PhotoLexicon, Volume 7, nr. 13 (March 1990) (en)

Maurits Binger

Hedi Hegeman


For Maurits Binger, a photographer from Haarlem, the printing profession served as an important breeding ground. Maurits’ interest, however, lay not only in the photomechanical processes employed at his father’s firm, Emrik & Binger. A clear link can be drawn from his autonomous photography to the new medium of film. Under the inspirational direction of its founder, Maurits Binger, the company ‘Filmfabriek Hollandia’ (‘Film Factory Hollandia’) worked its way up to achieve international fame.




Maurits Herman Binger is born on 5 April 1868 in Haarlem as the second son of Charles Binger, a photographer and printer. Official witnesses at the registration of Maurits’ birth are his paternal grandfather, Marius Hijman Binger, and Ozer David Emrik, his maternal grandfather.


Following the death of Ozer David Emrik, the co-founder of the printing company Emrik & Binger, in 1883, Charles Binger and David Emrik Junior (Ozer David Emrik’s son) take over the management of the business.

From this time on, Maurits is being prepared for a career with the company. At the age of fifteen, he is sent to Paris to be trained in photography and printing technology—just as Orest David Emrik, the grandson of the printing company’s founding father.

Maurits Binger apparently spends eight years abroad in connection with his general formation. During the first years, he resides in Paris. He works for a night as a stagehand, accompanies the police on their nightly rounds, attends parties given by the president, and experiences carnival in Nice and Monte Carlo. He then moves on to Berlin and London. In London, he attends boat races and the horse track, theatres and museums. He speaks of having met all kinds of artists, but names and facts are lacking in the statements made later in regard to this period.


Maurits’ membership in ‘Helios’ indicates an interest in photography and other related activities. Photography remains his favourite hobby until turning to film in 1912.


Binger becomes a member of the AAFV (Amsterdam Amateur Fotografen Vereniging, ‘Amsterdam Amateur Photographers Association’). A penchant for organising is displayed in Binger’s participation in the managing committee of a charity show hosted by the HAFC (Haarlems Amateur Fotografen Club, ‘Haarlem Amateur Photographers Club’), in which he is likely to have become a member in this year.

Emrik & Binger produces a collotype in the Tijdschrift voor Photographie (‘Magazine of Photography’) from one of Maurits’ shots, featuring a group portrait of participants in an AAFV club outing in the vicinity of Nigtevecht.


Binger particpates in the Internationale Tentoonstelling tot bevordering der Photographie (‘International Exhibition for the Promotion of Photography’) held in Groningen (2–10 June), in the category ‘amateur photography’. He also sits on the ‘Commissie van Bijstand’ (‘Assisting Committee’) of this exhibition. At the Internationale Fotografie Tentoonstelling (‘International Photography Exhibition’) held in Arnhem (14–29 July), Binger exhibits his photography, where the company Emrik & Binger is also represented. Binger’s work is also apparently shown at a third exhibition organised by the APhV ‘Daguerre’ (‘Amateur Photographers Association ‘Daguerre”).

Binger is also a jury member for a competition during a combined club outing of the HAFC and the AAFV.

Binger presents a glass lantern slide show (a ‘sciopticon’) for the employees of the Nederlandsche Gist- en Spiritusfabriek (‘Netherlands Yeast and Spirits Factory’) in Delft. At an AAFV meeting in Amsterdam, Binger speaks about the collotype process as it is applied at Emrik & Binger and elsewhere.

Binger appears as Sinterklaas at a ‘Saint Nicholas’ evening organised by the HAFC. In December, he presents a lecture at the HAFC to an audience of more than 300 people concerning Edison’s recently introduced phonograph and kinetoscope.


Binger is board secretary of the HAFC. According to the Haarlem city address book and the HAFC, he resides at Gedempte Oude Gracht 47. Prior to 30 March, this was the address of Maurits’ father, Charles. Starting in April, however, the HAFC lists Binger’s postal address as Anegang 44, the home address of Ozer David Emrik. As a member of the ‘Commissie van Bijstand’ of the Internationale Tentoonstelling voor Fotografie (‘International Exhibition of Photography’) in Amsterdam (8–22 September), Binger himself furnishes the address Anegang 44. He also participates himself in this exhibition.

Binger gives several lectures on the mechanised manufacturing of dry plates, the so-called ‘kilometre photography’.


As of 1 January, Maurits is officially a co-partner of the printing company Emrik & Binger, together with David Emrik’s two sons, Orest David and Herman David. He resides at Zijlweg 55 in Haarlem.

On 18 February, Binger weds Bettina Cantor (born 8 October 1875 in Amsterdam).

In the same year, Maurits serves as the secretary of the managing committee and as a jury member for the Internationale Tentoonstelling ter bevordering der fotografie en aanverwante vakken (‘International Exhibition for the Promotion of Photography and Related Fields’) in Haarlem.


As of 9 February, Maurits Binger is registered at the address Nieuwe Gracht 57 in Haarlem.

At a meeting of the AAFV on 17 November, Binger presents a lecture on various printing processes.


Binger is mentioned in the catalogue of the Ausstellung von Kunst-Photographen (‘Exhibition of Art Photographers’) of the ‘Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Amateur-Photographie’ (‘Society for the Promotion of Amateur Photography’) in Hamburg. His name is on the membership list. It is unclear whether he is also a participant in the exhibition.


On 23 September, Binger’s daughter, Nanette Marie, is born. As a toddler, she figures frequently in her father’s photos.

Maurits is active as a board member of the Vereeniging Koninginnedag (‘Queen’s Day Association’) for many years. In 1903, he submits several photos for the association’s commemorative album: photographs of carriages in the flower parade, pasted onto ‘terracotta’ cardboard mounts.


Binger visits St. Petersburg, Russia.


Binger’s interest in film grows. Besides his trips abroad and his probable contact with the filmmaker Edren, he is certain to have heard about the new medium via articles on the subject appearing in the magazine Lux. Binger’s interest is further sparked by an appeal in the newspaper made by Charles Boissevain, chief editor of De Gids and the director of the Algemeen Handelsblad, to initiate an educative programme in film, as is already occurring in other countries. Binger’s proposal to realise such a plan with the help of a government subsidy, as submitted to the minister of education, fails to garner a response.


On 18 May, Binger and Daniel de Clercq found two companies: the ‘NV Maatschappij voor Wetenschappelijke Cinematografie’ (‘NV Society of Scientific Cinematography’) and the ‘NV Maatschappij voor Artistieke Cinematografie’ (‘NV Society of Artistic Cinematography’).

About this time, Binger is certain to have been working on several short films, outside working hours at the printing company. De levende ladder (‘The Living Ladder’) is Binger’s first known major motion picture film, which he produces and directs in November. The film is released in early 1913.


The ‘Maatschappij voor Wetenschappelijke en Artistieke Cinematographie, filmfabriek Hollandia’ (‘Society of Scientific and Artistic Cinematography: Film Factory Hollandia’) is created through the merger of the two aforementioned companies. The mansion at Spaarne 57 is converted into a film studio, with a glass studio space built in the garden. Starting in this year, the film teams operate from their headquarters on the Spaarne—well equipped and ready—moving about the city in order to film on location. Consequently, Binger and his film factory frequently appear in the local news of Haarlem. This marks the first year of a steady production of silent films intended for the international market.


On 16 June, the film company’s name is changed to ‘NV Filmfabriek Hollandia’ (‘NV Hollandia Film Factory’). Binger is the general director. The film factory continues operating during the years of World War I.

Successful films are shot under the direction of Louis Crispijn, which are sold to other countries after the war. The earliest surviving films are Twee Zeeuwsche meisjes in Zandvoort (‘Two Zeelandish Girls in Zandvoort’) and Weergevonden (‘Found Again’), with roles played by Annie Bos, an actress contracted in this year.

Emrik & Binger distributes picture postcards for use by mobilised Dutch soldiers.


Binger takes over the role of the film director, Louis Crispijn. From this time forward, he holds responsibility for the most important Hollandia productions.


Based on considerations of a business (financial) nature, Binger sets up a second film company: the ‘NV Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Witte Films’ (‘NV Society for the Exploitation of White Films’). The company’s official aim is to produce and distribute films for educational purposes on a morally sound basis. This company is also located at Hollandia’s address, Spaarne 57. Simultaneously, Binger establishes the ‘Nederlandsche Vereeniging tot veredeling van de cinematographie’ (‘Netherlands Associaton for the Elevation of Cinematography’), designed to evaluate films based on the moral values they convey. Official film censorship in the Netherlands occurs only in 1926 with the passing of movie house legislation.


Hollandia makes the film Oorlog en vrede (‘War and Peace’), an anti-war film in three parts, directed by Binger.


Negative prognoses for Hollandia’s future lead to the departure of a small group of employees, who continue independently as the Polygoon cinema newsreel company. Hollandia subsequently shifts its focus to motion pictures.

B.E. Doxat-Pratt, a man of British nationality, arrives in Haarlem in August in order to direct a film together with Binger. These collaborative productions are called ‘Anglo-Hollandia Films’.


Binger’s absolute rule at Hollandia continues to diminish, due to the so-called ‘Granger–Binger’ productions, made in collaboration with the British firm Granger Executives Ltd.


Binger falls seriously ill around Christmastime. After having transferred the management of Hollandia Film to one of his employees, Elsie Cohen, Maurits leaves Haarlem and travels to Würzburg, Germany, to be treated for his illness. He undergoes an operation in Heidelberg.


On 9 April, Binger dies in Wiesbaden at the age of fifty-five. Filmfabriek Hollandia goes bankrupt at the end of this year.


‘I’ve always been a passionate amateur photographer, my whole life long’, Maurits Binger professed in 1916. The quantity and quality of the photos Binger left behind, however, paint a somewhat different picture. Once he turned to film, he allowed his old hobby to fall to the wayside for the most part. From that moment on, he came to see photography as technically more limited and out-dated. After having worked for six years in the film profession, Binger was unable to imagine he had ever spent so much time in the past producing ‘plain still-standing photos!’ Because Binger’s photos were scarcely influenced in any way by artisanal and artistic convention, and free of any pretence, Maurits’ photos are nevertheless worth examining. On the contrary, the obvious influence of theatre and film resulted in unique shots taken by as early as 1900, foreshadowing the dynamic narrative trend found in film.

As part of his apprenticeship working at the printing company, Maurits Binger was educated in photography in Great Britain, France, and Germany. His schooling is likely to have been chiefly technical in nature. Nothing is known of possible contacts with other photographers during the time he spent abroad.

The earliest mention of Bingers’ photography dates from 1893. In this year, Meinard van Os praised several photos of glaciers taken by Binger in Switzerland, describing them as ‘very beautiful’ and ‘providing positive proof of the zealous ambition of the person who took them.’ By contrast, one ‘A. Censor’ spoke of these photos more critically. Binger himself, it appears, was also to be seen in these glacier shots, and in the opinion of the viewer, these images conveyed daredevilry more than beauty!

At an exhibition held in Haarlem in the same year, Binger submitted a beachscape. Meinard van Os praised its ‘artistic conception’. Comments of this nature, however, leave one rather at a loss, when the images being discussed are non-extant, as is unfortunately the case with this photo. Emrik & Binger published one group portrait of club members that Binger took at Nigtevecht in the Tijdschrift voor Photographie (‘Magazine of Photography’) as a collotype: a photo from which his passion for group activities in a club-like environment can be deduced.

Binger’s photo De werkstaking (‘The Work Strike’) was disseminated on a wide scale in the Tijdschrift voor Photographie in 1894. This theatrically staged scene shows a small group of men dressed as factory workers—possibly employees of Emrik & Binger—standing in a bar. The moral of this serene image could very well be that too little work in combination with an excess of alcohol can lead to violence: to the shock and revulsion of those standing around, a wounded person lies on the floor, while the perpetrator clenches his head in total despair, with the hammer still in his hand. Through the theatricality of the poses, this photo exposes social problems that were current at the time, while simultaneously defusing them. In this respect, Binger’s photo is similar to moralistic scenes devised by photographers such as Oscar Rejlander and Henry Peach Robinson, which garnered tremendous success. Like them, Binger too was inspired by poetry. De werkstaking was based on the work of Francois Coppée (1842–1908), a celebrated French poet who was well known in the Netherlands, once described by Lodewijk van Deyssel as ‘the singer of the Parisian bourgeois class and family life’. Also published was Binger’s photo In het Ketelhuis (‘In the Boiler House’), included in an album about the Internationale Tentoonstelling voor Fotografie (‘International Exhibition for Photography’) of 1895 and printed as a phototype by the ‘Steendrukkerij voorheen Amand’ (‘Lithographic Company Previously Amand’). In this case, his photo was one of the entries. The industrial character of this shot and the working ethic of the three labourers around the fire appear less posed than the photo De Werkstaking.

In the first decade of the twentieth century, Maurits Binger produced numerous portraits of young children. His daughter Nanny looks coquettishly into the camera, lifting up the edge of her dress, holding her house pets, or—when she gets older—gazing at herself in the mirror. Binger preferred to make a series of photos for these narrative genre scenes, incorporating the element of time and suggesting a sequence of events. His daughter Nanny and, in 1903, A. Peters, who later appeared as an extra in films made by Hollandia, played the leading roles in these ‘stories’. Peters posed, for instance, as a Victorian angel for sentimental shots with titles such as Prayer and I Like My Bath, as well pouting for I Don’t Want a Bath. In these shots, Binger rarely shied away from using background canvases and cardboard attributes, including a large egg.

On occasion, Binger ventured out with his camera as a veritable amateur photographer, primarily depicting festive events held in Haarlem. In 1903, he donated his photos of carriages in the flower parade to the city. Three years later, he presented the city with masquerade portraits taken at ‘chivalry parties’ organised by the Wilhelmina Committee, of which he was a board member. Binger was not the only one interested in this subject, nor was he the only one taking photos in such a frontal, unadorned style. Piet Clausing, G.A. Vernout, and other photographers also shot portraits of the inhabitants of Haarlem, donning their masquerade costumes in the years just after the turn of the century. It was Maurits’ father, Charles Binger, who began taking masquerade portrait shots a few decades earlier.

Maurits Binger devoted significant attention to the technical aspects of photography. The printing company had familiarised him with photomechanical processes, with which even his best photos were distributed. For his amateur photos, Binger typically relied on small-format daylight paper.

Binger’s public endeavours were usually related to technique. In 1894, he wrote about electric lighting in the magazine Lux. A lecture presented at the HAFC (Haarlems Amateur Fotografen Club, ‘Haarlem Amateur Photographers Club’) in 1895 addressed the topic of ‘prints of portrait shots with artificial light: a. Gas bulb light; b. Shot with Magnesium lamps; c. Lightning light.’

In 1894, Maurits Binger presented a ‘sciopticon’ lecture using glass lantern slides to the employees of the Nederlandsche Gist- en Spiritusfabriek (‘Netherlands Yeast and Spirits Factory’) in Delft. During these years, the sciopticon was a popular portable alternative to a lantern slide projector. It was the yeast factory’s director, J.C. van Marken, who took a progressive stance when it came to the living and working conditions of his employees and who had invited Binger to organise such an evening. Acquaintances from the HAFC and the AAFV (Amsterdam Amateur Fotografen Vereniging, ‘Amsterdam Amateur Photographers Association’) had assisted him with gathering the necessary material, but Binger had also produced lantern slides of the Agnetapark from negatives shot by Van Marken, who himself was an amateur photographer: ‘Following the projection of the portrait of Mr. and Mrs. v. Marken, which was very well received, a series of domestic landscapes, genre images, reproductions of paintings, as well as cityscapes of Haarlem and its environs, were projected, repeatedly alternating with several numbers played by the orchestra.’ The entire event reminds one of film screenings, which were to occur some time later.

Binger repeatedly outlined the advantages of photomechanical processes for his audiences of amateur photographers, including the unlimited number of editions, the permanence and uniformity, the wide variety of tints and dimensions obtainable, and particularly the speed and precision. Better than one’s own holiday snapshots, Maurits recommended that his audience buy the collotype prints available on the market as travel souvenirs, as they remained colourfast and vivid thanks to the printing ink used. With this propaganda, he somewhat forgot that character sometimes wins out over uniformity, no matter how technically perfected. In 1894, Maurits spoke proudly of an Emrik & Binger reproduction of a drawing by Charles Rochussen. Technique and art had approached each other very closely, when members of an artist’s society had been unable to distinguish between the reproduction and the actual drawings placed together in the same portfolio. Contrary to artworks made by hand, quality of this kind was inexpensive: ‘Without the collotype, these wonderful drawings would have remained stashed away in Mr. Sijthoff’s portfolio, whereas every lover of art could now have them in their possession.’

During a lecture in 1897 at a meeting of the AAFV, Binger provided an overview of the various printing processes, in order to make the labyrinth of ‘-phies’ and ‘-ypes’ somewhat more comprehensible

There was certainly a connection between Binger’s experience as a printer and his hobbies, photography and film. Just as with his father Charles, we sometimes observe conflicts of interest. For instance, commemorative printed matter for the ‘Vereeniging Koninginnedag’ (‘Queen’s Day Association’) was done for free on a regular basis after 1900. In the personal sphere, Binger made rather jocular collages of Emrik & Binger’s photo reproductions, used in conjunction with portrait photos. Reproductions of militiamen paintings—Haarlem’s specialty—apparently served as a suitable, light-hearted framework for family snapshots. These collages are a parody of the famous series of publications by G. Geffroy, Les Musées de 1’Europe (‘The Museums of Europe’), published by Nilsson & Lamon in Paris (a brother-in-law of Maurits Binger). ‘Framed’ are Maurits and his family, in costume and in position. These photomontages—as a comical note in the family album—are somewhat reminiscent of the humoristic masquerade balls and group formations found at festivals and fairs. There was also a connection with Hollandia Films: Emrik & Binger published a series of picture postcards that mobilised soldiers of the Dutch army could send without requiring a postage stamp. Hollandia film stars, such as Annie Bos and Mimi Boesnack, were featured in scenes in which fun was made of the crisis situation in neutral Holland. The actor Fred Homann appears as a scruffy figure in one postcard bearing the caption: ‘I can never be surprised by the soap crisis/ Because I’m not used to washing myself.’ There is nothing to indicate that Binger took these shots himself.

According to an interview in 1919, Binger experienced his first film viewing in a cellar beneath the Café Riche in Paris in the year 1896, about a man opening an umbrella. Nothing is known of this film and it is likely that Binger’s memory was failing him: Lumière’s sensational shows took place at the Grand Café.

Binger made a name for himself chiefly by devoting all of his free time, starting in 1913, to Hollandia Filmfabriek (‘Hollandia Film Factory’), the film company he established himself. Like the Emrik & Binger printing company, Hollandia strove to build a reputation and distribution at the international level—a goal it most certainly achieved. Besides being a business enterprise, for Binger the film factory was still first and foremost a hobby, a ‘personal passion of mine, my “petit pêche” [little peach].’

Hollandia was known for the quality of its technical finishing, its sumptuous and richly detailed film sets, and the extensive, regular film crew in its proud possession. Binger was highly involved in the actual film production and viewed the acting and editing as far more important than the film’s storyline. He often personally inspected the film sets and props prior to the shoot. On one occasion, he is said to have asked the operator/head cameraman Feiko Boersma: ‘Is the lighting right, Feiko? Are the ladies’ toilets radiant enough?’ The simple storylines of the Hollandia films were often compensated by their brilliant film photography, for which Binger was partially responsible.

In 1916, Binger stated that what made film ‘a special art, but nevertheless art’ was the film actors’ power of expression. Annie Bos—one of his contracted actresses—was especially a star in the ‘grand gesture’, then so popular in the theatres. An excess of expression was likewise a trademark of many of Binger’s own photos.

In 1918, Binger wrote about the important role of photography in film: ‘In order to direct a film with any success, one has to have a sound knowledge of photography. By no means am I referring to the technical aspects—though this too is often useful—but primarily to the artistic portion, so that one can, in advance, take account of how or what one wishes to bring to the screen, what needs to be shot or assembled, in order to avoid any later disillusion.’ Binger described film manufacturing as the production of a series of photos meant to convey the intention of the performers and the director. Retouching, which was still a customary practice in professional photography, was not an option when working with film. Binger viewed this as a handicap, as the intense lighting of the studio lamps and the enlargement in the format of the film screen greatly exacerbated every artificiality, such as wigs and makeup.

Binger was not the only person with a background in photography at Hollandia. The photographer W.H. Idzerda was also involved in the company. In 1919, Idzerda signed a report as a representative of the company, perhaps even as its director. In any event, he worked for the factory as a film director and filmed in Haarlem, Groningen, and the province of Limburg. Prior to Hollandia’s bankruptcy, Idzerda left the company in a dispute. Both Binger and Idzerda saw film as an elaboration of what could be achieved with photography. It was Binger, however, who made this connection most evident in his work.

Considering the wide range of his personal endeavour and various activities, photography for Maurits Binger was but one component of a more generally focused energy and creativity. Yet it was precisely because of this broad orientation that he was able to realise several original works in the area of photography. Binger’s light-hearted photos shot in his own private circles—related to the drama of theatre and the serial sense of time found in film—stand as engaging deviations from the customary conventions of photography in his day.


Primary bibliography

M.H.B., Fotografie-Tentoonstelling te Haarlem. Aan den Heer M.A. Ter Haar, te Bussum. (ingezonden brief), in Lux 4 (juli 1893) 10, p. 314-315.

Kort overzicht der phototypie of lichtdruk, in Fotografisch Jaarboek 1891, p. 136-143.

Bericht aan den H.H. leden der H.A.-F.-C, in Lux 5 (december 1893) 3, p. 75.

Iets over de fotografie met betrekking tot de boekdrukkunst, in Fotografisch Jaarboek 1893-94, p. 73-79.

Projectie met electrisch licht, in Lux 5 (maart 1894) 6, p. 192-194.

Het lichtdruk-procédé, in Lux 5 (maart 1894) 6, p. 194-199.

Haarlemsche Amateur-Fotografen-Club te Haarlem. Verslag van den secretaris over het clubjaar 1895, in Lux 7 (1 januari 1896) 1, p. 5-7.

Diverse drukprocédé’s. Voordracht gehouden op de vergadering der A.F.V. te Amsterdam, 17 november ’97, in Lux 9 (1 januari 1898) 1, p. 20-27.

Diverse drukprocédé’s. Voordracht gehouden op de vergadering der A.F.V. te Amsterdam, 17 november ’97. (Slot), in LUX 9 (1 februari 1898) 2, p. 97-106.

C.T.J. Rieber, Het Koninklijk Paleis te Amsterdam, Leiden z.j. (ca. 1901).

Chr. Nuys (tekst), Amsterdam commercial et industriel, Haarlem/Londen/Parijs (Emrik & Binger) 1907.

Beschouwingen en herinneringen, in De Film-Wereld 1 (1918) 47, p. 2-3, (idem in Skrien (1971) 23, p. 13-15).

Beschouwingen en herinneringen (vervolg). in De Film-Wereld 1 (1918) 50, p. 2-3, (idem in Skrien (1971) 24, p. 8-10).

Beschouwingen en herinneringen (3), in De Film-Wereld 1 (1918)51,p. 2, (idem in Skrien (1971) 25, p. 10-12).

Beschouwingen en herinneringen (4), in De Film-Wereld 2 (1919), (idem in Skrien (1971) 26/27, p. 24-26).


images in:

Tijdschrift voor Photographie 21 (1893), na p.84.

Tijdschrift voor Photographie 22 (1894), na p.80.

Foto-album. Een verzameling van 36 reproductiën in fototypie naar fotogrammen van de Internationale Tentoonstelling voor Fotografie. Amsterdam 8-22 sept. 1895, Amsterdam (Steendrukkerij voorheen Amand) 1896.

Secondary bibliography

Meinard van Os, Tentoonstelling ter bevordering van de belangen der fotografie te Haarlem, in het lokaal „Felix Favore” 27 mei-juni 1893, in Lux 4 (juni 1893) (tentoonstellingsbijvoegsel).

Auteur onbekend, Kleine mededeelingen, in Lux 4 (juli 1893) 10, p. 316.

Meinard van Os, Internationale tentoonstelling tot bevordering der fotografie, te Utrecht van 1-10 oktober 1893, in Lux 5 (oktober 1893) 1, p. 31.

A. Censor, Vit ik?, in Lux 5 (november 1893) 2, p. 43.

Auteur onbekend, Onze illustratie, in Tijdschrift voor Photographie 22 (1894), p. 96, 109-112.

Michel Ameschot, Verslag van het verhandelde op de maandelijksche bijeenkomst van 21 febr. 1894, in Lux 5 (maart 1894) 6, p. 181-182.

Auteur onbekend, Aan den lezer!, in Weekblad voor Fotografie 1 (27 maart 1894) 12a (extra nummer).

Meinard van Os, Internationale tentoonstelling tot bevordering der fotografie, uitgeschreven door de Afdeeling Beeldende Kunsten der Sociëteit Momus te Maastricht, in het Augustijner-lokaal, Kesselskade, 25 maart – 8 april 1894, in Lux 5 (april 1894) 7, p. 223, 225.

Auteur onbekend, Haarlemsche Amateur-Fotografen-Club te Haarlem, in Lux 5 (mei 1894) 8, p. 255.

Auteur onbekend, Amateur-Photographen-Vereeniging „Daguerre”. Internationale tentoonstelling tot bevordering der photographie, Groningen 2-10 juni 1894, in Weekblad voor Fotografie 1 (2 juni 1894) 22a (extra nummer).

Auteur onbekend, De Internationale fotografie-tentoonstelling te Groningen, in Weekblad voor Fotografie 1 (16 juni 1894) 24, p. 105.

Meinard van Os, Internationale tentoonstelling tot bevordering der fotografie. Groningen, 2-10 juni 1894, in Lux 5 (juli 1894) 10, p. 345.

L.H., Internationale fotografie-tentoonstelling 14 tot en met 29 juli 1894 in Musis Sacrum te Arnhem, in Weekblad voor Fotografie 1 (16 juli 1894) 28a (extra nummer, uitgegeven ter gelegenheid der tentoonstelling te Arnhem), p. 124-126.

Draniem, St. Nicolaas-avond te Haarlem, in Lux 6 (1 januari 1895) 4, p. 124-125.

Auteur onbekend, Haarlemsche Amateur-Fotografen-Club te Haarlem, in Lux 6 (1 februari 1895) 5, p. 160-161.

Auteur onbekend, Gemengde mededeelingen, in Lux 6(15 februari 1895) 5a, p. 190-192.

Auteur onbekend, Haarlemsche Amateur-Fotografen-Club te Haarlem, in Lux 6 (1 maart 1895) 6, p. 204-205.

Auteur onbekend, Gemengde mededeelingen, in Lux 6 (1 mei 1895) 8, p. 318.

Auteur onbekend, Gemengde mededeelingen, in Lux 6 (15 juni 1895) 9a, p. 370.

Auteur onbekend, Internationale fotografietentoonstelling. Amsterdam, 8-22 september, in Lux 6(15 september 1895) 12a, p.486.

A.D. Loman Jr., Fotografie-tentoonstelling te Amsterdam, in Weekblad voor Fotografie 2 (21 september 1895) 38, p. 200.

D. Wilmerink, Uittreksel uit de notulen der huishoudelijke bijeenkomst van 20 november 1895, in Lux (15 december 1895) 15a, p. 663-664.

Auteur onbekend, De fotografie-tentoonstelling te Haarlem, in Weekblad voor Fotografie 3 (22 mei 1896) 21, p. 138.

Catalogus VIII. Jahresausstellung von Kunst-Photographien von Mitgliedern der Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Amateur-Photographie zu Hamburg 1900, Hamburg (Kunstsalon von Louis Bock & Sohn) 1900, p. 31.

Auteur onbekend, Maurits H. Binger, in De Hollandsche Revue 21 (1916), p. 89-103.

Simon van Collem, Uit de oude draaidoos, Amsterdam (De Bezige Bij) 1959, p. 106-107, 113, 125-126.

W.J. Lukkenaer, Enige lopende produktie in Nederlandse filmhistorie. Australiër Geoff Donaldson vergaarde gegevens over: achtentachtig Haarlemse films, in Haarlems Dagblad 11 januari 1969.

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1839-1920, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978, p.56, 69, 91.

Ruud Bishoff, Zeventig jaar geleden begon de bloei van de Nederlandse film: het succes van de Hollandia is nog altijd niet geëvenaard, in Harlekijn 12 (1982) 2, p. 4-9.

Geoffrey Donaldson, Wie is wie in de Nederlandse film tot 1930, in Skrien (april/mei 1984) 135, p. 46; idem in Skrien (november/ december 1984) 144, p. 24-26.

Ruud Bishoff, De zwijgende speelfilm, in Karel Dibbets en Frank van der Maden (red.), Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse film en bioscoop tot 1940, Weesp (Het Wereldvenster) 1986, p. 67-88.

Ruud Bishoff, Overzicht van speelfilms tot en met 1940, in Karel Dibbets en Frank van der Maden (red.), Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse film en bioscoop tot 1940, Weesp (Het Wereldvenster) 1986, p. 272-275.

Maarten Valken (eindred.), Kroniek van Nederland, Amsterdam/Brussel (Elsevier) 1987, p. 865.

Henk van Gelder, Sloop bedreigt oudste authentieke filmstudio in Nederland, in NRC Handelsblad 14 maart 1987.

Henk van Gelder, De oudste filmstudio wordt afgebroken, in NRC Handelsblad 5 juli 1987.

Ruud Bishoff, Hollywood in Holland. De geschiedenis van de Filmfabriek Hollandia 1912-1923, Amsterdam (Thoth) 1988.

Harry Hosman, Laat de timmerman gauw even een kunstmaan maken, in De Volkskrant 9 september 1988.

Robbert van Venetië en Annet Zondervan, Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse architectuurfotografie, Rotterdam (Uitgeverij 010) 1989, p. 12, 68, 69, 136.


Helios, vanaf 10 oktober 1892.

HAFC, secretaris vanaf februari 1895-maart 1898.

AAFV, vanaf 1893.

Regelingscommissie liefdadigheids-voorstelling van de Haarlemsche Amateur-Fotografen-Club, 1893.

Commissie van bijstand, Internationale tentoonstelling tot bevordering der photographie, Groningen, 1894.

Jury, wedstrijd van de Gecombineerde Clubtocht van de Amateur-Fotografen-Vereeniging te Amsterdam en de Haarlemsche Amateur-Fotografen-Club, 1894.

Commissie van bijstand, Internationale fotografie-tentoonstelling, Amsterdam, 1895.

Union Internationale de Photographie.

Regelingscommissie, Internationale tentoonstelling ter bevordering der fotografie en aanverwante vakken, Haarlem 1896.

Jury, Internationale fotografie-tentoonstelling te Haarlem, 1896.

Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Amateur-Photographie, Hamburg.


1893 Bronzen medaille (Afdeeling B, Amateurs, Juniores) Tentoonstelling ter bevordering van de belangen der fotografie, Haarlem.

1894 Zilveren medaille (Afdeeling B, Amateurs, 2. Seniores), Internationale tentoonstelling tot bevordering der fotografie, Maastricht.

1894 Eerediploma (Afdeeling Amateur- Photographen B Nationaal, a. Seniores), Internationale tentoonstelling tot bevordering der photographie, Groningen.

1894 Prijs voor het fraaiste lantaarnplaatje (wedstrijd van de AAFV).

1894 Bronzen medaille (Afdeeling B, Amateur-fotografen, b. Seniores), Internationale fotografie-tentoonstelling, Arnhem.

1895 Diploma van verdiensten, toegekend door de HA-F-C, „wegens zijne bemoeiingen voor de Soiree van 31 Januari 1895”.

1895 Bronzen medaille (Afdeeling Amateurs) Internationale Fotografie-Tentoonstelling, Amsterdam.


1853 (g) Haarlem, lokaal „Felix Favore”, Tentoonstelling ter bevordering van de belangen der fotografie.

1893 (g) Utrecht, parkzaal Tivoli, Internationale tentoonstelling tot bevordering der fotografie.

1894 (g) Maastricht, Augustijner-lokaal, Internationale tentoonstelling tot bevordering der fotografie.

1894 (g) Groningen, De Harmonie, Internationale tentoonstelling tot bevordering derphotographie.

1894 (g) Arnhem, Musis Sacrum, Internationalefotografie-tentoonstelling.

1895 (g) Amsterdam, Militiezaal, Internationalefotografie- tentoonstelling.

1896 (g) Haarlem, Sociëteit „Vereeniging”, Internationale tentoonstelling ter bevordering der fotografie en aanverwante vakken.

1988 (g) Haarlem, Vishal, Hollywood in Holland. Opkomst en ondergang van de Hollandia Filmfabriek in Haarlem 1912-1923.

1989 (g) Rotterdam, tentoonstellingsruimte Oude Binnenweg 113, Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse architectuurfotografie. (Emrik & Binger).


(selectie; regie: Maurits Binger)

1912 De oude veerman.

1913 De levende ladder.

1915 Liefdesstrijd.

1915 Het tjalkschip De Vrouw Clasina.

1916 Het geheim van den vuurtoren.

1916 Liefdesoffer.

1916 Majoor Frans.

1916 La renzoni.

1916 Vogelvrij.

1917 Het geheim van Delft.

1917 Gouden ketenen.

1917 Madame Pinkette & Co.

1917 Ulbo garvema.

1918 De kroon der schande.

1918 Oorlog en vrede 1914.

1918 Oorlog en vrede 1916.

1918 Oorlog en vrede 1918.

1918 Op hoop van zegen.

1918 Toen ‘t licht verdween.

1919 Een Carmen van het noorden.

1919 De damescoupeur.

1919 Het goudvischje.

1920 Schakels.

1921 Rechten der jeugd.

1922 De leugen van Pierrot.

1922 Mottige Janus.


Amsterdam, Ruud Bishoff, mondelinge informatie.

Amsterdam, Gemeentearchief.

Amsterdam, Filmmuseum.

Haarlem, Gemeentearchief.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.


Leiden, Prentenkabinet van de Rijksuniversiteit