the finest examples of early Dutch photography. A number of these portrait photos are dated 1857 and 1858. Among the works currently known to have been produced by Wegner: five undated portraits of the painter Nicolaas Pieneman; one portrait of Hans Christian Andersen (1858, now only known in the form of a reproduction); several portraits of Edouard Mussche (1857) as well as other members of the Asser family; and the portrait of an unknown woman in front of a mirror. Especially Mussche and Pieneman are portrayed as individual personalities, thereby avoiding the flaw of many portrait photos, i.e. the empty gaze and unmotivated pose. Whereas contemporary portrait photos of a similar format taken abroad are characterised by the simplicity of their compositions and the absence of attributes, Wegner’s portraits are richly decorated. The portraits of Pieneman include painters’ attributes and are somewhat reminiscent of the portraits that Franz Hanfstaengl, who also incorporated an abundance of attributes in order to convey the profession of the person portrayed. Only one surviving photo of Wegner’s might be considered a study: the genre portrait of a monk.

A number of Wegner’s portraits are found pasted in the albums of the Amsterdam photographer E.I. Asser. The difference between the amateur (Asser) and the professional (Wegner) is demonstrated quite clearly. Despite Wegner’s skill, the poses in his photos are more calculated, less varied, and as well less cluttered, when compared to those of Asser. They lack the charm that comes with such clutter.

The quality of Wegner’s portrait photos failed to go unnoticed. At the Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie (‘Exhibition of Photography and Heliography’) held in Amsterdam in 1855, he was awarded a gold medal. In the Amsterdamsche Courant, one anonymous critic spoke of Wegner’s ‘highly admirable pieces’. In the catalogue, ‘five photographs, from negatives on collodion, with and without retouching’ are listed. Apparently, Wegner had already made the switch from daguerreotypes to photographs on paper. Three years later, at the Tentoonstelling van Photographie (‘Exhibition of Photography’) in Amsterdam, where his photos were awarded once again, a more extensive discussion regarding his work appeared in the Amsterdamsche Courant: ‘Generally, one observes in his portraits the artist, who chooses his pose with discretion, while his photographs possess a translucent tint in the shadows with appropriate intensity, which allows the half-shadows to emerge exquisitely. Observing closely, we have examined whether an artificial retouching had come to the assistance of this product of photography, but we could find no trace thereof, quite the contrary, many pieces reveal the unmistakeable proof that the works, as they are presented, are indeed actually “sans retouche” [“without retouching”]’. Wegner’s surviving portraits indeed appear to confirm that he was disinclined to retouching. In a discussion of the permissibility of retouching published in the Tijdschrift voor Photographie written ten years following Wegner’s death, H.L.J. Haakman stated that Wegner never retouched a negative and that he did nothing more than add minor touch-ups to his prints. All of his surviving portraits are albumen prints. Most of them are in excellent condition, thanks to the gold toning.

In 1857, an anonymous critic of the French Revue Photographique observed that Wegner’s portraits could easily stand comparison with the work of Nadar, Mayer and Pierson, Le Gray, and others: ‘they form without exaggeration a masterful oeuvre; poses that are both intelligent and natural, the skilfully prepared attitudes of the head; a mellow and deep texture; soft tones, pure whites, well-conceived shadows, a clear definition of detail, nothing is missing in these tableaus (…)’ The Frenchman Philippe Burty was more critical of Wegner’s photos. In a discussion of an exhibition hosted by the Société Française de Photographie (‘French Society of Photography’) in 1859, he described Wegner indeed as a worthy competitor, but judged his photos to be corrupted by the worst of errors: ‘la prétention’ (‘pretension’). In Burty’s assessment, the female figures possessed a reserve that was exaggeratedly sweet, while the young men stared blankly off into the distance.

Wegner belonged to the first generation of photographers who produced carte-de-visite portraits. The usual attributes—throw rug, chair, table, curtain, pillar and railing—all recur in varying combinations. The women’s portraits are occasionally reminiscent of the figures in the paintings of A.H. Bakker-Korff: stern-looking elderly middle-class women, who probably spent more time indoors with gaslight than they ever did in the sunlight, and who, for all appearances, spent most of their time drinking tea, doing needlework, and gossiping.

It is not known precisely when Wegner and Mottu—who was twenty-four years Wegner’s junior—began associating with each other. The earliest known appearance of the company name ‘Wegner & Mottu’ can be traced to a letter from April 1862. At this time, the studio was still located at Prinsengracht 831 (BB 439), though it would soon be relocated to Kalverstraat 179 (D 26). In the Amsterdam city address book, the name of Wegner & Mottu appears for the first time in the 1863-’64 edition. Little is known of Mottu’s background. Accompanying the first mention of his name in the Amsterdam civil registry in October 1863, he is listed as a ‘kantoorbediende’ (clerical assistant). This information, however, must be regarded with some reservation, as the same source likewise states that Mottu’s father, Jean Marie David Mottu (born 1799– death after 1865), practiced the same profession as his son. The elder Mottu, however, was more than just a simple clerical assistant. From May 1863 to October 1865, he was one of the directors of the Algemeene Maatschappij voor Handel en Nijverheid (‘General Company of Trade and Industry’, a large financing firm.) There is no doubt that J.M.D. Mottu’s resignation was linked to the problems faced by the company, stemming from ‘an excess of financial optimism and fraudulent dealings’. It was in this same year that Mottu’s father moved to Switzerland.

While Wegner focused on portraits—as surviving photos clearly affirm—Mottu’s interest was broader: architecture, hydraulic engineering works, portraits, and art objects. The four photos Mottu shot of the interior of the Paleis voor Volksvlijt (‘Palace of Industry’) in Amsterdam in 1864 are outstanding examples of early Dutch photography. The airy beauty of the empty building—only rows of chairs, tables, building materials, and an occasional figure can be be seen—is well-captured. Although signed ‘W&M’, these photos should actually be attributed to Mottu rather than Wegner, considering the former’s interest in architecture. In the early 1870s, Mottu photographed various buildings designed by the architect H.J. van den Brink: the Aartsbisschoppelijk Seminarie Rijsenburg (‘Archbishop’s Seminary Rijsenburg’) and the villa ‘De Brink’, both in Driebergen; P.G.C. Hajenius’ cigar warehouse ‘De Rijnstroom’, and the De Groote Club Society, both in Amsterdam. The Rijksmuseum, designed by the architect Pierre Cuypers, was photographed in its final building phase (1884-’85). In the late 1860s and early ’70s, the firm also photographed the construction of the North Sea Canal, and a decade later, a number of sluice bridges in Brabant. Hydraulic engineering projects such as these were photographed not only by Wegner & Mottu, but also by others. Refined vistas along the longitudinal axes of bridges, canals, dikes, and dams, such as found in the photos of J. van Gorkom Jr, J.G. Hameter, Pieter Oosterhuis, and Julius Perger, are almost entirely lacking in Mottu’s work.

Under Mottu’s direction, Wegner & Mottu grew to become a highly diverse company. A rather ineloquently formulated jury report from the Internationale Tentoonstelling van Photographie (‘International Exhibition of Photography’) of 1877 reveals just that. As a jury member for this exhibition, Mottu himself was ineligible for the Gouden Stedelijke Medaille (‘Gold Civic Medal’), upon which it was decided to award the prize to Pieter Oosterhuis. In the jury report, we read the following: ‘Were Mr. Mottu not a member of the Jury, then the firm Wegner & Mottu, through its numerous and important entries encompassing virtually the entire field of photography, would have been eligible for the highest distinction.’ The firm also enjoyed a good reputation outside photographers’ circles. In response to the J.P. Oppers’ request to receive the title of ‘hoffotograaf’ (‘court photographer’) in 1874, the mayor of Amsterdam observed: ‘By now I believe that he [Oppers] must not be placed higher than the firm Wegner & Mottu or the photographer Offenberg here, who are both very laudable in their profession.’

‘The entire field of photography’ stated in the 1877 jury report was also made in reference to photographic printing via photomechanical techniques. Mottu demonstrated a great interest in technical innovations, especially those in the area of photomechanical printing techniques. Accounts of meetings held at the APV (Amsterdamsche Photographen Vereeniging, ‘Amsterdam Photographers Association’), of which Mottu was president from 1872-’74, indicate he experimented regularly with new processes and chemicals, as well as optics. In 1874, he sat on a committee for experimentation with new techniques. At a certain point, Mottu even added a photography studio to the printing company. Mottu applied most of the photomechanical printing techniques: collotype, photolithography, ‘mottutype’ (i.e. photogalvanography), photogravure, and relief halftone. For various magazines and books, particularly in the areas of architecture and art, Mottu printed illustration material, e.g. for the three volumes of the De Nederlandsche Kunstbode (‘The Netherlands Art Courier’, 1879-1881), and from 1881, various volumes of the Bouwkundig Tijdschrift (‘Architectural Magazine’) and Bouwkundig Weekblad (‘Architectural Weekly’). In most cases, this primarily involved photomechanical printing techniques such as photolithography and collotype. While numerous examples of this work have been preserved, very little is known about the printing company itself.

In the annually published Algemeen Adresboek voor den Boekhandel (‘General Address Book of Booksellers’, later ‘Brinkman’s Address Book’), which lists the printing companies in the Netherlands for each year, Wegner & Mottu’s business name appears starting in 1878 under the category ‘Photographie- Copiëer-Inrichtingen’ (‘Photography-Copying-Institutions’), and starting in 1885, under ‘Photographie-Copiëer- en Phototypie [= lichtdruk]-Inrichtingen en Agenturen’ (‘Photography-Copying-and Collotype-Institutions and Agencies’). The company is not found once under the heading photolithographic printing companies, even though Wegner & Mottu are known to have done photolithographic printing work as early as 1869. It was in this year that the two men began working with the lithographer A. Kroon. At the new ‘Photo-Lithographisch en Lithographisch Etablissement’ (‘Photo-Lithographic and Lithographic Establishment’), the E.I. Asser variant of photolithography was applied. Primarily architectural drawings appear to have been printed using photolithography. In a prospectus, the business partners also recommend this technique for regular commercial printed matter. In 1872, this collaboration was ended. Both Mottu and Kroon continued to apply Asser’s method. During the Internationale Tentoonstelling van Voorwerpen voor de Huishouding en het Bedrijf van den Handwerksman (‘International Exhibition of Objects for the Craftsman’s Household and Business’), held at the Paleis voor Volksvlijt in Amsterdam in 1869, Mottu took an extensive series of shots featuring the building, the grounds around it, the stands, and the objects exhibited. Although he announced plans to make and sell both photographic and photolithographic prints of these shots, no examples of the latter are known to exist. Mottu is likely to have changed his mind about printing with this technique due to the mediocre reproduction of tonal greys. Photolithography would ultimately prove to be most suitable for reproducing line drawings. Magazines and books published in the last quarter of the nineteenth century include various examples of Wegner & Mottu’s work in this area. In 1881, Mottu began printing photolithographic illustrations for the magazines Bouwkundig Tijdschrift and Bouwkundig Weekblad. He continued to do so for years.

In the same period, Mottu also applied the collotype process. Along with Julius Schaarwachter, he is certain to have been the first in the Netherlands to do so. Mottu is likely to have been in contact with C.M. Tessié du Motay and Ch.R. Maréchal as early as 1867, as it was in this year that a collotype was made from one of his negatives. Jakob Husnik, another inventor of the collotype, offered his invention to various individuals for sale in late 1868. In a letter addressed to Vojto Naprstk and dated 14 December 1868, Husnik wrote that he had asked a price of Dfl. 2,000 from Wegner & Mottu, without giving up his right to sell to other interested parties. Mottu, however, wished to receive sole rights. Husnik turned down Mottu’s offer to make him the director of a collotype printing company in Amsterdam: he had no desire to leave his wife and family behind, nor to give up his pension insurance. It remains unclear whether Mottu went ahead and obtained a license for Husnik’s process or chose to acquire one from his competitor, Joseph Albert. The earliest known collotypes by Mottu date from 1871: a portrait and a cityscape appearing in the Photographische Correspondenz (‘Photographic Correspondence’), and two shots of the steamship ‘Willem III’, which was probably published as loose plates by Jan D. Brouwer. In a business prospectus from March 1872, Mottu wrote the following about the collotype process: ‘To make this method known, since a couple years we have worked with it ourselves and processed orders, but for some time we have been receiving more and more orders, so that as time goes by it would no longer possible for us to give this necessary care, more so because there are numerous difficulties associated with the process mentioned, and one has to be working with it exclusively in order to produce perfect, good work.’ Consequently, from this time forward, the firm would contract this work out to an undesignated printing company abroad, with orders of less than 100 prints being refused.

Mottu applied photolithography and collotype depending on the subject at hand. Line or pen drawings were chiefly carried out with photolithography. The collotype was used for the remaining subjects, as Mottu wrote in 1881: ‘For the replication of subjects not comprised exclusively of lines and points by means of the press, such as e.g.: photographs, oil paintings, watercolours, pastels, etc. etc., the best process is the Alberttype, also called the Collotype or Photogravure.’ Wegner & Mottu’s art reproductions were produced with both techniques. It would appear that Mottu scarcely printed photogravures. On a written estimate drawn up in 1885 for Het Rijks-Museum te Amsterdam (‘The Rijksmuseum of Amsterdam’), an album that was to be published under the supervision of P.J.H. Cuypers, Victor de Stuers wrote in the margin: ‘ask Wegner & Mottu of he can do that. If not, then he has to learn it’. In this case, however, Mottu was never obliged to learn photogravure, as the commission to print the album was ultimately awarded to someone else.

Mottu also worked with photoxylography, a technique that involved transferring the image photographically to a wooden block, after which it was engraved by hand according to the standard method. In 1869, Mottu had five of his photos from the Internationale Tentoonstelling van Voorwerpen voor de Huishouding en het Bedrijf van den Handwerksman transferred to wood for publication in the magazine De Hollandsche Illustratie (‘The Dutch Illustration’). These woodblocks were likely engraved elsewhere. In illustrated magazines such as De Hollandsche Illustratie, no high-quality photomechanical techniques such as photolithography or collotype were ever applied. At most, the photoxylography was used, i.e. the photographic equivalent of the wood engraving. Wood engraving had long been the most frequently applied technique when it came to illustrating printed matter for more modest purposes. As the nineteenth century progressed, competition grew with the emergence of all kinds of graphic and photomechanical techniques. Among them was also Mottu’s variant of Paul Pretsch’s photogalvanography, called the ‘mottutype’. Mottu himself referred to this technique also as the ‘phototype’ or ‘phototypography’, with which he experimented starting in about 1870. In any event, his intention was to ‘replace the wood engraving’. Not only were reproductions of engravings and drawings made with the mottutype, but also prints of photographic negatives that were produced ‘from nature’. The results are highly similar to wood engravings. Pretsch had already patented the principle of photogalvanography in relief printing in 1854. There are no indications that Mottu introduced any significantly new improvements to the original. In 1873, two examples of the ‘mottugraphy’ were donated to the Société Française de Photographie.

One of Mottu’s last activities prior to leaving for Paris in 1887 was his collaboration on the album Het Rijks-Museum te Amsterdam (with text by Victor de Stuers), which, after years of preparation, appeared in volumes during the years 1891 to 1895. Mottu was one of the parties who had submitted an estimate in 1885 to P.J.H. Cuypers, the building’s architect and the person overseeing the publication, for the printing of the album. In the end, Amand received the commission. Notwithstanding, Mottu did in fact furnish forty-five negatives for the collotype images. With the exception of one, these shots were taken between May 1884 and February 1885, i.e. prior to the building’s completion. No more than ten of the negatives were ultimately used in the album.

Mottu left the Netherlands, but continued to be a partner in Wegner & Mottu. As far as can be determined, he returned to Amsterdam once a year to personally review the company’s activities. Without doubt, Mottu was no longer taking photos himself. In the years following his departure, no works of remarkable quality are known to have been produced. Pieter Jan Dekema took over the running of the company. After 1887, portraits appear to have comprised the biggest share of the firm’s production. They are hardly to be distinguished from those produced by the other major portrait studios. The firm continued to produce printed matter, with most evidently done with photolithography. The company ceased to exist during the years of World War I.

From circa 1850 to circa 1917—almost seventy years—the firm that bore the names of Wegner and Mottu held an established place in Dutch photography. The two original partners each had their part in the outstanding achievements of the company’s early days. Mottu likewise contributed to the development and distribution of printed photography. Following Mottu’s departure in 1887—Wegner died in 1864—the business was affected by the general malaise in Dutch photography. The portraits produced by the studio, albeit in large quantities, rarely surpassed above-average quality. After 1887, Wegner & Mottu survived for an additional thirty years without any noticeable achievements. This would indeed have negative repercussions for the two photographers’ reputations, whose names would long be associated with mediocre work.


Primary bibliography

Prospectus ter aankondiging van de oprichting van het “Photo-Lithographisch en Lithographisch Etablissement”, Amsterdam juli 1869.

Prospectus Nieuwe uitvinding/Lichtdruk, Amsterdam maart 1872.

P.A. Mottu, Eenvoudige wijze om met een objectief grootere of kleinere beelden te maken, van hetzelfde voorwerp, op denzelfden afstand, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 1 (april 1873) 9, p. 136-138.

P.A. Mottu, Phototypie, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 2 (juni 1874) 11, p. 167-169.

P.A. Mottu, Phototypie, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 3 (augustus 1874) 1, afb. t.o. titelpagina, p. 5.

P.A. Mottu, De Tentoonstelling van Photographiën in de Zalen van Arti-Amicitiae in 1874, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 3, (november 1874) 4, p. 57-62.

P.A. Mottu, Over kooldruk, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 3 (mei 1875) 10, p. 148-154.

Advertentie in Catalogus Tentoonstelling van Hulpmiddelen voor den Boekhandel, Amsterdam 1881, p. 8.


images in:

Amsterdamsche Studenten-Almanak 1865, t.o. titelpagina.

Amsterdamsche Studenten-Almanak 1866, t.o. titelpagina.

Amsterdamsche Studenten-Almanak 1867, t.o. titelpagina.

H.J. Koenen, Over de beide staatspartijen in de voormalige Republiek der Vereenigde Nederlanden, Amsterdam (C.G. van der Post) 1868, na p. 65.

(Album) Internationale Tentoonstelling 15 July 1869 18 October Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1869.

Neêrland’s Nieuwe Kunst. Photographiën naar J.W. Bilders, J. Bosboom, Hein J. Burgers [e.a.], Amsterdam (Jan Leendertz & Zoon) z.j. 1870.

Photographische Correspondent 8 (1871), na p. 38, 228.

Almanak van het Leidsche Studentencorps 1871, t.o. titelpagina.

H.J. van den Brink, Uitgevoerde bouwwerken en ontwerpen van den architect H.J. van den Brink…, Amsterdam (Frans Buffa & Zoonen) ca. 1873.

Henry Havard, Les Quatres Dernières Siècles, Étude artistique, Haarlem (J.M. Schalekamp) z.j. (1874).

Reproductien van de Tentoonstelling van Kunstwerken van Levende Meesters in de Kunstzalen der Maatschappij Arti et Amicitiae gefotografeerd in onveranderlijken druk en uitgegeven door Wegner & Mottu, Amsterdam 1876.

Mededeelingen van de Rijks-Adviseurs voor de Monumenten van Geschiedenis en Kunst, Den Haag 1876.

E. Colinet en A.D. de Vries, Kunstvoorwerpen uit vroegere eeuwen, Amsterdam 1877.

Nederlandsche Kunstbode (Nieuwe Serie), 1 (1879), na p. 212.

Nederlandsche Kunstbode (Nieuwe Serie), 2 (1880), nap. 100, 172, 196, 284.

Victor de Stuers, De Ruïne van Brederode, Haarlem (W.C. de Graaff) 1880, 2de druk, t.o. titelpagina, na p. 10.

Nederlandsche Kunstbode (Nieuwe Serie), 3 (1881), t.o. titelpagina, nap. 84, 140, 204, 228, 316, 348.

Bouwkundig Tijdschrift vanaf 1 (1881).

Bouwkundig Weekblad vanaf 1 (1881).

Utrechtsche Studenten-Almanak 1882, t.o. titelpagina.

Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Bouwkunst, Rapport over de Bouwkunst op de Internationale Koloniale- en Uitvoerhandel-Tentoonstelling te Amsterdam 1883, Amsterdam (Erven H. van Munster & Zoon) 1883 (serie: (Bouwkundige Bijdragen deel 30).

Utrechtsche Studenten-Almanak 1884, t.o. titelpagina.

Uit het Paradijs des Levens. Proza en poëzie bijeenverzameld door F.H. van Leent, Amsterdam (Jan Leendertz.) z.j. (1885).

Propria Cures 4 februari 1890.

Neêrland’s Nieuwe Kunst. Lichtdrukken naar J.W. Bilders, J. Bosboom, Hein J. Burgers [e.a.]. Met oorspronkelijke gedichten van N. Beets [e.a.], Amsterdam (Jan Leendertz & Zoon) 1890, 2de druk.

Amsterdamsche Studenten-Almanak 1891, t.o. titelpagina.

P.J.H. Cuypers (samenstelling) en Victor de Stuers (tekst), Het Rijks-Museum te Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1891-1895.

C.T.J. Louis Rieber, De Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Bouwkunst van 1842 tot 1892, Amsterdam (Erven H. van Munster & Zoon) 1892, na p. 36, 52 (serie: Bouwkundig Tijdschrift deel XII en Bouwkundige Bijdragen deel 31). Vademecum der Bouwvakken 7 (1892) 20, pl. 26.

Claude Magelhaes [=Jan Coppens], Nederlandse fotografie. De eerste honderdjaar, Utrecht/Antwerpen (A.W. Bruna & Zoon) 1969, p. XIV, afb. 27.

A. Graafhuis, De Utrechtsche Heeren Zeventien, Utrecht (HES) 1984.

K.M. Veenland-Heineman en A.A.E. Vels Heijn, Het nieuwe Rijks Museum, Ontwerpen en bouwen 1863-1885, Amsterdam (Rijksmuseum) 1985, p. 8.

W. Otterspeer, De wiekslag van hun geest, De Leidse universiteit in de negentiende eeuw, Den Haag/Haarlem (Stichting Hollandse Historische Reeks) 1992, p. 132, 256, 259.

Jeroen Brouwers, Twee verwoeste levens, in De Nieuwe Engelbewaarder 4 (november 1993), p. 33.

Secondary bibliography

Auteur onbekend, Een blik op de Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie (11), in Amsterdamsche Courant 31 mei 1855.

Auteur onbekend, Récompenses accordées à la suite de l’Exposition d’Amsterdam, in Bulletin de la Société Française de Photographie 1 (1855), p. 187.

Auteur onbekend, Photographie a Amsterdam, in Revue Photographique l857, p. 373.

Auteur onbekend, Tentoonstelling van Photografie in het lokaal der Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt te Amsterdam, in Amsterdamsche Courant 27 juli 1858.

Maurice Aubert, Souveniers du Salon de 1859, Parijs (Jules Tardien) 1859, p. 355.

Philippe Burty, La Photographie en 1861, in Gazette des Beaux-Arts 3 (1861), dl. XI, p. 242.

J.A. van Eijk, De tentoonstelling te Londen in 1862, in De Volksvlijt 1865, p. 102.

E.J. Asser, De tentoonstelling van Photographie in het Paleis van Volksvlijt, te Amsterdam, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 2 (1865), p. 305-308.

Tijdschrift voor Photographie 2 (1865), p. 323.

Auteur onbekend, Internationale Tentoonstelling van Voorwerpen voor de Huishouding en het Bedrijf van den Handwerksman, in het Paleis voor Volksvlijt te Amsterdam, 1869 (I), in Amsterdamsche Courant 31 juli 1869.

Auteur onbekend, Internationale Tentoonstelling van Voorwerpen voor de Huishouding en het Bedrijf van den Handwerksman, in het Paleis voor Volksvlijt te Amsterdam, 1869 (VI), in Amsterdamsche Courant 27 augustus 1869.

Auteur onbekend, Internationale Tentoonstelling van Voorwerpen voor de Huishouding en het Bedrijf van den Handwerksman, in het Paleis voor Volksvlijt te Amsterdam, 1869 (XI), in Amsterdamsche Courant 15 oktober 1869.

Auteur onbekend, Kort verslag van de vergadering der Amsterd. Photographen-Vereeniging, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 2 (januari 1874) 6, p. 84.

Auteur onbekend, Kort verslag van de vergadering der Amsterd. Photographen-Vereeniging, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 2 (april 1874) 9, p. 130-131.

Auteur onbekend, Kort verslag van de vergadering der Amsterd. Photographen-Vereeniging, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 3 (december 1874) 5, p. 65-67.

H.L.J. Haakman en F.A. van West, Nog eens de “Tentoonstelling van Photographiën”. Antwoord aan den Heer P.A. Mottu, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 3 (januari 1875) 6, p. 85-94.

Auteur onbekend, Procès-verbal de la séance du 5 février 1875, Assemblée générale de la Société, in Bulletin de la Société Française de Photographie 21 (1875), p. 30.

H.C.A.L. Fock, Populaire aesthetische beschouwingen over de symmetrie of de bevallige proportiën, Utrecht (W.F. Dannenfelser) 1875, p. 47.

H., Eene revolutie in de verlichting des ateliers, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 5 (april 1877) 4, p. 84.

E.J. Asser e.a., Rapport der Jury ter bekroning van inzendingen op de Internationale Tentoonstelling van Photographiën enz., in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 5 (oktober 1877) 10, p. 186.

Auteur onbekend, Een wandeling op de Fotografische Tentoonstelling sept.-oct. 1891, in Lux 3 (november 1891), p. 55.

J. Husnik, Das Gesamtgebiet des Lichtdrucks…, Wenen (A. Hartleben’s Verlag) 1894, 4de druk, p. 10.

J.M. Eder, Geschichte der Photographie, Halle a.S. 1905, 3de druk, p. 405, Tafel XI.

A. Albert, Technischer Führer durch die Reproduktions-Verfahren und deren Bezeichnungen, Halle am Saaie (Wilhelm Knapp) 1908, p. 169.

C.M. Dewald, Iets over de geschiedenis der kunstfotografie, in Fotografisch Maandschrift 4 (januari 1909), p. 67.

Nieuws van den Dag 15 januari 1910. Carl Brun, Schweizerisches Künstler-Lexikon …, III. Band, Frauenfeld 1913, p. 451.

G.A. Evers, Hoe de fotografie in Nederland kwam [VI], in Lux 26 (1 september 1915) 17, p. 338.

S. Rood, Procédé Asser, in Het Tarief 24 februari 1923, p. 58-59.

J.M. Eder, Geschichte der Photographie, Halle (Saaie) (Wilhelm Knapp) 1932, 4de druk, p. 601, 832-833.

F. de Haas, Oude herinneringen III, in Bedrijjsfotografie 19 (14 mei 1937) l0, p. 191-192.

J. Geselschap, Uit de geschiedenis van de fotografie, in Maandblad Amstelodamum 47, (1960), p. 107.

Jan Coppens, Staatsieportretten van Louis Wegner, in Foto 30 (juni 1975) 6, p. 56-59.

Jan Coppens, Een camera vol stilte, Amsterdam (Meulenhoff) 1976, ongepag., afb. 134, 199, 261, 263.

Jan Coppens, De Talbotypie in Nederland, in Foto 32 (augustus 1977) 8, p. 29.

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1839-1920, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978, p. 14-15, 51, 69, 102, 107 (met foto’s).

Jan Coppens, Mr. Jan Adriaan van Eijk (1808-1887), amateurfotograaf, in Jaarboek Amstelodamum 70 (1978), p. 357.

H. Reeser, De kasboekjes van H.C. Andersen over zijn reizen door Nederland, in Jaarboek Amstelodamum 72 (1980), p. 162, 165.

Jean Sagne, L’atelier du photographe (1840-1940), Parijs (Presses de la Renaissance) 1984, p. 190-192.

Catalogus tent. De andere fotografie. De geschiedenis van de fotomechanische reproduktie in de negentiende eeuw, Middelburg (Zeeuws Museum) 1989, p. 33.

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf (red.), Het Fotografisch Museum van Auguste Grégoire. Een vroege Nederlandse fotocollectie, Den Haag (SDU) 1989, p. 62, 203.

L. Roosens, De fotomechanische procédés, in Photohistorisch Tijdschrift 12 (1989) 1, p. 14.

Robbert van Venetië en Annet Zondervan, Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse architectuurfotografie, Rotterdam (010) 1989, p. 11-12, 40-41, 58, 63, 139.

Jan Coppens, Laurent Roosens en Karel van Deuren, “… door de enkele werking van het licht…” Introductie en integratie van de fotografie in België en Nederland, 1839-1869, z.p. (Antwerpen) (Gemeentekrediet) 1989, p. 76, 99, 107-111, 260, 264-265, 286, 291.

R.R., IJs in zwart-wit, in Plaatsbepaling (uitgave van het Maritiem Museum Prins Hendrik) (1990) 31, p. 3.

Johan de Zoete, Zomaar een plaatje? De introductie van nieuwe illustratietechnieken in Nederland in de negentiende eeuw, z.p. (Coördinatiecommissie Grafische Musea) 1991, p. 19-20.

Joost Groeneboer, In het licht van de fotograaf, Amsterdam (Nederlands Theater Instituut/International Theatre & Film Books) 1991, p. 20, 35, 37-38, 58-60, 114.

Rudolf Skopec, Biografie lichtdrukpionier Jakob Husnik (vertaling door Ad van Iersel en Theo van Doremalen), z.p. 1992, p. 13-14.

Anneke van Veen, Pieter Oosterhuis 1816-1885, Amsterdam (Fragment) 1993, p. 45, 52, 132.

Hans Rooseboom, Op staatskosten, Het album ‘Het Rijks-Museum te Amsterdam’, in Nieuwsbrief Nederlands Fotogenootschap 2 (1994) 7, p. 6-8.

Mattie Boom en Hans Rooseboom, Wandeling in foto’s. Een album van de Internationale Tentoonstelling van Voorwerpen voor de Huishouding en het Bedrijf van den Handwerksman, 1869, in Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap. Jaarverslagen CXXIII (1990-1991) – CXXVI (1993-1994).


Amsterdamsche Photographen-Vereeniging, vanaf 1872 (Mottu).


1855 Gouden medaille, Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie, Amsterdam.

1858 Zilveren medaille, Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie, Amsterdam.

1866 Zilveren medaille, Algemene Tentoonstelling van Nederlandsche Nijverheid, Amsterdam.

1874 Een “prijs 1e klasse” voor “Phototypie”, Internationale Tentoonstelling van Photographiën, Amsterdam.

1877 Bronzen medaille, Tentoonstelling van Kunst toegepast op Nijverheid, Amsterdam.

1881 Tentoonstelling van Hulpmiddelen voor den Boekhandel, Amsterdam.


1850 (g) Amsterdam, Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten, Tentoonstelling van Kunstwerken van Levende Meesters.

1852 (g) Amsterdam, Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten, Tentoonstelling van Kunstwerken van Levende Meesters.

1855 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie.

1855 (g) Den Haag, Teekenakademie aan den Boschkant, Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie.

1858 (g) Amsterdam, lokaal Vereeniging voor Volksvlijt, Tentoonstelling van Photographie en Heliographie.

1862 (g) Londen, Crystal Palace, International Exhibition.

1865 (g) Amsterdam, Paleis voor Volksvlijt, Tentoonstelling van Photographie, Photolithographie, enz.

1866 (g) Amsterdam, Paleis voor Volksvlijt, Algemene Tentoonstelling van Nederlandsche Nijverheid.

1869 (g) Groningen, Academiegebouw, Tentoonstelling van Photographiën, Natuurzelfdruk en Kleurendruk.

1874 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Tentoonstelling van Photographiën.

1877 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Internationale Tentoonstelling van Photographie.

1877 (g) Amsterdam, Paleis voor Volksvlijt, Tentoonstelling van Kunst toegepast op Nijverheid.

1881 (g) Amsterdam, Tentoonstelling van Hulpmiddelen voor den Boekhandel.

1885 (g) Nederlandsche Boekhandel Tentoonstelling.

1891 (g) Amsterdam, Militiezaal, Internationale Tentoonstelling tot Bevordering der Fotografie.

1969 (g) Den Bosch, Noord-Brabants Museum, Nederlandse Fotografie, de eerste honderd jaar (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1977 (g) Eindhoven, Stedelijk Van Abbe Museum, Het Groepsportret, 1845-1922.

1978 (g) Leiden, Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal, Belicht Verleden. Fotografie in Nederland 1839-1920 (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1989 (g) Rotterdam, Tentoonstellingsruimte Oude Binnenweg 113, Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse architectuurfotografie.


Amsterdam, Gemeentearchief (o.a. archief Tentoonstellingen van Kunstwerken van Levende Meesters, archief Bouw- en woningtoezicht).

Amsterdam, Bibliotheek van de Koninklijke Vereeniging ter Bevordering van de Belangen des Boekhandels.

Boxtel, Ad van Iersel (mondelinge informatie).

Den Haag, Gemeentearchief (onder andere archief Vereeniging tot Bevordering van Fabriek- en Handwerksnijverheid in Nederland).

Den Haag, Koninklijk Huisarchief (documentatie).

Frankenthal (Duitsland), Standesamt (schriftelijke informatie).

Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.

Parijs, Société Française de Photographie (documentatie).

Rotterdam, Nederlands Architectuurinstituut (archief-Cuypers).

Utrecht, Johan de Zoete (mondelinge informatie).


Amsterdam, Gemeentearchief.

Amsterdam, Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap.

Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum (bibliotheek en prentenkabinet).

Amsterdam, Scheepvaartmuseum.

Amsterdam, Theater Instituut Nederland.

Amsterdam, Universiteitsmuseum De Agnietenkapel.

Den Haag, Algemeen Rijksarchief.

Den Haag, Gemeentearchief.

Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum.

Den Haag, Koninklijk Huisarchief.

Den Haag, Letterkundig Museum en Documentatiecentrum.

Den Haag, Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet der Rijksuniversiteit Leiden.

Parijs, Société Française de Photographie.

Rotterdam, Gemeentearchief.

Rotterdam, Maritiem Museum Prins Hendrik.

Utrecht, Spoorwegmuseum.

Utrecht, Universiteitsmuseum.