PhotoLexicon, Volume 7, nr. 13 (March 1990) (en)

Victor Meeussen

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf


Victor Meeussen worked as a freelance professional photographer for the business world and specifically for Esso Netherlands. He photographed practically every aspect of the oil refining industry. In his free time, he preferred to photograph people. In his working approach and attitude, Meeussen had a connection with human interest photography, as well as the more abstract Subjective Photography. He was a core member of the post-war NFK (Nederlandse Fotografen Kunstkring, ‘Netherlands Photographers Art Society’).




Victor Carl Pierre Meeussen is born on 7 November in Bremen (Germany) as the son of a Dutch architect and a German mother. Victor possesses the Dutch nationality.


During a visit to the Netherlands, Meeussen takes photos on the beach at Scheveningen.

Ca. 1932

At the Oberreal School in Bremen, Meeussen considers later becoming a doctor or a preacher. Once his secondary school is completed, he instead decides to study art history. His parents, however, are unable to pay for his study. Meeussen consequently decides to take up photography, in the hope that it will allow him to travel on a frequent basis, and accordingly, see lots of art. He works for one year as a volunteer in several photography studios in Bremen.


Meeussen wins a trip to Great Britain in a photo contest. With the permission of the directors of the steamboat company involved, he changes his destination to New York. In exchange, Meeussen is required to assist the photographer on board, Hans Tschira, a Leica specialist. Meeussen subsequently travels for one-and-a-half years on the passenger ship S.S. Columbus as Tschira’s assistant. He visits places such as Madeira, the Cape Verdi Islands, Norway, and the United States.


In Bremen, Meeussen becomes an ‘operator’ at the studio of the Carl Schünemann printing house, where his primary task is to produce large-format colour advertising photos. Due to a paper shortage, the company is forced to lay Meeussen off. His employer writes a letter of introduction on his behalf addressed to Dr. Paul Wolff, an industrial photographer and a specialist in 35mm.


From June 1937 to January 1939, Meeussen works as an assistant at the firm of Dr. Paul Wolff & Tritschler in Frankfurt am Main (Germany).

Meeussen produces colour shots for Paul Wolff’s book lm Kraftfeld von Rüsselsheim (‘In the Force Field of Rüsselsheim’). Additionally, he assists with the lighting in approximately twelve factories where automobile parts are manufactured for Opel for a period of four months.


Because of his Dutch nationality, Meeussen is no longer granted a work permit in Germany and is left with no other choice but to live in the Netherlands. In February, he moves in with his aunt, the sculptress Lex Meeussen, who lives in The Hague. Victor Meeussen finds work at the Van Leer printing company in Amsterdam. Through his aunt, he meets the photographer Rein Meijer. In the summer of 1939, the two men start a small photography business. Dr. Paul Wolff refers Meeussen’s photography agency to his agencies in London (Dorian Lee), Berlin, and Paris. Mesussen’s photo agency receives various commissions from the Residentie Toneel (‘Residency Theatrical’). In September 1939, Meijer becomes a filmmaker. Meeussen continues working with theatrical photography until 1941, at which time the assignments for the Residentie Toneel are taken over by Ed van Wijk. During World War II, Meeussen works for the VW (Volkse Werkgemeenschap, ‘Peoples Working Community’, the cultural department of the German SS) at Wageningen, together with the photographer Heemskerk-Duker. He travels to various places on behalf of this group, including Norway. The VW is involved in various activities, including ‘sibbekunde’ (= genealogy, specifically in the period under the National Socialists).


Although Meeussen has absolutely no militaristic or political ambition, he enlists with the German SS under heavy pressure from the VW. In spite of his Dutch nationality, the organisation considers him to be a German national based on his upbringing and education and requires that he support his country of birth. Meeussen undergoes a three-day training programme and is imbedded as a photojournalist at the Battle of Arnhem. A German officer sees that Meeussen is not the right man for the task and shortly after sends him off on ‘official travel’ to Bremen. Meeussen goes into hiding with family and remains in Bremen until the end of the war.


As of 3 April, Meeussen is registered as a ‘Bildberichter’ (‘photojournalist’) in Bremen by the Allied-controlled ‘Militärregierung’ (‘Military Government’).

Meeussen returns to the Netherlands, where he is arrested and placed in a prison camp. Following a positive assessment of his integrity and good behaviour, however, he is soon released. The photographer Meinard Woldringh, with whom Meeussen had become friends via Rein Meijer, picks him up at the camp and takes him under his wing.

Through Jan den Boestert, an amateur photographer and an employee of Esso Netherlands, Meeussen is hired as an industrial photographer at Esso in The Hague. He works almost full-time for Esso, but is not given a permanent contract. Meeussen work entails reportages for: Essofoon, the newspaper for company personnel; Essobron, a magazine for the company’s domestic business relations; and International Oilways, for international buyers of the firm’s oil products.


Meeussen becomes a member of the NFK (Nederlandse Fotografen Kunstkring, ‘Netherlands Photographers Art Society’).


On 6 February, Meeussen makes a reportage on the flooding disaster in the Dutch province of Zeeland and the islands of the province South Holland.


Meeussen takes holiday trips to London (in May) and Spain (September), where he photographs cityscapes and street scenes.


In May 1958, Meeussen photographs at the Expo in Brussels. In August to September, he photographs in Italy (around Lake Garda and Venice). Around 1958, Meeussen and Ed van Wijk are approached by Livinus van de Bundt, the director of the Vrije Akademie voor Beeldende Kunsten (‘Free Academy of Fine Arts’) in The Hague, to act as instructors for those participating in the academy’s evening study programme in photography and visual design. Meeussen has no official teaching credentials.


Besides doing photographic work for his clients, Meeussen photographs while on holiday at various destinations, including the South of France (in the environs of Antibes, Cannes, and Monte Carlo), in the Black Forest (Germany), Odenwald, Austria (environs of Innsbruck and Salzburg), Rome, the Eifel region, Bremen, Dubrovnik (Yugoslavia), and Las Palmas.


Due to a reorganisation at the Vrije Academie in 1970 (the academy is essentially shut down by its director George Lampe, and reopened shortly after as ‘Psycholpolis’), Meeussen and approximately seventeen other instructors are dismissed. Meeussen’s photographic career comes to an end during this period. Meeussen suffers from a long-term illness in the final years of his life.


Victor Meeussen dies on 6 September in The Hague.


Victor Meeussen’s former colleague Rein Meijer describes him as an erudite and well-read man. He was modest (‘there was an element of self-effacement in his attitude’ as one source stated in the magazine Foto in 1952), sensitive, and somewhat sombre, but also a lover of witty humour and wordplay. Meeussen read a lot of German literature and knew his art history well. He saw photography as an important means of communication and expression, but not as art. He subscribed to the notion put forward by the photography historian Dr. Karel Pawek that photography—with its highly specific capacities and specifications—stands alongside art.

Unfortunately, there was a highly dissonant episode in Meeussen’s life that led him to make controversial choices during World War II. Once he had decided to work for the German VW (Volkse Werkgemeenschap, ‘Peoples Working Community’), there was apparently no turning back. At the core of his decision lay a lack of vision with respect to political developments and the consequences that would come with it.

Meeussen’s knowledge of photography was gained through his practical experience working with many different mentors. He learned a great deal from Dr. Paul Wolff in the areas of composition and design. One finds a similar approach to photography in the two men’s work. Wolff’s expertise in areas such as 35mm and colour photography was undoubtedly the most significant part of Meeussen’s training.

Besides his many teachers, Meeussen’s love of art and art history were also instrumental factors in his formation and the development of his personal taste. After the war, his most important client was Esso Netherlands. Meeussen produced reportages in locations where the company manufactured, transported, and supplied its products, and at those places where sub-contractors did the refining. His oeuvre therefore largely comprises photos of refineries, factories, companies, drilling platforms, shipyards, airfields and harbours. Many of Meeussen’s photos were published in Essofoon, the company’s magazine for its personnel; in Essobron, the publication produced specifically for its business relations; and in International Oilways, a magazine oriented to major buyers of products associated with oil exploitation and refining. His numerous reportages on car racing made on assignment for Esso were another component of his work: Meeussen seldom missed the ‘Big Prize of the Netherlands’ at Zandvoort.

In addition to Esso, Meeussen also received commissions from corporations like Volkswagen, the NAM (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, ‘Netherlands Oil and Gas Company’), Smit’s International, and KLM Airlines. For these companies, Meeussen shot reportage photos of machinery, products, and activities directly ‘on the work floor’. On occasion, he allowed his photos to be distributed by photo agencies, including ‘Cevirum’ in The Hague (under the direction of G.A. van der Chijs) and the photo agency Anthony-Verlag in Starnberg am See (Germany).

In his free time, Meeussen preferred to photograph people and happenings in the street, at street markets, on playgrounds, or at the beach. He also photographed a variety of circus performances, carnival celebrations, and fairs, as well as other festivities such as Queen’s Day and Liberation Day. Meeussen especially devoted his attention to events of a seemingly insignificant nature, when people displayed their emotions: happy children, a couple in love, caring fathers or mothers holding small children in their arms, children in their wagons, singing members of the Salvation Army, and many other topics falling under the category of ‘human interest’ photography. With some of these subjects, e.g. children in their wagons or being held in people’s arms, Meeussen shot entire series.

Wouter de Keizer characterised Meeussen’s snapshot technique as a spiritual genre that was greatly lacking in Dutch photography (Foto 1952). He worded it as follows: ‘The very first thing is that the elements of a good photo have be identified. What is lacking has to be understood. Then the quintessence, i.e. the key moment, has to be targetable. Required for this are a charged interest free of nervousness, a feeling for drama, an original perspective on things and people, and unquestionably a bit of luck. The favourable bringing together of contrasts, such as, for example, the old-fashioned and the modern, or the processing of what is unexpected: these are always useful ingredients. These specimens from Meeussen’s oeuvre are worth studying.’

In his autonomous work, Meeussen regularly allowed himself to be seduced into experimenting with abstractions, the play of light, and blur. Like a number of his close colleagues at the NFK (Nederlandse Fotografen Kunstkring, ‘Netherlands Photographers Art Society’), he sometimes photographed with his lens out of focus, allowed lens reflections to show up in his shots, set his lens wide open when photographing moving light, or turned his attention to reflections in the water. In applying this working approach, Meeussen demonstrated his adherence to ideas espoused by Dr. Otto Steinert, a proponent of experimenting with form and technique, with the goal of extending the boundaries of photography. Meeussen’s work was exhibited at both of Steinert’s exhibitions, Subjektive Fotografie 1 and 2.

Furthermore, Meeussen was captivated by architecture, based on the formal options it provided in creating aesthetic compositions with beautiful linear rhythms and effects of contrast. With assignments for corporate reportages, he liked to take shots that allowed him to express his sense of aesthetics. The linear play of piping or the light contrasts in factory architecture inspired this in him often.

From about 1951, Meeussen was a principal member of the NFK. With his evaluation skills and analytical view, he was a member of the jury assessing the annual submissions for years (1951­–1968) without fail, along with Meinard Woldringh and Ed van Wijk. The criteria maintained in judging these works have not been preserved on paper. During academic research conducted in 1979 regarding the comings and goings of the NFK in the period after World War II, recollections voiced during interviews with former members of the NFK at this time were varied. Bernard van Gils had the following to say about the association’s meetings: ‘At such a meeting, you naturally have people with amazing analytical skills—Victor Meeussen, Coppens—who are therefore most definitely running the show.’ Steef Zoetmulder, by contrast, was somewhat less positive: ‘There was hardly any change within the jury. It always come down to two men having the say: Woldringh was always there and Meeussen. Endless chatter.’

Meeussen was a dedicated attendee at both the Dutch and international (photography) exhibitions. He made reportages of the various openings, events, and meetings in which the NFK was involved (including Edward Steichen’s visit to the NFK on 30 October 1952 at Meinard Woldringh’s studio, when preparing for the exhibition The Family of Man).

For more than eleven years, Meeussen taught photography at the Vrije Akademie (‘Free Academy’) in The Hague, founded by Livinus van de Bundt. Meeussen’s teaching style was based chiefly on discussing photos: there was little opportunity, for instance, to do studio work or gain practical darkroom experience. Teaching at the Vrije Akademie had more the character of leading a study group: a relatively ‘open’ system, in which students (who were called participants) were free to take the classes that interested them.

Students of the academy at the time—such as Frederick Linck and Piet Janmaat, both photographers in The Hague—recall Meeussen as being someone who had the ability to speak about his profession with great enthusiasm in stimulating his pupils. He ventured out together with his classes to take photos in the city and helped them set up small exhibitions of their work at the academy.

Meeussen was highly involved in the many activities going on at the academy. He regularly photographed students working with their models, performances put on by the ‘podiumvorming’ (‘stage formation’) department, the painting and clay-modelling classes, and students at work in the sculpture studio. Meeussen’s most important teachers, Hans Tschira and Paul Wolff, were specialists in the area of 35mm photography. This was a major factor in Meeussen’s technique. Using this small format, he was able to achieve a high level of precision, as well as professional levels of sharpness and contrast.

As early as 1935–’36, Meeussen was already fully working with colour photography at the printing company Schünemann. Using a Bermpohl one-shot colour camera with three permanently installed filters, he took colour shots in the format 9×12 cm. The historical centre of Bremen, decorated with flags on the occasion of the Olympic Games, was the subject of colour photos that Meeussen shot in July 1936, which appeared in a newspaper supplement, as well including photos of the reception welcoming athletes from around the world. Through his next employer, Dr. Paul Wolff, Meeussen learned to work with 35mm colour photography. Wolff was a demanding teacher, who expected highly precise work from his assistant. As Wolff’s lighting assistant, Meeussen gained exceptional practical experience in working with lighting equipment at the Opel factories in Germany. Nitraphot lamps were used, with an intensity of up to 30,000 Watts in difficult circumstances.

In 1940 and 1941, Meeussen published a number of articles on colour photography in the magazine Kleinbeeld-foto (’35mm Foto’), covering topics such as his lighting work with Paul Wolff and the conditions for making good colour photos. It was Meeussen’s view that colour photography was really about a new style: ‘A colour photo must not be a coloured black-and-white photo. If form and light are without doubt the key elements of a black-and-white photo, then in a colour photo it should just as certainly be the colours. From them, we must start out! At the same time, we must never lose sight that colours are not simply a colour value, but also represent a certain emotional value. The warm colour red, for example, therefore generally embodies happiness, joy, excitement; the cool colour blue, by contrast, [embodies] silence, distance, loneliness.’ Prior to this, Meeussen professed that one can only speak of an achievement in colour, ‘once the great technical possibilities, which colour film possesses, are applied in a meaningful way with respect to the targeted motif, and to the potential that this in turn conceals within itself. Only when one succeeds in consciously implementing the elements of colour and form together, i.e. “fusing” them, as it were, into a result that truly has something to say, is one a colour photographer.’

Meeussen worked with small cameras, including the Leica (for 24×36 mm film), a Rolleiflex, and Rolleicord (both for 6×6 cm film), and a Petri-Half 35mm camera (18x24mm film). With these cameras he used different sized objectives (including a Telyt), with a focal length varying from 28mm to 40cm. He also owned a Brand-17 technical camera (a typewritten instruction manual for this camera is still preserved in his archive). According to Rein Meijer, however, Meeussen never used this camera.

Back in his days at the NFK in the 1950s and ’60s, Meeussen already printed a significant part of his black-and-white negatives archive. He also made black-and-white enlargements in the format 30×40 cm. With the exception of several photos taken for reportage assignments, this concerns primarily his autonomous work for exhibitions, publications, and at jury competitions, whether in connection with the NFK or not. For his clients, Meeussen generally worked with 35mm slide film.

Meeussen was a photographer who patiently waited for the most favourable conditions to get the best shot. Rarely was artistic direction involved. What he photographed was just as he had found it. What characterises Meeussen’s work is the personal—and therefore more or less identifiable—manner in which he approached his subjects. This stemmed from his choices with respect to camera angle, the fall of light, and the image crop. He could spend long periods of time looking for the best option to achieve the optimal integration of contrast and line for the image he had in mind. When having to work with speed, e.g. at fairs, automobile races, or spontaneous events occurring underway, Meeussen let the atmosphere of the moment guide him. In such situations, his photos sometimes lack sharpness—for example, in a photo of a young gypsy woman with her child from 1956—yet it is precisely this blur that makes the photo intriguing.

Victor Meeussen has left behind a technically perfect and visually captivating photographic oeuvre, which serves as an important document of an era. Due to the consistent high quality of his work, he can unquestionably be categorised among the best professional photographers in the Netherlands active in the 1950s and ’60s. Particularly within the NFK, Meeussen was able to demonstrate his sense of quality and his knowledge of the profession. In his autonomous work, he never achieved great heights. Some of his photos, however, are in no way inferior to works by photographers of greater renown, such as Meinard Woldringh and Pim van Os.


Primary bibliography

Onze vierde „kleuren”-zomer, in Kleinbeeldfoto 4 (augustus 1940) 5, p. 139-140.

Kleurenfoto’s bij 30.000 Watt. Met Leica en kleurenfilm door de zware industrie, in Kleinbeeld-foto 4 (februari 1941) n , p. 315-320.

Wanneer is een kleurenfoto goed?, in Kleinbeeld-foto 5 (mei 1941) 2, p. 55-56.

Wanneer is een kleurenfoto goed? II, in Kleinbeeld-foto 5 (juni 1941) 3, p. 85-86.

Hollandische Photographen, in Camera 31 (april 1952) 4, p. 117-122.

Ontmoeting met Edward Steichen, in Focus 41 (17 maart 1956) 6, omslag, p. 123-126 (met foto’s).

Een N.F.K.-weekend, in Focus 41 (9 juni 1956)12, p. 264-265.

Het eerste ‘color’-jaarboek van ‘Photography’, in Focus 41 (29 september 1956) 20, p.465.

Nu minder gevoelige films gebruiken. Een goed bedoeld seizoen-advies voor boxbezitters en een lesje voor beginners, in Focus 42 (25 mei 1957) n , p.243.

Eén opname is vaak niet voldoende, in Focus 42 (20 juli 1957) 15, p. 350-353 (met foto’s).

Wat wij op de GDL tentoonstelling te Essen gezien en gehoord hebben, in Focus 42 (12 oktober 1957) 21, p. 528-529.

Impressions of a car journey, in Camera 39 (augustus 1960) 8, p. 31-34 (met foto’s).

Met 18×24 millimeter, in Foto 16 (juli 1961) 7, p. 362-369 (met foto’s).


images in:

Wij. Ons werk, ons leven. Nederlandsch Jaarboek voor Fotokunst 1941, pl. XXVII.

Hamer 3 (oktober 1942) 1, p. 8-9.

Hamer 3 (november 1942) 2, omslag, p. 6.

Hamer 3 (december 1942) 3, omslag, p. 10.

Nederlandsch Jaarboek voor Fotokunst 1942/43, pl. XI.

Hamer 3 (januari 1943) 4, omslag, p. 8.

Hamer 3 (maart 1943) 6, omslag, p. 32.

Nederlandsch Jaarboek voor Fotokunst 1943/44, pl. LIV.

Hamer 4 (april 1944) 7, p. 9.

Hamer 4 (juni 1944) 9, p. 9.

Hamer 4 (juli 1944) 10, p. 3.

Hamer 4 (augustus 1944) 11, omslag, p. 26.

Essobron vanaf 1946.

Essofoon vanaf 1946.

International Oilways vanaf 1946.

Catalogus Fotoschouw ’52, Den Haag (Gemeentemuseum) 1952.

Photography Annual 1953, p. 82-83.

Catalogus Foto Expositie HFK, Den Haag (HFK) 1956, p.4, 14, 19.

Catalogus Images Inventées. Exposition internationale de photographies, Brussel (Galerie Aujourd’hui) 1957.

Fotografie 7 (1957) 4, p. 97, 102, 104.

J.J. Hens, „Fotografie als uitdrukkingsmiddel”, in Foto 12 (oktober 1957) 10, p. 386-387.

Catalogus tent. Fotografie als uitdrukkingsmiddel, Eindhoven/Arnhem (Stedelijk Van Abbe-Museum/Gemeente-museum) 1957/1958

Han Hoekstra, Dag Amsterdam, Amsterdam (N.V. Het Parool) 1961, p. 118.

Joost Andriessen, Dag Amsterdam, in Foto 16 (april 1961) 4, p. 186.

Eldert Willems, Nederland wordt groter, Amsterdam (De Bezige Bij) z.j. (ca. 1962), p.90.

Auteur onbekend, N.F.K.’ers laten zich in de plaat kijken, in Foto 21 (april 1966) 4, p. 177.

Focus 53 (1 november 1968) 22, omslag.

Commerce International (15/19 mei 1969) 851/852, omslag.

Focus 54 (6 juni 1969) 11, omslag.

Essobron 29 (oktober 1979).

Secondary bibliography

D. Helfferich, 22 Fotografen en 1 meisje, in Foto 5 (april 1950) 4, p. 121 -132 (met foto’s).

W. de Keizer, Victor Meeussen N.F.K., in Foto 7 (december 1952) 12, p. 333-340 (met foto’s).

Bert Prinsen Geerligs, Fotorijm. Geslaagd experiment van de Haagsche Fotokring, in Foto 8 (september 1953) 9, p. 245-249.

KL., Heeft het foto-atelier nog zin? N.F.K.-discussie, in Foto 9 (mei 1954) 5, p. 130-133.

Julien Coulommier, Subjektive fotografie-2. Of de perikelen van een bescheiden fotohistoriograaf, in Foto 10 (februari 1955) 2, p. 50-55.

Auteur onbekend, Analyse der platen, in Focus 41 (4 augustus 1956) 16, omslag, p. 370-374 (met foto’s).

J.J. Hens, Wat ik zag … en hoorde … en mij trof, in Foto 11 (september 1956) 9, p. 299-303.

KL., Kruis en atomium. Gods strijd om de wereld, in De Open Deur 23 (25 juli 1958) 793, omslag, p. 4-5.

Auteur onbekend, Analyse der platen, in Focus 45 (23 juli 1960) 15, p. 502-506 (met foto’s).

J.D. de Jong, Eerste verzameling in Europa foto’s „an sich”. Foto-expositie Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, in Friese Koerier 19 november 1960.

Jan Hofman, Haagse impressies. Expositie in Galerie de Posthoorn, in Foto 16 (februari 1961) 2, p.58-59 (met foto’s).

J.H. (=Jan Hofman), Victor Meeussen nfk, in Foto 16 (februari 1961) 2, p. 62-63 (met foto’s).

J.V., Victor Meeussen, in Het Binnenhof (3 april 1961).

Auteur onbekend, Foto-tentoonstelling: Dit is uw leger, in Focus 47 (11 mei 1962) 10, p. 8-9.

Jan Hofman, Galerie de Posthoorn. Expositie van leden van de Haagse fotokring, in Foto 17 (oktober 1962) 10, p. 488-494.

Catalogus tent. NFK, Nijmegen (Waag) 1963.

Auteur onbekend, Victor Meeussen nfk, in Vakfotografe (1965) 4, omslag, p. 1-19, 22-24 (met foto’s).

Robert Broere, Een avondje praten over Victor Meeuwssen, de Vrije Academie, fotogroep Randstad, en Werkgroep Vrije fotografie, in Foto 25 (november 1970) 11, p. 548-553.

Els Barents (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1940-1975, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978, p. 99, 115, biografie.

Flip Bool en Kees Broos (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1920-1940, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1979, p. 20, 154.

Catalogus tent. Zien en gezien worden. Fotografische zelfbespiegeling in Nederland van ca. 1840 tot heden, Nijmegen (Nijmeegs Museum ‘Commanderie van Sint Jan’) 1983, p. 15-16, 89.


Nederlandsche Kleinbeeld-Vereeniging.

NFK, vanaf 1949 (kernlid vanaf ca. 1951).

Jurylid, De Tweede Nationale Fototentoonstelling, Hoensbroek 1956.

Haagse Fotokring.

BFN, erelidmaatschap vanaf ca. 1976.


1960 Onderscheiden door de Fédération Internationale de 1’Art Photographie met de titel AFIAP (Artiste FIAP).

1961 Prijs (bestaande uit het boek Selbstportrats van Otto Steinert) in „der zweite Fotowettbewerb der Deutschen Zeitung”, toegekend voor de foto ‘Strand’.

1964 Diploma, 1924-1964 Beverwijkse AFV. Jubileumtentoonstelling.


1939 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Kleinbeeld ’39.

1950 (g) Eindhoven, Stedelijk van Abbe Museum, Vakfotografie 1950.

1951 (g) Saarbrücken, Staatliche Schule für Kunst und Handwerk, Subjektive Fotografie.

1951/1952 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Dertiende Nationale Kerstsalon van Fotografische Kunst.

1952 (g) Den Haag, Gemeentemuseum, Fotoschouw ’52.

1952 (g) Rotterdam, Museum voor Landen Volkenkunde, A.F.V. „Rotterdam” Nationale Fotosalon.

1953 (g) Eindhoven, Oude Stadhuis, Tweede Benelux Fototentoonstelling.

1953 (g) Maastricht, Kunstzalen De Jong-Bergers, Nederlandse Fotografie 1953.

1954 (g) Utrecht, Jaarbeurs, Voorjaarsbeurs.

1954 (g) Koog aan de Zaan, 25 Jaar Amateur Fotografen Vereniging „Zaanland”.

1954 (g) Zwolle, Hopmanshuis, (tentoonstelling t.g.v. het 60-jarig jubileum van de Zwolse A.F.V.).

1954/1955 (g) Saarbrücken, Staatlichen Schule für Kunst und Handwerk, Subjektive Fotografie 2.

1956 (g) Leiden, Prentenkabinet der Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, NFK. Fototentoonstelling.

1956 (g) Den Haag, Bioscooptheater Odeon (Herengracht), (fotoshow georganiseerd door de Stichting Centrum).

1956 (g) Hoensbroek, Kasteel Hoensbroek, De Tweede Nationale Fototentoonstelling.

1956 (g) Den Haag, Pulchri Studio (Lange Voorhout), Foto Expositie HFK.

1957 (g) Den Haag, Haagsche Amateur-Fotografen- Vereeniging 50 jaar.

1957 (g) Brussel, Galerie Aujourd’hui du Palais des Beaux-Arts, Images Inventées.

1957 (g) Den Haag, Vrije Academie, Verzonnen Beelden.

1957 (g) Eindhoven, Stedelijk van Abbe Museum, Fotografie als uitdrukkingsmiddel (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1960 (g) Brussel, Galerie Aujourd’hui du Palais des Beaux-Arts, (lichtgrafieken).

1960 (g) Den Haag, Vrije Academie, (lichtgrafieken).

1960 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, (foto’s uit eigen collectie).

1961 (e) Den Haag, Galerie De Posthoorn, Victor Meeussen nfk exposeert foto’s.

1961 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Dag Amsterdam.

1962 (g) Amsterdam, Instituut voor de Tropen, Dit is uw leger! (expositie t.g.v het 75-jarig bestaan van het Leger des Heils) (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1962 (g) Den Haag, Galerie De Posthoorn, (expositie HFK).

1962 (g) Amersfoort, Zonnehof, Nationale en internationale fototentoonstelling ter gelegenheid van het 40-jarig bestaan van de Bond van Nederlandsche Amateurfotografen Vereenigingen 1922-1962 (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1963 (g) Nijmegen, Waag, (NFK).

1964 (g) Beverwijk, 1924-1964 Beverwijkse AFV. Jubileumtentoonstelling.

1978/1979 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Fotografie in Nederland 1940-1975.

1983/1984 (g) Nijmegen, Nijmeegs Museum ‘Commanderie van Sint Jan’, “Zien en gezien worden. Fotografische zelfbespiegeling in Nederland van ca. 1840 tot heden.


Den Haag, Ed van Wijk, Frederick Linck, Robert Pot, Piet Janmaat, Ton de Bruyn, Mees Meeussen, mondelinge informatie.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.

Lelystad, Rein en Ellen Meijer, mondelinge informatie.


Amsterdam, RIOD (negatieven Volkse Werkgemeenschap).

Leiden, Prentenkabinet van de Rijksuniversiteit (negatieven en afdrukken).