PhotoLexicon, Volume 10, nr. 21 (June 1993) (en)

Hans Staal

Marga Altena


Hans Staal—by origin an amateur photographer—decided only later on in life to make photography his profession. In his autonomous work, he was a pictorial photographer with a preference for landscape photography. He photographed picturesque farms and the beautiful nature of the Dutch region Twente. Staal was extremely active as a (board-) member of the HAFV (Hengelosche Amateur Fotografen Vereniging, ‘Hengelo Amateur Photographers Association’). He taught classes in photography and was often a jury member at competitions and exhibitions. For years he was an examiner at the NFVS (Nederlandse Fotovakschool, ‘Netherlands Vocational School of Photography’) in The Hague. Staal achieved notoriety not only through his award-winning photographic work, but also from the many articles he wrote and published.




Johannes Gerardus (Hans) Staal is born on 27 April te Smilde as the son of Gerardus Benardus Staal (1842), school headmaster by profession, and Catharina Adriana Brouwer (1852). As the school headmaster, Hans’ father is a distinguished citizen of the village.

Staal completes a course in carpentry at the vocational school and works for a while as a carpenter. He also receives instruction for several years in the areas of bridge-building and hydraulic engineering from the head supervisor of ‘Fortifications’ in Assen and studies at the Eerste Technische School voor de Bouwkunde (‘First Technical School of Architectural Engineeering’) in Zwolle.


After Staal’s father retires, the family moves to Assen on 10 May. His father purchases store premises, where Rein Staal, Hans’ brother, opens a pharmacy/optician/photo store. It is here that Hans Staal first comes into contact with photography.

On 3 February, Hans departs for Nieuwerkerk (Zeeland), where he is employed as ‘a construction supervisor/draughtsman for home-building’.


From 1 August 1912 to 15 June 1915, Staal is employed as a ‘special construction supervisor’ with Rijkswaterstaat (‘National Department of Public Works and Water Management’) at various locations around the country.


Staal works as a construction supervisor/draughtsman for the ‘Technisch Bureau Ir. W.K. van Oort c.i.’ (‘Technical Bureau’) in Groningen. Staal resides at Vlasstraat 14A in Groningen.


In Assen, Staal weds Aaltje Leeuwe (1896) of Groningen on 27 March. Three children are born into the Staal family: Gerard Adriaan (1922), Jacob Cornelis (1926), and Willemina Katharina (1932).


On 1 November, Staal applies for the position ‘land surveyor/draughtsman for the department of expansion planning and expropriations’ with the Public Works department of Hengelo. Staal is hired as a ‘supervisor first class’ with a temporary contract.


On 21 January, Staal registers as an inhabitant of Hengelo with the civil registry.

He begins working for his new employer on 1 February. He resides at Twekkelerweg 147, but moves to Wilderinksplein 6 on 1 April.


In this year, Staal begins to regularly publish articles in photography magazines. He also exhibits work at photo exhibitions. The HAFV (Hengelosche Amateur Fotografen Vereniging, ‘Hengelo Amateur Photographers Association’) is established on 31 March, with Staal being one of its co-founders. On 27 October, Staal is chosen as the ‘second secretary’ of the HAFV.


On 28 September, Staal becomes ‘first secretary’ of the HAFV.


On 9 May, Staal ‘is honourably discharged as a temporary supervisor first class due to a cutback in the department of Public Works as of 1 January 1925.’ As a result of being laid off, Staal is ‘without any significant income during the period 1 January 1925 and to 27 May 1925’. Staal’s wife works for a while as a teacher. Staal is unsuccessful at finding new work in construction and considers leaving Hengelo. With a bit of personal savings and a loan, Staal rents a store premises with an upstairs apartment in the centre of Hengelo at Enschedeschestraat 6. On 27 May, the ‘De Twentsche Fotohandel’ (‘The Twente Photo Store’) opens its doors: the first store specialised in photography in Hengelo. Following the store’s opening, Staal takes a course in ‘photo sales’. Staal steps down from the board of the HAFV due to his heavy workload at the store. Staal is offered an honorary membership in the HAFV. His wife becomes a member.


In addition to photography, Staal also works with 8 mm film.


The photography store has grown into a booming business and accordingly requires larger premises. A home is purchased at Marktplein 7 and converted into a store with two floors of living quarters. On 11 November, the Staal family moves in above the photography store. Staal’s wife now works full-time in the business.


The ‘Filmgroep Staal’ (‘Staal Film Group’) is established, with the company’s aim being ‘the production, projection, hire and rental of 8 mm films, together with the rental of accessory equipment.’


For the Verbond voor Veilig Verkeer (‘Alliance of Traffic Safety’), Hans Staal and his apprentice Hille Kleinstra make the film documentary Veilig Verkeer (‘Traffic Safety’).


Starting in 1942, the Staal family provides shelter to two people who have gone into hiding stemming from the German occupation. In the final year of World War II, another couple also takes refuge in their home. All survive the war.


A portrait studio is added during a renovation, operated under the name ‘Foto Studio Staal’.


Jaap Staal, the youngest son, has now become a certified photographer/photography dealer. He begins working in the business as an operations manager. He later has other ambitions and leaves the business in 1953.


Staal’s oldest son, Gerard, takes over the business.


With business waning, Filmgroep Staal is shut down and incorporated within De Twentsche Fotohandel. From this time forward, Staal limits his activity to photography alone.


The building on the Burgemeester Jansenplein (previously ‘Marktplein’) is expropriated and torn down in connection with the construction of a new city hall. Starting on 19 November, Staal resides Stationsplein 47 in Hengelo. The store is also located on the Stationsplein and is now called ‘Staal Foto Film’.

Hans Staal remains active as a photographer, but no longer in a professional capacity. In this period, he takes primarily slide shots.


The building on the Stationsplein burns down, marking the definitive end of the photography store.


Staal is one of the few photographers in the Netherlands who still works with fine printing (‘edeldruk’) processes. Together with his wife, he works on a photobook about Hengelo. The project is never realised.


Starting on 8 June, Staal resides at ‘t Swafert 66.


On 17 February, Mrs. Staal-Leeuwe dies. On 8 March, Hans Staal dies in Hengelo at the age of eighty-eight.


Hans Staal was known in Hengelo as a mild-mannered, modest man. He was musical, just like his father, and played piano and sang enthusiastically. He also loved painting. When it came to photography, Staal was drawn to its artistic possibilities. Landscape photography was his favourite. With fine printing (‘edeldruk’) processes such as the bromoil print and the bromoil print transfer, he managed to achieve results that were artistically romantic.

Not only was his photographic work lauded and awarded, Staal was also known and admired for his numerous articles published in photography magazines, both in the Netherlands and abroad.

Staal first came into contact with photography through his brother Rein Staal, who owned a pharmacy, optician, and photography business in Assen. It was there that Hans learned the principles of photography. Without having any formal photography education, Hans was obliged to master his photographic technique through practical exercises and self-study. Staal had grown to become a skilled photographer. Upon becoming a member of the HAFV (Hengelosche Amateur Fotografen Vereniging, ‘Hengelo Amateur Photographers Association’) in 1922, he began advising his fellow amateur co-members almost immediately. Nothing is known of Staal’s photographic activity prior to 1922. Certain, however, is that by this time he had already been active as an amateur photographer for several years.

In 1922, Staal was one of the co-founders of the HAFV. He would become a very active member, serving as the secretary, teaching classes in photography, giving lectures, and organising exhibitions.

The fact that Staal was offered an honorary membership in the HAFV in 1925—when having plans to leave Hengelo—affirmed that he had become a much loved member of the association within a short period of time.

In those years, the HAFV played a prominent role in amateur photography circles in the Netherlands. Besides Staal, there were also several other successful photographers originating from the HAFV, with the names K.G. Bijlstra, Henk Mersel, and GJ. Speekhout regularly mentioned in exhibition records. The romantic landscape photography produced by these photographers became known as ‘The Hengelo School’. Their photos were frequently published in Focus and appeared in the Nederlandsch Jaarboek voor Fotokunst (‘Netherlands Yearbook of Photographic Art’).

Speekhout, who was a board member of the HAFV for a period of time, first came into contact with photography as a personal friend of Staal’s. He was the first editor of the Nederlandsch Jaarboek voor Fotokunst and would later gain notoriety as the chief editor of Kleinbeeld-foto (’35mm Photo’).

J.C. Mol, co-editor of Focus, first became acquainted with Staal’s work when presenting a lecture to the HAFV in late March 1922. He advised Staal to enter competitions. Apparently, it was this meeting that inspired Staal to assume a more public role as a photographer. Staal’s success at the HAFV may also have contributed to his self-confidence. Starting in 1922, Staal’s photos were frequently featured in photography magazines, as well as written contributions on photography.

The readers of the magazine Focus were first introduced to the photographic work of ‘den cameradichter’ (‘the camera poet’) J.G. Staal in 1922. Prior to this time, his work had already been praised for its highly exquisite technique and its painterly qualities: ‘in an exceptionally fortunate way, the desire to create a picture that has the qualities of a painting (was) satisfied through the assistance of photography’. In 1923, Staal was introduced as a photographer in the magazine De Camera. After this, he contributed to both magazines on a regular basis. The articles he wrote were engaging, in which he assumed the role of someone promoting the fine printing processes and landscape photography. He participated in competitions and exhibitions with success. His work was published and earned him awards not just in the Netherlands, but also in Great Britain and Germany. In 1943, Staal published an article on landscape photography in the Nederlandsch Jaarboek voor Fotokunst. In this same period, he wrote an essay on fine printing processes at the request of J.C. Mol, which was disseminated throughout the Netherlands and Belgium. It remains unclear whether this occurred in the form of a printed booklet or a stenciled copy.

In the 1960s, Staal wrote a ‘Korte Handleiding voor Broomverfdruk of Pigmogravure’ (‘Short Manual for the Bromoil Ink Print or Pigmo Engraving’).

In the 1970s, Staal and his wife made attempts to compile a photobook featuring the topographic photography of Hengelo prior to World War II. The book was never published, however, as the financial risks involved proved to be too substantial.

When Staal was fired from his job as an architectural draughtsman in 1925, he decided to turn his hobby into his profession. The magazine Focus announced the opening of ‘De Twentsche Fotohandel’ (‘The Twente Photo Store’) in Hengelo on 27 May: ‘First rate in this industrial city’. It was also the first store specialised in photography in the province of Twente. Prior to this time, photo stores were customarily combined with pharmacy or framing business.

The photography store soon proved to be a success, in part thanks to Staal’s wife, who oversaw all business matters. Even though Staal was solely interested in artistic photography, as a professional photographer he was now also obliged to work on the commissions he received. Among his rapidly expanding clientele were the manufacturers and store-owners of Hengelo. Staal photographed businesses and stores, including festivities at openings and anniversaries. As portrait photography failed to interest him, he left this kind of work preferably to his personnel.

The years of the economic depression led to a decline in business, though the store managed to survive the years of World War II fairly well. Passport photos for identity papers provided one source of income. Staal also took farmers’ photo portraits in exchange for food provisions. By the end of 1945, business had pretty much returned to normal, in part thanks to his German clientele and, after the liberation, English soldiers.

For Hans Staal, photography was an art form. He was convinced that the general values applied to painting were as equally important for photography. He saw himself more as an ordinary artist, rather than a photographer. Although Staal received awards on numerous occasions during his career as a photographer, he still upheld the modest notion that any amateur was capable of achieving what he himself produced. In his view, photo finishing was more important than the choice of subject matter. At the same time, he placed more importance on the emotions that motivated a photographer in his choice as opposed to a perfect technique.

The title of a photo was meant to underscore its significance as a means of expression. With pictorial photography, the titles chosen were usually romantic in nature. Staal also often gave his photos poetic titles. One photo from 1922 was even given an entire stanza from a poem by Guido Gezelle: ‘De avond komt zoo stil, zoo stil zoo traagzaam aangetreden’ (‘The night comes so quietly, enters so quietly so slowly’). Considering his perspective on photography, it comes as no surprise that Staal admired the work of Henri Berssenbrugge, whose free attitude towards photography and his varied approach to the medium greatly appealed to him. Berssenbrugge’s work, as well as that of Franz Ziegler, who also experimented with photographic design, was discussed extensively on numerous occasions at the meetings of the HAVF.

In De Camera of 1923, Staal provided an enthusiastic report following a lecture given by Erwin Quedenfeldt at the HAFV concerning the possible applications of gum print technique. Quedenfeldt maintained that photographers were obliged to manipulate an image, because nature showed too much. Just as tones were randomly selected from a ‘keyboard’ in order to form chords, the photographer should be able to pick and choose his tonal values according to his own personal vision.

Staal admired the oeuvres of Berssenbrugge and Ziegler, but also the work of Adriaan Boer, K.G. Bijlstra, and Henk Mersel. Staal’s interest, however, was by no means limited to pictorial photography. He also valued the work of photographers such as Cas Oorthuys. As a photographer of painterly landscapes, Staal found his idols not only in photography, but also in painting. He greatly admired landscape painters such as Meindert Hobbema and Jacob van Ruysdael.

The degree to which Staal experienced landscape photography as a personal means of expression became clear when describing the criteria that he believed photography had to satisfy. In his view, a love of nature formed the foundation of an appealing landscape photo. The choice of subject matter was closely related to character and temperament, and correspondingly to the photographer’s ideas concerning representation. The far-reaching changes that Staal made to the original image are largely to be explained through this personal approach.

As the 1930s progressed, Staal’s work underwent a shift, which he explained as follows: ‘What photographic worker, when allowed to work for a longer period, does not simplify his work, because he learns to see that a single motif in the right place often speaks better than a profusion of particulars?’

Except as a natural development in his work, Staal’s decision in favour of a simpler visual idiom can be seen as a contemporary influence coming from New Photography. This movement—which, in around 1930, was growing in popularity—cherished a preference for the objective representation of topics related to industry. Its aim was to oppose the aestheticising of photography, of which Hans Staal, with his painterly landscapes, was the perfect example. Nevertheless, Staal showed an interest in and experimented with this new visual idiom.

Examples of this are Staal’s photos Brugleuning bij het Twente-kanaal (‘Bridge Railing at the Twente Canal’) and Noodkabeltje (‘Emergency Cable’). His designs were restrained, with unexpected crops and extreme visual perspectives. Staal’s ability to win awards with this work serves to prove that it too was of a meritorious quality.

Considering that Staal continued to apply fine printing techniques in his autonomous work, one might conclude that Staal, as a creative photographer, perhaps felt too limited by the guidelines of modern design.

From the beginning of his membership in the HAFV, Staal was actively involved in teaching his fellow amateurs. Even after his store was opened, he continued to be an adviser to anyone interested in photography. Various long-time residents of Hengelo can still recall how they purchased their first ‘boxje’ (small box camera) for a ‘rijksdaalder’ (a Dfl. 2.50 coin). In addition to receiving photography lessons, his pupils could also learn to develop and make prints.

Staal presented numerous lectures and enjoyed giving his customers advice. For his personnel—including Bert Haanstra, Hille Kleinstra, Jan Bouwhuis, and Gerard Eman—these learning activities were nevertheless limited to the standard photo assignments, the task of finishing photo material, and sales. Staal’s darkroom was forbidden territory for his personnel.

Staal was primarily active as a teacher away from home. In addition to his activities for the HAFV, he was an examiner for the course ‘knowledge of materials’ at the NFVS (Nederlandse Fotovakschool, ‘Netherlands Vocational School of Photography’) in The Hague for twenty-five years. The NFVS was set up at the request and with the help of the established photographers and photo dealers in order to raise the level of professionalism and to avoid undesired competition. By far the majority of the lessons given there were written.

Even at an early stage, Staal was interested in 8 mm film. Around 1927, he recorded the photography club’s outings. It was Staal’s hope to create a source of income from this hobby as well. To this end, he established the ‘Filmgroep Staal’ (‘Staal Film Group’) in 1932. The group comprised Staal as the producer, a filmmaker, Hille Kleinstra, and a fourth person to do acquisition. Its aim was to make commercial films and to rent out 8 mm film and equipment. Staal’s undertaking led to the making of several public information films commissioned by the Ministerie van Landbouw en Veeteelt (‘Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Breeding).

In 1932, Staal made the film documentary Veilig Verkeer (‘Traffic Safety’), which was commissioned by the Verbond voor Veilig Verkeer (‘Alliance for Traffic Safety’) and co-directed by Hille Kleinstra. The same client commissioned another film that was made somewhat later by Bert Haanstra, working as an employee of the Filmgroep Staal. By about 1956, however, it had become apparent that there was too little interest to justify the company’s continuation. Filmgroep Staal was subsequently dissolved.

Staal’s interest in photography was broad. Throughout his life, he gave numerous lectures on landscape photography and fine printing (‘edeldruk’) processes, but also on making glass lantern slide plates, colour photography, and film. When photographing, Staal always worked with extreme patience. Whenever the light was not right, or a clouded sky was not to his liking, he was willing to bike back and forth ten to twenty times to reach an isolated farm—only to return home again with empty hands—until he had the shot he wanted. He held a high regard for perfect technique. Staal worked primarily with the bromoil print. Such prints are made by bleaching an enlarged bromide print, causing the gelatin to harden. Next, the paper is dabbed with thick paint. As a result, an image emerges with painterly qualities. With a bromoil print, one can choose for either a fixed or unfixed print. Staal used the developed photo as his starting point. As such, his working procedure was the same as the ‘indirect method’, as Idzerda described it. From the wet bromoil print, one can then make another print on absorbent paper using an etching press. This technique is called a bromoil transfer print. Staal referred to it as a ‘pigmogravure’. Next came the final finishing. Staal removed not only the blemishes made in the darkroom through retouching, but also any elements that detracted from the composition, e.g. electric cables and fencing. One example of this approach to working is the photo Winterzon (‘Winter Sun’). Staal must have felt that the picturesque effect of the image benefited more from a female figure. Accordingly, he added a hat and a dress to the male figure found on the original negative.

A longer exposure time was used to create deeper blacks. Parts of a photo were exposed somewhat longer in order to intensify certain areas. One example of this working method is the photo Doesburg, achter de kerk (‘Doesburg, Behind the Church’), in which the contours of the buildings have been burned.

By tempering the exposure with a screen, one could achieve a degree of blur or even haziness in an image. Another way to rework the image was to use multiple negatives when making a single bromoil print. By doing so, Staal was able to add picturesque clouds to a cloudless sky, such as with the photo Stormachtige lucht, Kuinre (‘Stormy Sky, Kuinre’).

Staal felt free enough to change anything that detracted from a balanced romantic image, on the condition that its photographic character was preserved. ‘It is not the instant but its condition that determines the mood’, as he put it. Like other photographers in the 1920s, Staal ventured out to the countryside, equipped with a heavy plate camera, in search of beautiful landscapes.

Because of the equipment’s unwieldiness and the high cost of materials, one had to photograph in consultation. Quite frequently, a photographer returned home with only two or three plates. Staal exposed glass plates of various formats by means of colour filters. He used these filters almost always for his landscape photos.

With the arrival of the more manageable roll film and 35 mm cameras, photographers gained more freedom. The equipment was less heavy and the glass plates were replaced by roll film. Notwithstanding, Staal still almost always continued to use a high tripod and a cable shutter release for his landscape photos. In 1934, he worked with a 6×9 folding camera, a retractable roll film camera using Kodak Verichrome roll film. Here too he used colour filters and a diffusion filter.

Although Staal owned a Leica, an Exacta, and a Rolleiflex camera in 1942, he still preferred to photograph (certainly up until 1947) using a simple folding camera.

The lens of his camera was an unsealed double anastigmat, which produced a finely dispersed flare of light caused by the reflection between the freestanding lens planes. This was particularly important for shots with a high contrast, as the lens gave a soft, clearly visible image.

Hans Staal’s significance as a photographer stems in part from his efforts to promote photography. Besides the fact that he was a lauded and award-winning photographer in his day, through his written publications he managed to advance the causes of landscape photography and the application of fine printing processes.

Staal was one of the driving forces of the ‘Hengelo School’ and the HAFV, which both played a critical role in the world of amateur photography in the 1930s based on the high quality of the work these groups produced over a substantial period of time. Moreover, in the world of the amateur photographers, Staal stood as a teacher and inspiration. For twenty-five years, he was the examiner for both the Bond van Nederlandse Fotohandelaren (‘Federation of Dutch Photography Dealers’) and the NFVS.

Although a professional photographer, Staal’s attained notoriety based on work he did for non-commercial purposes. He felt the greatest affinity with amateur photography and found an enthusiastic audience in these circles. It was this which led to Staal’s being honoured on his sixtieth birthday in 1950—at a point when his heydays had come to an end—by the magazine Foto as one of the ‘few truly important Dutch landscape photographers (who) boosted and upheld photography in our country’.

The post-war generation of professional photographers emphasised photography’s communicative value. They preferred to see their work reproduced in a book or a magazine rather than on the wall at an exhibition. Staal continued to create landscapes by means of bromoil printing. The demise of people’s interest in pictorial photography following the war ultimately signalled the end of Staal’s photographic success.

Although Staal succeeded in making a profession of his hobby, photography remained his big passion throughout his life.


Primary bibliography

Uit de Vereenigingen. Hengelosche Amateurfotografen Vereeniging, in De Camera 16 (15 december 1923) 4, p. 55.

Over landschapsfotografie, in Nederlandsch Jaarboek voor Fotokunst 1942/43, p. 32-34.


in Focus:

Geïllustreerde critiek, 9 (16 november 1922) 23, p. 537.

Tochten voor landschapsfotografie. Hengelo’s omgeving, 10(31 mei 1923) 11, p. 261-262.

Berken in het landschap, 10 (12 juli 1923) 14, p. 345.

Tochten voor landschapsfotografie. Groningen, 10 (9 augustus 1923) 16, p. 411-412.

De fotografie en het bedrijfsleven, 10 (15 november 1923) 23, p. 613.

Grenzen, 11 (3 april 1924) 7, p. 185-186.

Fotografische onderwerpen, 11 (2 oktober 1924) 20, p. 528-529.

Stralenbundels in den herfst, 11 (16 oktober 1924) 21, p. 555-556.

Ochtendnevelen, 11 (13 november 1924) 23, p. 609-610.

Wazige en andere foto’s, 11 (27 november 1924) 24, p. 640.

Emotie, 12 (7 februari 1925) 3, p. 55-56.

Voorjaarsverlangen, 12 (4 april 1925) 7, p. 157-158.

Bloesempracht, 12 (18 april 1925) 8, p. 184-185.

Harmonie, 12 (30 mei 1925) 11, p. 261-262.

Purisme?, 12 (5 september 1925) 18, p. 431-432.

Plaatselijke na-ontwikkeling en verzwakking op het positief, 12 (19 september 1925) 19, p. 451-452.

Nachtfotografie, 12 (28 november 1925) 24, p. 579-580.

Tentoonstelling Hengelosche A.F. V., 13 (17 april 1926) 8, p. 199-200.

Dennen, 14 (16 april 1927) 8, p. 216-217.

Winterfeest, 16(16 februari 1929) 4, p. 105-106.

Fotografie in kleur of kleurenfotografie?, 27 (17 februari 1940) 4, p. 100-101.


images in:

De Camera 15 (1 oktober 1923) 23, p. 216, 220.

W.H. Idzerda, Neerland’s fotokunst, Amsterdam-Sloterdijk (Maatschappij voor goede en goedkoope lectuur) 1923, p. 15, 59.

I. Boudier-Bakker e.a., Derde Winterboek van de Wereldbibliotheek 1924-1925, Amsterdam (Maatschappij voor goede en goedkoope lectuur) z.j. (ca. 1925), p. 72.

Deutscher Camera Almanach 16 (1926), p. 155.

Deutscher Camera Almanach 17 (1927), p. 51,73.

Deutscher Camera Almanach 18 (1928), p. 65.

Lux-De Camera 40 (9 maart 1929) 5, p. 83.

Cosmorama 4 (juli 1938) 7, p. 138.

Cosmorama 5 (april 1939) 4, p. 66, pl. 75.

Adriaan Boer, Foto’s met inhoud, Bloemendaal (Focus) 1940, p. 118-119.

Nederlandsch Jaarboek voor de Fotokunst 1941, pl. XXXI.

Nederlandsch Jaarboek voor de Fotokunst 1942/43, pl. LIV, LXIV.

Nederlandsch Jaarboek voor de Fotokunst 1943/44, pl. XLIII.

Nederlandsch Jaarboek voor Fotokunst 1946, pl. XLVII.

Foto 1 (maart 1946) 3, p. 46.

Nederlandsch Jaarboek voor Fotokunst 1947, pl. XLVII.

Foto 4 (februari 1949) 2, p. 55.


in Focus:

9 (10 augustus 1922) 16, p. 353-356.

9 (21 september 1922) 19, p. 429-430.

9 (2 november 1922) 22, p. 508.

9 (28 december 1922) 26, p. 607.

10 (5 april 1923) 7, p. 147.

10 (19 april 1923) 8, p. 175.

12 (2 mei 1925) 9, p. 217.

12 (22 augustus 1925) 17, p. 407.

13 (9 januari 1926) 1, p. 15.

13 (1 mei 1926) 9, p. 229.

13 (11 december 1926) 25, p. 655.

14 (2 april 1927) 7, p. 192.

15 (26 mei 1928) 11, p. 300.

15 (1 september 1928) 18, p. 484.

15 (27 oktober 1928) 22, p. 602.

19 (30 april 1932) 9, p. 273.

19 (14 mei 1932) 10, p. 307.

21 (27 oktober 1934) 22, p. 617.

22 (11 mei 1935) 10, p. 289-290.

27 (20 januari 1940) 2, p. 33.

Secondary bibliography

Biografieën, Den Haag (Algemeen Nederlands Persbureau) z.j. De Camera 15 (1 oktober 1923) 23, p. 222.

Auteur onbekend, Fotosalon Klank en Beeld, in Lux-De Camera 43 (4 juni 1932) 12, p. 190-197.

Auteur onbekend, De Haarlemsche Jubileums-Tentoonstelling, in Lux-De Camera 44 (1 april 1933) 7, p. 103.

Concentratie van Licht en Schaduw, in Adriaan Boer, Foto’s met inhoud, Bloemendaal (Focus) 1940, p. 119.

K. (= Hille Kleinstra), J.G. Staal: 60, in Foto 5 (mei 1950) 5, p. 158-160 (met foto’s).

H., Vijf foto’s uit een periode van 40 jaar van de hengelose landschapsveteraan J.G. Staal, in Foto 14 (juni 1959) 6, p. 255-258 (met foto’s).

J.J . Hens, Kritische speurtocht, Hengelo, in Foto 15 (augustus 1960) 11, p. 391-392.

Auteur onbekend, Zwart op wit, Hengelose Amateurfotografen Vereniging bestaat veertig jaar, in Twentsche Courant 12 januari 1962.

KI., Over de nuttige invloed van een fotoclub, zijnde: enkele beschouwingen naar aanleiding van het veertigjarig bestaan van de ‘Hengelose’, in Foto 17 (maart 1962) 3, p. 128.

Auteur onbekend, Hengelo 40 jaar, in Foto 17 (maart 1962) 3, p. 148.

Auteur onbekend, “Heel Hengelo in bad gehad”. Bejaard echtpaar maakt boek over oud Hengelo, in Twentsche Courant 13 maart 1971.

Auteur onbekend, Staal: een oude meester in de pigmogravure, in Twentsche Courant 1976.

Flip Bool en Kees Broos, Fotografie in Nederland 1920-1940, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1979, p. 95, 157.

Thomas Leeflang, Bert Haanstra, nog steeds een cineast pur sang, in Profile (februari 1992) 25, p. 52-54.

Marga Altena, Een romanticus in Twente, de landschapsfotograaf Hans Staal (1890-1979), in Foto 47 (oktober 1992) 10, p. 39-43.

Auteur onbekend, Gedenkteken voor fotograaf Hans Staal, in Twentsche Courant 12 oktober 1992.

Auteur onbekend, Lindeboom geplant voor familie Staal, in Twentsche Courant 13 oktober 1992.

Auteur onbekend, Koningslinde als eerbetoon, in Hengelo’s Dagblad 13 oktober 1992.

Auteur onbekend, Expositie van fotograaf Staal in Beekstraat, in Hengelo’s Dagblad 14 oktober 1992.

Bert Diphooren, De herontdekking van Hans Staal, in Twentsche Courant 17 oktober 1992 (met foto’s).

Theo Hakkert, Expositie van werk oude meester-fotograaf in Oudheidkamer Hengelo. De zwangere luchten van Hans Staal, in Hengelo’s Dagblad 24 oktober 1992.

Auteur onbekend, ‘Een romanticus in Twente’ bij Oald Hengel, in Hengelo Aktueel 26 oktober 1992.

Auteur onbekend, Expositie Staal, in Hengelo’s Dagblad 5 november 1992.


in Focus:

Auteur onbekend, Onze platen, 9 (10 augustus 1922) 16, p. 345.

Auteur onbekend, Vee in de weide. Een praatje over den uitslagen onzer prijsvraag, 9 (21 september 1922) 19, p. 422-425.

Auteur onbekend, Vacantieopnamen, 9 (19 oktober 1922) 21, p. 475-477.

Auteur onbekend, Fotografie tentoonstelling te Eindhoven, 9 (30 november 1922) 24, p. 549-552.

A.M.C., Fotoclub Borne, 9 (14 december 1922) 25, p. 593.

Auteur onbekend, Herfst-tegenlichtopnamen, 9/28 december 1922) 26, p. 597-599.

Auteur onbekend, “Focus” prijsvraag “voorlente”, 10 (5 april 1923) 7, p. 139-140.

Auteur onbekend, Focus prijsvraag winterfoto’s, 10 (1923) 8, p. 172.

Auteur onbekend, Succes in Engeland, 10 (31 mei 1923) 11, p. 255.

Auteur onbekend, De tiende tentoonstelling van fotowerken te Amsterdam, 11 (1 mei 1924) 9, p. 262.

A.B. (= Adriaan Boer), “Focus”-prijsvraag augustus. Vrije onderwerpen, 11 (18 september 1924) 19, p. 501-503.

Auteur onbekend, Uit handel en industrie, De Twentsche Fotohandel, Hengelo, 12 (30 mei 1925) 11, p. 278.

W.J.H. Hagelen, Tochten voor Landschappen. Mooi Twente, 12 (22 augustus 1925) 17, p. 406-407.

Auteur onbekend, De nationale elfde tentoonstelling der NAFV, 14 (12 november 1927) 23, p. 636-637.

Adriaan Boer, De Fotokunstsalon van “Klank en Beeld”, 19 (30 april 1932) 9, p. 259-262.

Adr. B. (= Adriaan Boer), Jubileumtentoonstelling van den Kennemer Fotokring, 20 (1 april 1933) 7, p. 202-203.

A. Boer, De Jubileumtentoonstelling der Zwolsche AFV, 21 (15 september 1934) 19, p. 520-523.

A. Boer, Jubileumstentoonstelling der Hengelosche AFV, 21 (29 september 1934) 20, p. 551.

Auteur onbekend, Attentie voor korte berichtjes!, 21 (29 september 1934) 20, p. 554.

Auteur onbekend, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, 22 (11 mei 1935) 10, p. 288.

A. Boer, Fotoschouw NAFV op “Mooi Nederland”, 22 (11 mei 1935) 10, p. 313.

D.B. (= Dick Boer), NAFV-Salon “Het Baken”, 27 april tot 5 mei 1940, 27 (27 april 1940) 9, p. 256-258.


HAFV, van 1922-1979 (erelid vanaf 1 mei 1925).

Jury, Fototentoonstelling van de Fotoclub Borne, 1922.


Hengelose Kunstkring.

Jury, Derde tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV, Hengelo 1926.

Jury, Nationale Fotosalon, Arnhem 1929.

Jury, Jubileumtentoonstelling der Zwolsche AFV, Zwolle 1934.


1922 Eervolle vermelding, Focusprijsvraag maart.

1922 Eerste prijs (gevorderden), Focusprijsvraag ‘Vee in de Weide’ en ‘Hooien’.

1922 Vierde prijs (bronzen medaille) (seniores), Focusprijsvraag ‘Vacantieopnamen’.

1922 Eervolle vermelding (seniores), Focusprijsvraag ‘Herfsttegenlichtopnamen’.

1923 Eerste prijs (seniores), Focusprijsvraag ‘Voorlente’.

1923 Eerste prijs (seniores), Focusprijsvraag ‘Winterfoto’s’.

1923 Special Mention, Artificial Light Competition van het tijdschrift The Amateur Photographer.

1924 Prijs, Tweede tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV, Hengelo.

1924 Eerste prijs (seniores), Focus augustus-prijsvraag ‘Vrije onderwerpen’.

1925 Tweede prijs (seniores), Focusprijsvraag ‘Architectuur’.

1928 Eerste prijs en een wisselplaquette, Vijfde tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV, Hengelo.

1928 Prijs, Focusprijsvraag ‘Vrije onderwerpen’.

1928 Tweede prijs (seniores), Onderlinge wedstrijd der NAFV ‘Vrije onderwerpen’.

1928 Verzilverde nieuwe “Focus” plaquette (meesterklasse), Focusprijsvraag ‘Vrije onderwerpen’.

1932 Tweede prijs (verguld zilveren plaquette), tentoonstelling Klank en Beeld, Amsterdam.

1933 Eerste prijs en een wisselplaquette, Tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV, Hengelo.

1933 Derde prijs (afd. Vrije onderwerpen), Nationale Fotowedstrijd Kennemer Fotokring.

1934 Bekroning, Wedstrijd der Nederlandsche Amateurfotografen Vereeniging.

1936 Zilveren plaquette AAFV, Derde Amsterdamsche Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst, Amsterdam.

1939 Eerste prijs voor HAFV-inzending (foto’s van Staal, Mersel, Speekhout en Bijlstra), prijsvraag ‘Deuren en Vensters’.

1940 Eervolle vermelding, Focus-kleinbeeldwedstrijd voor fotohandelaren.

1941 Diploma van de AAFV, Zevende Amsterdamsche Salon van Fotografische Kunst (AAFV), Amsterdam.


1922 (g) Eindhoven, Chicago Bioscoop, (Eindhovensche AFV).

1923 (g) Londen, (Jaarlijkse tentoonstelling van door het tijdschrift The Amateur Photographer bekroonde foto’s).

1923 (g) Hengelo, Concertgebouw, Eerste tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV.

1924 (g) Hengelo, Concertgebouw, Tweede tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV.

1924 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Tiende fotosalon der N.A.F. V.

1924 (g) Amsterdam, Fotokring.

1924 (g) Denekamp, “Natura Docet”, Fotolanddag (tentoonstelling van Twentsche fotoverenigingen).

1925 (g) Arnhem, (AFV-De Camera).

1926 (g) Haarlem.

1926 (g) Hengelo, Concertgebouw, Derde tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV.

1927 (g) Amsterdam, Gebouw Heystee, Elfde Nationale Tentoonstelling der N.A.F. V.

1927 (g) Hengelo, Concertgebouw, Vierde tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV.

1928 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Nederland in Beeld.

1928 (g) Hengelo, Concertgebouw, Vijfde tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV.

1928 (g) Arnhem, Artibus Sacrum, Internationele Fotosalon (BNAFV) (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1929 (g) Hengelo, Zesde tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV.

1929 (g) Arnhem, Groote Sociëteit, Nationale Fotosalon.

1932 (g) Amsterdam, RAI, Klank en Beeld.

1932 (g) Hengelo, C.T. Storkschool, Nationale Jubileumtentoonstelling 1922-32, HAFV.

1933 (g) Haarlem, Frans Halsmuseum, Jubileumtentoonstelling van de Kennemer Fotokring.

1933 (g) Hengelo, C.T. Storkschool, Tentoonstelling vanfotowerken van de HAFV.

1934 (g) Amsterdam, Verenigingsgebouw AAFV (Keizersgracht 428-430), Eerste Nationale Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst.

1934 (g) Hengelo, C.T. Storkschool, Tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV.

1934 (g) Zwolle, Heerenlogement, Jubileumtentoonstelling der Zwolsche AFV.

1935 (g) Amsterdam, Apollohal, Mooi Nederland (NAFV).

1935 (g) Amsterdam, Verenigingsgebouw AAFV (Keizersgracht 428-430), Tweede Amsterdamsche Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst.

1936 (g) Amsterdam, Verenigingsgebouw AAFV (Keizersgracht 428-430), Derde Amsterdamsche Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst.

1936 (g) Düsseldorf, Tentoonstellingszalen aan de Rijnkade, Film en Foto.

1936 (g) Nijmegen, Waaggebouw (Groote Markt), Waalbrug 1936 (tentoonstelling t.g.v. de opening van de Waalbrug).

1937 (g) Amsterdam, Verenigingsgebouw AAFV (Keizersgracht 428-430), 4de Amsterdamsche Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst.

1937 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Nationale Gouden Fotoschouw der N.A.F.V.

1937 (g) Hengelo, Concertgebouw, Tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV.

1939 (g) Amsterdam, Gebouw Leesmuseum, Nederland Fotografisch Gezien.

1940 (g) Amsterdam, Gebouw Heystee, NA.F. V-salon “Het Baken”.

1940 (g) Hengelo, Concertgebouw, Tentoonstelling van fotowerken van de HAFV.

1941 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Zevende Amsterdamsche Salon van Fotografische Kunst (AAFV).

1941 (g) Hengelo, Concertgebouw, Kerstsalon van de HAFV.

1948 (g) Nijmegen, Stadhuis (Raadzaal), Internationale Jubileum Tentoonstelling AFV “Meer Licht”.

1969 (g) Hengelo, Stadhuishal, Tentoonstelling van beeldende kunst ‘Exposietsie ’69’.

1972 (g) Eindhoven, Fotomundi Philips Fotodub.


Amsterdam, Nederlands Filmmuseum (documentatie).

Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum (documentatie).

Assen, Gemeentearchief (documentatie).

Boxtel, fam. J. Staal (documentatie en mondelinge informatie).

Groningen, Gemeentearchief (documentatie).

Hengelo, F. Bakker (documentatie en mondelinge informatie).

Hengelo, W. Bosch (documentatie, ongepubliceerd typoscript door Hans Staal: Korte Handleiding voor Broomverfdrukof Pigmogravure, z.j.).

Hengelo, fam. G. Bouwhuis (documentatie en mondelinge informatie).

Hengelo, fam. G. Eman (documentatie en mondelinge informatie).

Hengelo, Gemeentearchief (documentatie).

Hengelo, Hans Hamberg (archief HAFV: Notulen van de Hengelosche Amateur Fotografen Vereniging, 1922-1955).

Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.

Mook, K. Roosenboom (mondelinge informatie).

Smilde, Gemeentearchief (documentatie) Zwolle, Rijksarchief Overijssel (documentatie).


Hengelo, Oudheidkamer Oald Hengel.