PhotoLexicon, Volume 6, nr. 12 (September 1989) (en)

Piet Zwart

Kees Broos


Piet Zwart was a designer in the broadest sense of the term. He built his reputation based on interior and furniture design and headed in a new direction in the area of graphic design for advertising. Together with Paul Schuitema and Gerrit Kiljan, Zwart was a founder of New Typography and New Photography in the Netherlands. As a graphic designer, he saw the power of photography’s application in advertising, when combined with typography. He was the first in the Netherlands to employ photograms—made without the use of a camera—in printed matter and photomontages for postage stamps.




Pieter Zwart was born on 28 May in Zaandijk as the son of Trijntje Boot and Pieter Zwart Pieterszoon, an operations manager at an oil mill. The environment is Dutch Mennonite (‘doopsgezind’), social-minded, and long familiar with industry.


Piet Zwart enrols as a student at the ‘Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid’ (‘National School of Applied Arts’) at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. He also takes elective classes in architecture with Willem Kromhout and becomes fascinated with the applied art of H.P. Berlage, Lion Cachet, Gerrit Dijsselhof, Chris Lebeau, and Willem Penaat. Jaap Jongert, N.P. de Koo, and Daan Hoeksema are among his fellow students. Zwart delves into Marxism, anarchism, theosophy, and the ‘Rein Leven’ (‘Clean Living’) movement.


After obtaining his ‘Akte M’ (‘M’ certificate) for drawing and art history, Zwart teaches drawing at the Ambachtsschool (a basic secondary-level vocational school) in Wormerveer.


Zwart is hired as a teacher of drawing and art history at the ‘Huishoud- en Industrieschool’ (‘Household and Industry School’) for girls in Leeuwarden. His designs for chairs and a classroom at the school are executed.


Zwart marries Rie Ketjen, a teacher at the same school. In the evening, Zwart teaches at the MTS (Middelbare Technische School, ‘Intermediate Technical School’) in Leeuwarden.


Zwart and his wife move to Voorburg—’I was afraid of ending up as a teacher for my entire life’—enabling him to further his knowledge of architecture at the TH (Technische Hoogeschool, ‘Technical College’) in nearby Delft.


World War I breaks out; Zwart is mobilised in the military. He is forced to quit his studies, due to a lack of funds. Out of necessity, he begins making embroidery designs, inspired by the motifs of the Wiener Werkstatte (‘Vienna’s Workshops’). His wife executes his designs, with self-made amateur photos documenting the results.


Zwart designs furniture in the heavy, decorative style of the Amsterdam School. These pieces are exhibited at exhibitions in The Hague, Rotterdam, and Haarlem.


Zwart becomes a teacher of the ‘Geschiedenis van Stijl- en Ornamentleer’ (‘History of Style and Ornamentation Theory’) for the evening programme at the ABK (Academie van Beeldende Kunsten en Technische Wetenschappen, ‘Academy of Visual Arts and Technical Sciences’) in Rotterdam.

Zwart becomes a member of the Kunstkring (‘Art Circle’) in The Hague, where he comes into contact with the progressive environment of architects and applied artists in that city. He becomes friends with the painter Vilmos Huszar, a member of the ‘De Stijl’ (‘The Style’) movement. Together they design interiors, with a radical shift occurring in Zwart’s work. Zwart finds employment as a draughtsman with the firm of the architect Jan Wils, a period in which he also designs furniture and interiors for private individuals in an austere, constructive style. As a hobby, Zwart makes typographic designs for letterheads and advertising cards.


H.P. Berlage asks Zwart to come work as a draughtsman at his architectural firm. Zwart collaborates on various projects there until 1927, principally the renovation of the Buitenhof and the Christian Science Church, both in The Hague.


The NKF (Nederlandse Kabelfabriek, ‘Netherlands Cable Factory’) in Delft commissions Zwart to design advertisements and do other advertising work on a regular basis.

The German artist Kurt Schwitters visits the Kunstkring in The Hague during his Dada tour. This marks the beginning of a long-lasting friendship with Zwart. At the Kunstkring, Zwart also meets the Russian painter and architect El Lissitzky. All three are currently experimenting with typography. Zwart is given an opportunity to experiment with letters and images, just as Lissitzky, in his advertisements for the NKF. Although Zwart has not yet photographed himself, he sees the potential of photography for advertising. In 1924, he incorporates photograms for the first time in his printed matter for the NKF, a technique he learns from Lissitzky.


During a visit to Berlin, Zwart meets Hans Richter, who experiments with photography and film.

Zwart designs the interior of a restaurant in Paris. Here, too, he meets avant-garde artists. The steady stream of new art magazines in Europe leads Zwart to believe that modern visual art and architecture, like film and photography, collectively form one large international movement. Lissitzky teaches him the principles of photomontage and stimulates his interest in the work of the Russian constructivists. Zwart also pays particular attention to the activities of Moholy-Nagy at the Bauhaus.


Zwart leaves Berlage’s shrinking firm. Zwart’s second marriage—to Nel Cleijndert—and the move to Wassenaar signal a new, highly creative period in his life, especially in the area of graphics. He works on a book entirely illustrated with photographs: a catalogue for the NKF. The photos are taken by De Gilde, a photographer from The Hague.

Zwart forms a three-man partnership, together with fellow photographers Gerrit Kiljan and Paul Schuitema—all three share a growing interest in the new opportunities made possible by photography.


Zwart receives his first commissions to do print advertising for the PTT (the Dutch national postal, telegraph, and telephone company). He applies photograms and photomontage, combined with a daring typography.

In The Hague, Zwart co-organises the Internationale Tentoonstelling op Filmgebied (‘International Exhibition in the Area of Film’).

Kurt Schwitters invites Zwart to become a member of the ‘Ring neuer Werbegestalter’ (‘Circle of New Advertising Designers’), a group of progressive graphic designers, which participates in numerous exhibitions both inside and outside Germany up until 1932. The typographer Jan Tschichold, a member of the circle, asks Zwart to put together the Dutch section of an exhibition to be held in the following year in Stuttgart, Germany: Film und Foto (Fifo). At the Pressa in Cologne, Germany, Zwart sees Lissitzky’s monumental photographic submissions.


Zwart buys a studio camera and sees an opportunity to master photographic technique through self-study, and as well by collaborating with Kiljan and Schuitema. He installs a small darkroom in his home. He incorporates his first photographs—a still life and radio transmission towers—into printed matter for a conference of the PTT.

In the summer, Zwart attends the Fifo in Stuttgart, Germany, and is impressed by the quality and pervasiveness of modern photography coming out of Russia and the United States. Zwart gives several guest lectures at the Bauhaus in Dessau, Germany, and is chiefly interested in the photography studio of Walter Peterhans and his photographic material studies.


In the fall, Zwart takes photos of nature, such as Oude knotwilg (‘Old Pollard Willow’), as well as material studies, such as Stofzuigerslang (‘Vacuum Hose’). When asked to contribute photos to the VANK-jaarboek (‘Nederlandsche Vereeniging voor Ambachts- en Nijverheidskunst, ‘Netherlands Association for Applied and Industrial Art’ Yearbook’), he makes a series of nature studies in December, entitled Berijpte kool, Berijpte liguster (‘Frosted Cabbage, Frosted Hedge’).

Zwart assists with Theo Güsten’s film for the PTT, Amsterdam-Batavia door de lucht (‘Amsterdam-Batavia through the Air’). He also builds exhibition stands for the PTT, which subsequently commissions him to design fifty postage stamps. Zwart decides to use photomontage as the basis.


In this year, Zwart photographs intensively and attempts to capture a wide range of subjects with his studio camera: movement (a humming top), nature (water, snow), human movement (a film camera operator, workers in a factory, stained-glass artists at work), various materials (fabrics, metal, glass).

Zwart’s first postage stamp based on photomontage comes out in April: a thirty-six-cent stamp; followed in August by a seventy-cent stamp (with the theme ‘Industry and Industriousness’); a third stamp in this series, for eighty cents, is not published until 1933; and in October 1931, two special stamps are issued for the benefit of the ‘Goudsche Glazen’ (‘Gouda Glasses’). For the last four stamps, Zwart uses his own shots (the portrait of Queen Wilhelmina on the first three is by Franz Ziegler). Zwart’s stamps draw all-round attention and, for quite some time, are a point of discussion among designers and critics. In 1931 and 1932, Kiljan and Schuitema each follow with their own series of four stamps.

In August 1931, the employees of the Bruynzeel furniture factories present an eight-square meter photomontage produced by Zwart to the managing directors in honour of the company’s anniversary.

In September, the booklet ‘reclame’ (‘Advertising’) of the Rotterdam advertising agency Nijgh & Van Ditmer is published, illustrated with photomontages. The company ‘ W.L. & J. Brusse’ publishes a series of monographs on film art, designed by Zwart and featuring photomontages in red and blue on the cover.


For what will be called Het boek van PTT (‘The Book of PTT’)—to be published in 1938—Zwart begins taking tabletop photos, as well as shots from within the PTT company itself. He photographs on a frequent basis at the NKF, the PTT, and in the factories of the furniture manufacturer Bruynzeel, for use in numerous window posters, book covers, advertising brochures, and advertisements.

Zwart purchases cameras that are more easily manageable, to use along with his studio camera: a Plaubel Makina, a Foth-Derby, and a Leica. The darkroom is expanded in order to process negatives in various formats.

In the 1930s, a series of apprentices/assistants work with Piet Zwart: Pieter Bijl, Hans Wolf, Dick Elffers, Henny Cahn, as well as the German immigrants Heinz Allner, Claire Donsbach, and Helmut Salden.


The collaboration with the NKF comes to an abrupt halt following the publication of the booklet Delft Kabels (‘Delft Cables’). For this special booklet, Zwart takes 247 shots. The company agrees to pay only the expenses for the 85 photos that are actually printed in the publication.

Zwart is fired from his position at the ABK in Rotterdam resulting from a conflict of interest: unlike the KABK (Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten, ‘Royal Academy of Art’) in The Hague, the academy is unwilling to incorporate photography into the study programme.


Zwart’s photographic archive expands steadily with shots covering a wide variety of topics, to be used in print advertising for companies such as Bruynzeel, Begeer, and Wernink.


Zwart takes photographs for the architectural magazine De 8 en Opbouw, particularly for the CIAM congresses and excursions, as well as for the promotion of social building projects.


Het boek van PTT comes out: a clever combination of photography, drawings, and text in four colour copper intaglio and a fine sample of Zwart’s creative and pedagogical qualities. It is also Zwart’s last design in which photography plays such a key role.

Zwart’s interest lies increasingly in the design of industrial products, such as kitchens for Bruynzeel. A young generation of photographers—Eva Besnyö, Carel Blazer, Emmy Andriesse, Cas Oorthuys—–now moves to the forefront. Zwart follows their development with great interest.


From the summer of 1942 to early 1943, Zwart is detained as a hostage during World War II.


Before and during the war, Zwart receives commissioned work from Bruynzeel. After the war, he works for the same company primarily as an architect and an industrial designer.


In the exhibition catalogue Foto ’48, Zwart recalls his past under the title ‘Gereinigde fotografie’ (‘Cleansed Photography’).


With the exhibition Piet Zwart­–Typotekt (‘Piet Zwart–Typotect’) held at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, Zwart’s photographic work is shown to the public for the first time in thirty years. The museum purchases a collection of printed matter and photographs.


A major retrospective of Zwart’s work is held at the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague. This exhibition travels to Germany and Switzerland. The Gemeentemuseum subsequently acquires a majority of the exhibited works.


The Wilde Gallery in Cologne, Germany, publishes a portfolio with twelve of Zwart’s photos from the 1930s.


On 24 September, Piet Zwart dies at a nursing home in Leidschendam.


‘The first shots were complete failures. I shot in full sun, outdoors, with maximum aperture 5 minutes. Not a trace of an image; 6 minutes; still nothing; an evenly grey plate. What we knew about photographic technique: nothing.’ On the occasion of the exhibition Foto ’48, Piet Zwart reflected on the start of his brief career as a photographer, which began in 1929, with these slightly rhetorical words. By this time, Zwart had built a certain reputation as an idiosyncratic designer of furniture, interiors, and other products of applied art. In the 1920s, however, graphic design had become his most important field of work, which primarily entailed the design of print advertising for government and businesses—a relatively new phenomenon in those years.

By as early as 1923, it had already become clear to Zwart that photography could be an effective tool in this endeavour, as a new way to draw attention. It was in May of this year that the Russian artist El Lissitzky visited The Hague, where he gave a lecture on ‘Young Russian Art’ for the Kunstkring (‘Art Circle’). Lissitzky presented examples of his typographic experiments. These made an impression on Piet Zwart, who had just recently been commissioned to design three original advertisements for the NKF (Nederlandsche Kabelfabriek, ‘Netherlands Cable Factory’) in Delft each and every month. On this same occasion, Lissitzky showed Zwart how it was possible to produce photographic shadow images on light-sensitive paper without the need for a camera: the photogram.

In 1924, a photogram made by Piet Zwart appeared in an advertising booklet for the NKF—without any commotion. He also applied this technique to printed matter produced for the Dutch postal service, the PTT. It was typical of the way in which photography was perceived in the Netherlands that while such experiments failed to raise eyebrows, five years down the road debates were still being conducted as to whether a photogram could rightfully be considered ‘art’.

Piet Zwart was practical-minded: for him, photography was not so much an aim in itself, but rather a tool. It was this that subsequently led him to the technique of photomontage—before he had even started taking photographs. The NKF had commissioned Zwart to do the typography for a catalogue designed to convey a clear image of the production and assembly of high-power and telephone cables. Zwart was experienced enough to carry out detailed technical drawings. In this case, however, he believed that photography would be the better medium, but only on the condition that he was able to acquire photos that were accurate, highly defined, and concise. Because he still lacked the necessary technical knowledge and photographic equipment for such a task, he turned to a professional photographer. This led to complications: ‘He was a skilled photographer; an arsenal of tricks and gimmicks; when I removed the cloth from his objective, he still tried to give me a soft-focus by leaving the cover just a little in front of the lens; he disliked such brutally sharp photos.’ Such a recollection is typical of the objections that Zwart previously raised when it came to professional photography in its traditional form.

The NFK’s catalogue came out in the spring of 1928. It was the first Dutch book in which photography played a functional role. It was designed in a surprising, almost film-like manner. Zwart’s own explanation was as follows: ‘The application of photography (including photograms and photomontage) as an integrated element of the composition makes the new typography work spatially, dynamic … The aim of phototypography is to depict image and text as an expressive form.’

This ‘photomontage’ was also something new. Once again, it was Lissitzky—during a visit to the Netherlands in 1926—who showed Zwart the potential of this technique, the photographic equivalent of the collage in visual art. Zwart became fascinated with the visual capabilities of this realistic, but suggestive form of imagery, which, in retrospect, would prove to be so characteristic of the applied graphic work of an entire generation of designers in the 1920s and ’30s.

The young typographer Jan Tschichold from Munich, Germany, with whom Zwart corresponded, judged the catalogue favourably. Undoubtedly, it is he who is to be credited with inviting Zwart in November 1928 to participate in the major international exhbition Film und Foto (Fifo) in Stuttgart, as well asking him to organise the Dutch entry. This was somewhat ironic, as Zwart had made little more than photograms up to this point, and had only used the photos of others in his photomontages. At the Fifo exhibition, however, ample space was expressly being given to photography, applied in printed matter. Zwart was therefore as well represented with his photograms and photomontages. ‘In one aspect, the Dutch submission differed from those sent in from other countries. We [i.e. Gerrit Kiljan, Paul Schuitema and Piet Zwart, note: K.B.] chiefly brought photographs applied in advertising. In my view, the fact that all three of us had taken photographs for advertising purposes has influenced, partially benefited, but at the same time obstructed our photographic development. It forced us to work very precisely without compromises: advertising tolerates no emotional excess. This was truly in line with what we did: generally speaking, we took practical, functional photos.’ Attending this important event was a revelation for Piet Zwart. It was the first time that he was confronted with the work of avant-garde photographers from other countries. Dutch newspapers and photography magazines hardly showed any interest in the exhibition. Zwart therefore decided to write about it himself—the first appeal he made for a new photography in the Netherlands.

Zwart’s written accounts indicate that the photos taken by Edward Weston, Alexander Rodtchenko, and Walter Peterhans had especially made a major impression on him. He pointed out just how provincial the Dutch entry to the Fifo—which he himself had put together—had in fact been, but he also cited the degree to which Dutch photography—apart from advertising work, its ‘activistic application’ as he called it—lagged behind in the areas of camera technique, textural expression, and the mastery of form and composition. Zwart’s conclusion read as follows: ‘it was too little for us to save face’. He also criticised the underlying cause, specifically, that there was no decent educational programme to become a photographer in the Netherlands, despite discussions that had gone on for years: ‘Because this exhibition has indeed proven very convincingly the enormous importance of the light etching [‘lichtetsing’] and its applications in the socio-economic scientific world, as well as its possibilities as a new visualising tool. Excluding oneself because of indifference or short-sightedness signifies inactivity in an area of culture, which should be described as more than regrettable, rather as reprehensible… It is becoming urgently necessary that we will be able to obtain a technical education in our country… Photography is not just a scientific or an aesthetic problem, but a problem of a social and economic nature having a far-reaching and growing significance.’

As a newly awakened man with smart-talking ways, Zwart was alone for the time being. As the response of the photography magazines to all of this modern thinking was one of mild pity, in the end Zwart was left with no other choice but to set an example himself.

In 1929, Zwart began to study the principles of photography on his own: ‘I [purchased] a second-hand 13/18 studio camera with an f/7.2 lens and other necessities. A cabinet, width 68, depth 95, height 190, functioned as a darkroom; against the back wall a couple of wooden planks, under that a bucket as a rinsing tray.’ With the help of trade literature, Zwart delved into the optical, chemical, and technical aspects of photography. Alongside Zwart’s activities as a typographic and industrial designer, a brief visit to the Bauhaus in December 1929 further stimulated his efforts to pursue photography. There he taught classes as a guest instructor. His primary interest, however, was in learning more about the work of the young Walter Peterhans, whose photos he had seen at the Fifo and who had taken over the running of the photography department from Moholy-Nagy six months prior. Zwart gave an account of this in a letter: ‘…Peterhans is one of the nicest guys, I get many pointers from him … I’d made a set-up for a photo, of which I had finished two shots at eight-thirty. Developing tomorrow morning. I’ve chatted a lot with Peterhans and I have already learned a great deal from him. He’s still a young man, about 30 and he’s been photographing since 1925. Began only then as a dilettante!’

In Peterhans, Zwart had found someone who was similarly interested in the perfect photographic depiction of material structures and who possessed a predilection for the almost abstract forms encountered in nature, as well as technology and industry. When, in December 1930, Zwart was asked to elaborate on his views regarding photography in the weekly Wereldkroniek (‘World Chronicle’), he illustrated his story with photos by Peterhans, Lissitzky, Edward Weston, André Kertész, and Florence Henri. To quote Zwart: ‘The task of the contemporary and future photographer lies in the mastery of the properties of the photographic medium. The ground glass is the playing field: it is there that the battle between the constraining mechanical means and the liberating human spirit occurs. That is where the conception of natural and life functions arise; that is where the emotions or the amazement of people take form, which can give the observer of the carefully executed product a remarkable, new view of the experienceable world. It can be a detail or a synthesis of a range of phenomena; there are countless possibilities. Understood in this manner, photography can become a means to enrich our vision. Photographic vision is more general, more collective than the vision of the individual such as with painting. Herein lies its value for the future.’

Just as his colleagues Paul Schuitema and Gerrit Kiljan—both of whom had begun with photography at an earlier point—Zwart as well became very passionately involved in this new technology. He not only exchanged ideas with them, but—being very practical—also recipes for concoctions, trade magazines, and negatives. Without even one of them being a professional photographer, Schuitema, Kiljan, and Zwart were greatly responsible for ensuring that the principles of New Photography found their way into the Netherlands—with the first two doing this chiefly through their influential activities at the KABK (Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten, ‘Royal Academy of Art’) in the Hague during the 1930s and ’40s.

At the ABK (‘Academie van Beeldende Kunsten, ‘Academy of Fine Arts’) in Rotterdam, Zwart had found no support for his ideas to reform traditional art education. His vision, which he disclosed as early as 1928 in Het Vaderland (‘The Fatherland’), a newspaper in The Hague, was undoubtedly too radical: ‘Where “painting” is concerned, education will have to be thoroughly revised. Actually, the painting department will have to be disposed of entirely, if one means to refer to the primitive method by which tufts of pig’s hair, bound to a stick, are used to brush out coloured materials on linen. In its place, much attention would have to be given to synthetic and visual drawing, advertising, modern methods of reproduction, typography, photography and its visualising capacities; film, colouring in architecture and in the appearance of the city.’

All three—Zwart, Schuitema, and Kiljan—were practical-minded, with little patience for discussions of whether photography might be considered ‘art’. They viewed the photographic medium as a solid basis for their commercial, graphic designs. That some of their photos also had an independent aesthetic value was seen as a beneficial extra.

The photos that Piet Zwart took were, first and foremost, purely functional: each shot was categorised in a systematic image archive organised by subject, from which he was able to draw upon when compiling his photomontages as he saw fit. Applying this technique, he produced multiple series of book covers, advertising flyers, advertisements, and finally even postage stamps—the first that were ever produced with photomontage. With their asymmetrical compositions of photographic images, these stamps formed a major break with the rules of traditional graphic arts and respectable styling and symbolism, as stipulated up until this time in negotiable instruments of this nature. Stamp collectors and art critics protested.

In Zwart’s card system we occasionally encounter the notation ‘tentoonstellingsnegatief’ (‘exhibition negative’). In such cases, this meant a certain shot was more than just functional and that considerable enlargements had been made. From these shots, Zwart also had glass lantern slides made, which were then used to illustrate his lectures on New Photography.

Zwart’s ‘photographic vision’ initially focused on nature. Sometimes he reduced them to steady graphic patterns; at other times, he isolated particularly striking forms. With respect to his working method, he later recalled: ‘An old printing-block maker gave me a couple of tips. One of these has especially influenced my photographic development: He said I needed to learn how to photograph on the ground glass; the image had to arise there; that was a matter of routine and precision. I have taken this tip very much to heart.’

Zwart was soon also fascinated by industry and its products, by the shining steel of machines, and the visual rhythm of mass production. He shared a vision similar to that of his contemporaries Edward Weston, Karl Blossfeldt, and Albert Renger-Patzsch, but there was also a personal aspect to his interest: throughout his life, nature had always amazed him, as affirmed by the numerous drawings that he made of flowers in his beloved garden, where he spent many hours. At the same time, he had an interest in science and technology—a given for someone whose youth was spent in the industrial region of the Zaan River. Zwart felt an almost blind appreciation for the technological culture and its aesthetic, along with numerous avant-garde artists of the 1920s.

This ultimately resulted in a number of photos featuring industrial forms and products, which, just as with his nature photos, were highly characteristic of New Photography. The emphasis lies on unusual angles of view and image frames, and on a sharpness of detail encompassing a wide range of grey tints, which enables the visual properties of materials and surfaces to be precisely registered. We see the predilection for the diagonal and the close-up and the attempts to suggest movement, where the influence of modern film is unmistakeable. A number of these photos were shown at photo exhibitions in the first half of the 1930s, primarily in Germany. In the end, however, photography was never the final objective for Piet Zwart, but rather part of a larger arsenal of graphic tools, which the graphic designer, the exhibition builder, and the architect could put to use for their endeavours. For a multi-faceted ‘typotect’ such as Zwart, photography was ultimately a temporary stop, a place he would leave behind at the end of the 1930s, in order to seek out new and different challenges that were to emerge in the areas of graphic and industrial design.

Later, Piet Zwart would far too modestly describe himself and his colleagues as a group that had produced nothing more than ‘directly functional’ photos for advertising and informational purposes. He passed the honour on to a younger generation that he had helped to inspire, but which for the most part had turned away from advertising and ‘objective’ photographs in the 1930s: ‘Of major importance was the influence that we had on a small group of young people via the Bauhaus, and the academies in Rotterdam and The Hague. There was a momentum and craving at that time and we managed to stimulate the most progressive among them with our own inspiration, provided them with couple of key words to take with them, which became the guiding principle for their further development. (…) They found the way to humanity and to social documentation, not incidentally, but as an integrated part of their vision. (…) The capturing and sharp, purposeful characterisation of the social aspect of an era is, it seems to me, the most important task of photography. It is no coincidence that the best photographers abroad, Cartier-Bresson, Weegee, Walker Evans, and others, found their way to documentary humanism. It is no longer important just to make eye-pleasing photos; that is camouflage, in essence, reaction and no progression. It was not for the blinding gloss that we tried to clean the weapon.’


Primary bibliography

Het onderwijs aan de academies voor beeldende kunsten, in Het Vaderland 8 september 1928.

De Fifo te Stuttgart, in Het Vaderland 9 juli 1929.

De Fifo te Stuttgart, in De Fotograaf 43 (1929) 30, p. 1-2.

Fotovisie, in Wereldkroniek (20 december 1930) 1915, p. 1061-1064.

Van oude en nieuwe typografie, in Reclameboek Drukkerij Trio, Den Haag (Trio) 1930/1931 (alleen proefdrukken bekend).

De nieuwe postzegel van 36 en 70 cent, in Postzegelkunde en postwezen, Den Haag (PTT) 1931.

De postzegels van 36 en 70 et. Hoe de ontwerpen tot stand kwamen, in De Tampon 12 (1931) 1/3, p. 74-76.

G. Kiljan, Paul Schuitema (en Piet Zwart), Foto als beeldend element in de reclame, in De Reclame november 1933, p. 429-438.

Het typografisch gezicht van nu en functionele typografie, in Prisma der kunsten (1937) 3, p. 76-84.

Timbres au profit des vitraux de Gouda et timbres-poste ordinaires, in Les timbres-poste des Pays-Bas de 1929 a 1939, Den Haag (PTT) 1939, p. 17.

De taak der fotografie, in Je Maintiendrai. De Stem van Nederland 9 (2 oktober 1948) 13, p. 10.

Gereinigde fotografie, in Catalogus tent. Foto ’48, Kroniek voor Kunst en Kuituur 1948 (special editie), p. 4-8.

Tekst en illustratie, in Drukkersweekblad (1950) Kerstnummer, ongepag.

De strijd op het matglas, in De Groene Amsterdammer 7 maart 1953.

Sleutelwoorden, Den Haag (Staatsdrukkerij) 1965.

Fr. Muller en P.F. Althaus, Piet Zwart, Teufen (Niggli) 1966.

K. Broos, Piet Zwart. Portfolio mit 12 Fotografien, Keulen (Wilde) 1974.


images in:

Normaliënboekje, Delft (Nederlandsche Kabelfabriek) 1924-1929. (herdruk: Nuth (Rosbeek) 1986).

NKF. N.V. Nederlandsche Kabelfabriek Delft, Delft (Nederlandsche Kabelfabriek) 1928.

Netherlands Cable Works Ltd., Delft (Nederlandsche Kabelfabriek) 1929.

Le centre d’émission Kootwijk Radio, Den Haag (PTT) 1929.

W.F. Gouwe, Ruimte, in Jaarboek van Nederlandsche Ambachts- en Nijverheidskunst 1929, p. 36, 153-156, 175.

Catalogus tent. Film und Foto, Stuttgart (Werkbund) 1929, p. 38. (herdruk: Stuttgart (Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt) 1979).

Franz Roh en Jan Tschichold (samenstelling), Foto-auge. 76 Fotos der Zeit, Stuttgart (Wedekind & Co.) 1929, p. 37.

Heinz en Bodo Rasch (samenstelling), Gefesselter Bliek. 25 Kurze Monografien und Beiträge über neue Werbegestaltung, Stuttgart (Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Zaugg & Co.) 1930, p. 108.

A.M. Cassandre, Publicité, in 1’Art international d’aujourd’hui, Parijs z.j. (ca. 1930), ongepag.

D.A.M. Binnendijk e.a., Balans. Algemeen Jaarboek der Nederlandsche Kunsten 1930-1931, Maastricht (Leiter-Nypels) 1931, p. 144.

C.J. Graadt van Roggen, Het linnen venster, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1931, omslag.

M. ter Braak, De absolute film, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1931, omslag.

C. van Wessem, De komische film, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1931, omslag.

S. Koster, Duitsche filmkunst, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1931, omslag.

E. de Roos, Fransche filmkunst, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1931, omslag.

F. Otten, Amerikaansche filmkunst, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1931, omslag.

Reclame, Rotterdam (Nijgh & Van Ditmar) 1931.

Wilhelm Kästner, Internationale Ausstellung „Das Lichtbild” Essen 1931, in Photographische Rundschau 68 (1931) 19, p. 362.

Nederlandsch maandblad voor philatelie 1922-1932, (1932) jubileumnummer, omslag.

Radiojaarboek 1932, Den Haag (PTT) 1932, omslag.

Modern Photography 1932, (The Studio Annual), p. 116.

L.J. Jordaan, Dertig jaar film, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1932, omslag.

Th. Hoyer, Russische filmkunst, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1932, omslag.

Delft Kabels, Delft (Nederlandsche Kabelfabriek) 1932.

Filmliga 6 (1932), p. 51.

L. Lichtveld, De geluidsfilm, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1933, omslag.

H. Scholte, Nederlandsche filmkunst, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1933, omslag.

W.P.H, van Blijenburgh, Kamergymnastiek voor iedereen, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1933, omslag.

Focus 20 (28 oktober 1933), p.645.

Lux-De Camera 44 (11 november 1933) 23, p. 300.

Lux-De Camera 44 (25 november 1933) 24, p.310.

A. de Kom, Wij slaven van Suriname, Amsterdam (Contact) 1934, omslag.

De 8 en Opbouw 7 (1936) 3, p. 36.

De 8 en Opbouw 7 (1936) 8, p. 88-89.

De 8 en Opbouw 7 (1936) 16, p. 197.

De 8 en Opbouw 10 (1939) p. 129, 161, 167-169, 174.

Het boek van PTT, Den Haag (PTT) 1938. (herdruk: Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1985).

Catalogus Zilverfabriek Van Kempen en Begeer, Voorschoten 1939.

Paul Schuitema, Waar Nederland trotsch op is. Hoe we tegen het water vochten en wat we er mee deden, Leiden (Sijthoff) 1940.

Tobias M. Barthel, Photo Graphik International, München (Georg D.W. Callway) 1965, p. 8.

Berliner Kunstblatt (april 1978) 18.

J.L. Daval, Photography, history of an art, Genève/New York (Skira/Rizzoli International) 1982, p. 163-164.

Catalogus tent. Foto ’84, Amsterdam (Stichting Amsterdam Foto) 1984, p. 117.

Secondary bibliography

W.F. Gouwe, De grafische kunst in het practische leven, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1926, p. 43, 63.

J. Tschichold, Die neue Typographie. Ein Handbuch für zeitgemäss Schaffende, Berlijn (Bildungsverband der Deutschen Buchdrucker) 1928, p. 89. (herdruk: Berlijn (Brinkmann & Bose) 1987).

Catalogus tent. Neue Werbegrafik, Basel (Gewerbemuseum) 1930.

J. Tschichold, The composite photograph and its place in advertising, in Commercial art 9 (december 1930) 54, p. 237.

W.F. Gouwe, Werk, Jaarboek van Nederlandsche Ambachts- en Nijverheidskunst 1930, p. 30, 90, 98, 128, 132, 136-137 (met afb.).

Catalogus tent. Fotomontage, Berlijn (Lichthof ehem. Kunstgewerbemuseums) 1931.

G.H. ‘s-Gravesande, Onze posterijen en de typografie, in Maandblad voor beeldende kunsten 8 (1931), p.234.

Auteur onbekend, Rotterdamsche kring. Werk van G. Kiljan, Paul Schuitema en Piet Zwart, in Rotterdamsch Nieuwsblad 8 april 1931.

Aronson, Tentoonstelling foto en fotomontage, in Meer baet 3 (april 1931) 5, p.912.

Auteur onbekend, Tentoonstelling fotomontages en reclame-ontwerpen, in NRC 23 juni 1931.

K.S. Tentoonstelling van foto-montage in het Stedelijk Museum te Amsterdam, in Meer baet 3 (1931) 8, p. 1012.

Auteur onbekend, Postzegels en fotomontage, in Bedrijfsfotografie 13 (18 september 1931) 19, p. 344-345.

Auteur onbekend, Jan Tschichold. Eine Stunde Druckgestaltung, in De Reclame 10 1931) 11, p. 450.

B. (= Adriaan Boer), Moderne foto’s en drukwerken te Utrecht, in Bedrijfsfotografie 13 (13 november 1931) 23, p. 424-426.

Auteur onbekend, Fotografie en fotomontage. Een lezing gehouden door P. Zwart op 30 october 1931 te Amsterdam,iIn De Reclame 10 (1931) 12, p. 564.

M. Wilmink, Andere tijden ander drukwerk, in Drukkersweekblad (1931) Kerstnummer, p. 30-34.

J.T. Hulsekamp, Nederlandsche postzegels. Naar aanleiding van de nieuwste zegels, ontwerp Piet Zwart, in De Tampon 12 (1931) 1/3 (Kerstnummer), p. 76-79.

C.W. Geleedts, Modern drukwerk en foto’s, va De Tampon 12 (1931) 1/3 (Kerstnummer), p. 116.

W.F. Gouwe, Vorm, Jaarboek van Nederlandsche Ambachts- en Nijverheidskunst 1931, p. 64, 66, 82, 84, 138, 154, 158 (met afb.).

Jan Tschichold, Die ersten zeitgemässen Briefmarken, in Grafische Berufsschule (1931-1932) 4, p. 40.

Catalogus tent. Internationale de la Photographie, Brussel (Palais des Beaux-Arts) 1932.

G.H. ‘s-Gravesande, De nieuwe postzegels van Nederland, in Maandblad voor beeldende kunsten 9 (1932), p.42.

Auteur onbekend, Nederlandsche tentoonstelling te Moskou, in Nieuw-Rusland (Orgaan van het Genootschap Nederland-Nieuw Rusland), juni 1932, p. 82-83.

Auteur onbekend, Bij de platen, in Focus 20 (28 oktober 1933) 22, p. 635.

D.B. (= D. Boer), De bondstentoonstelling „Nieuwe richtingen in de fotografie”, in Focus 20 (28 oktober 1933) 22, p. 653-655.

J. Kasander, Fotografie, typografie, reclame. Gesprek met architect Piet Zwart, in Contact. Maandblad voor de rijpere jeugd 1 (november 1934) n , p. 480-483 en 1 (december 1934) 12, p. 524-527.

F. Schiff, Sens du photomontage, in l’Amour de Vart 12 (1936) 6, p. 209-216.

Dick Elffers, Ontwerpers en de fotografie, in Catalogus tent. foto ’37, Prisma der Kunsten 1937 (speciaal nummer), p. 108-110.

A.M. Hammacher, Stijlveranderingen in de Europeesche postzegels met beeltenis van 1840 tot 1938, Den Haag (PTT) 1938.

Z. Rossmann, Pismo a fotografie v reklame, Brno (Index) 1938.

WJ. de Gruyter, De aesthetische verzorging van Nederlandsche postzegels, in Halcyon 2 (1940),ongepag.

H.L.C. JafFé, Dutch commercial art, in Graphis 6 (1950) 30, p. 104.

W.F. Gouwe, Het ontwerpen van postzegels 1852-1952, Den Haag (PTT) 1953, p. 50.

K. Gerstner en H. Kutter, Die neue Graphik, Teufen (Niggli) 1959, p.65, 79-83, 108.

Chr. de Moor, Postzegelkunst, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1960.

H.L.C. Jaffé, Ein Pionier funktioneller Typografie, in Neue Grafik 10 (1961) 2.

J. Kassies, Gesprek met Piet Zwart, in Drukkersweekblad en Autolijn (1961) Kerstnummer, p. 50.

Catalogus tent. Piet Zwart typotekt, Amsterdam (Stedelijk Museum) 1961.

H. Spencer, Piet Zwart, in Typographica, new series, (1963) 7, p. 25-32.

H.L.C. Jaffé en P. Brattinga, Uitreiking van de David Roëllprijs aan Piet Zwart, Amsterdam (Prins Bernhard Fonds) 1964.

vk (= J. van Keulen), Piet Zwart, prijzenswaardige rebellie, in De Groene Amsterdammer 21 november 1964.

Auteur onbekend, De sjeiks hebben het. Prijs voor Piet Zwart, ontwerper o.a. van de Bruynzeelkeuken, in Haagse Post 21 november 1964.

Catalogus tent. Kunst und Briefmarken aus den Niederlanden, Bern 1966.

Catalogus tent. Typomundus 20, New York (Reinhold) 1966, afb. 109, 185, 194.

E. Neumann, Functional graphic design in the 20’s, New York (Reinhold) 1967.

Auteur onbekend, Ontwerper Piet Zwart kreeg hoge Engelse onderscheiding, in Haagsche Courant (wekelijks bijvoegsel) 11 maart 1967.

Catalogus tent. Piet Zwart en de PTT, Den Haag (Haags Gemeentemuseum) 1968.

C. Magelhaes, Nederlandse fotografie. De eerste honderd jaar, Utrecht/Antwerpen (Bruna & Zoon) 1969, p. XXI, afb. 86-87.

H. Spencer, Pioneers of modern typography, Londen (Lund Humphries) 1969, p. 109-119.

Auteur onbekend, Piet Zwart: nestor van typografie, in Het Vaderland 23 juli 1970.

J. Müller-Brockmann, A history of visual communication, Teufen (Niggli) 1971.

K. Broos, Piet Zwart, Den Haag (Haags Gemeentemuseum) 1973 (catalogus), (herdruk: K. Broos, Piet Zwart 1885-1977, Amsterdam (Van Gennep) 1982).

Dolf Welling, Piet Zwart vindt het na een halve eeuw toekomst niet best, in Haagsche Courant 5 april 1973.

K. Broos, Piet Zwart, in Studio International l 85 (1973) 954, p. 176-180.

D. Ades, Photomontage, Londen (Thames and Hudson) 1976, p. 102.

Flip Bool (red.), De bevrijde camera, Vrij Nederland-Bijvoegsel 37 (15 mei 1976) 20, p. 4-7, 10-15, 21-23 (met afb.).

Dirk K. Vrede, De postzegels van Piet Zwart, in De postzegel-revue oktober 1977, p. 8-10.

H. van Haaren, Piet Zwart 1885-1977, in De Tijd 28 oktober 1977.

Karl Steinorth, Piet Zwart. „Film und Foto. Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbunds. Stuttgart 1929″, in Color Foto (1977) 12, p. 94-95.

Els Barents (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1940-1975, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978) p. 4, 7, 16-17.

Els Barents en Evert Rodrigo (samenstelling), Fotografie in Nederland 1940/75, in Stedelijk Museum 22 december – 4 februari 1979 (extra bulletin).

K. Steinorth, Photographen der 20er Jahre, München (Laterna Magica) 1979, p. 112-113.

Flip Bool en Kees Broos (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1920-1940, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1979, p. 28-30, 32, 34-43, 49, 52-53, 57, 60 , 65-66, 71-74, 80, 85, 87-89,94, 120-121, 125, 133-134, 141-143, 160 (met afb.).

Kees Broos, Zu wenig, um unser Gesicht zu wahren, in Ute Eskildsen en Jan-Christopher Horak (samenstelling), Film und Foto der zwanziger Jahre. Eine Betrachtung der Internationalen Werkbundausstellung „Film und Foto” 1929, Stuttgart (Württembergischer Kunstverein) 1979, p. 172-179.

H. Schmid, The pioneers of typography. Piet Zwart, in Idea 1980, p. 150-157.

Lily van Ginneken, Fotografie-boek vult leegte. Expositie in Den Haag, in De Volkskrant 5 januari 1980.

K. Broos, Piet Zwart. Retrospektive Fotografie, Düsseldorf (Marzona) 1981.

Jörg Krichbaum, Lexikon der Fotografen, Frankfurt am Main (Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag) 1981, p. 198.

A.A. Cohen, Piet Zwart: Typotekt, New York (Ex Libris) 1981.

Jan Coppens, De bewogen camera. Protest en propaganda door middel van foto’s, z.p. (Amsterdam) (Meulenhoff/LandshofF) 1982, p. 286-287.

Flip Bool en Jeroen de Vries (red.), De arbeidersfotografen, camera en crisis in de jaren ’30, Amsterdam (Van Gennep/Pegasus) 1982.

Colin Naylor (ed.), Contemporary photographers, Londen/Chicago (St.James Press) 1982, p. 1132-1135.

Ph. B. Meggs, A history of graphic design, New York (Van Nostrand Reinhold) 1983, p. 352-355.

Kees Broos, De grillige driehoek, in Foto in vorm, Grafisch Nederland 1984, Amsterdam (Koninklijk Verbond van Grafische Ondernemingen) 1984, p. 5-15.

Paul Hefting, Het paradijs binnen ieders bereik, in Foto in vorm, Grafisch Nederland 1984, Amsterdam (Koninklijk Verbond van Grafische Ondernemingen) 1984, p. 68-79.

Gert Dumbar, Verdraaid echt, in Foto in vorm, Grafische Nederland 1984, Amsterdam (Koninklijk Verbond van Grafische Ondernemingen) 1984, p. 92-103.

F. Huygen, Piet Zwart en het gezicht van Bruynzeel’s potloden industrie, Rotterdam (Museum Boymans-van Beuningen) 1984.

Erik Slagter, Dynamiek drukwerk van Piet Zwart, in Kunstbeeld mei 1984, p. 31.

M. en M. Auer, Encyclopedie internationale des photographes de 1839 a nos jours, Hermance (Camera obscura) 1985, p. 788.

P. Hefting, Piet Zwart en Het boek van PTT. Een commentaar, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1985.

Catalogus tent. Industrie & Vormgeving in Nederland 1850-1950, Amsterdam (Stedelijk Museum) 1985, p. 136-138, 142-144, 152-155.

Hripsimé Visser, Emmy Andriesse, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) afl. 2, 1985.

Evelyn de Regt, Cok de Graaff, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) afl. 3, 1985.

Reinhold Misselbeck, Fotosammlung. Museum Ludwig, Keulen (Museum Ludwig) 1986, p. 146-149, 312-313 (met afb.).

Ania Prazakova, Carl Emil Mögle, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) afl. 4, 1986.

Br. Monguzzi, Piet Zwart: L’opera tipografica 1923-1933, in Rassegna 9 (1987) 30, p. 20-87.

A. Stroeve en A. Lopes Cardozo, Grafische vormgeving, in Holland in vorm, Den Haag (Stichting Holland in vorm) 1987, p. 247-278.

Eric van ‘t Groenewout en Tineke de Ruiter, Mark Kolthoff, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) afl. 6, 1987.

Flip Bool, Piet Zwart, in Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf e.a., Roots & Turns. 20th Century photography in The Netherlands, Den Haag (SDU Publishers) 1988, p. 36-41, 170 (met afb.).

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf, Nederlandse fotoliteratuur: essays en bronnen. Inleiding, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) afl. 8, 1988.

Hans Verhagen, Blik op ‘typotekt’ Piet Zwart. Tentoonstelling in Wassenaarse galerie Bianca, in Haagsche Courant 18 maart 1989.

Auteur onbekend, Overzichtsexpositie Piet Zwart, in Leidsch Dagblad 18 maart 1989.

Auteur onbekend, Expositie Piet Zwart in Galerie Bianca, in Wassenaars Nieuwsblad 22 maart 1989.

Auteur onbekend, Expositie Piet Zwart in Galerie Bianca. Typotekt en pionier op vele gebieden/Piet Zwart: een vermaarde Wassenaarder, in De Wassenaarder 23 maart 1989.


Haagsche Kunstkring, 1919 – ca. 1926.

VANK, 1919-03.1940.


Ring neuer Werbegestalter, 1928-1931.

GKf, 1945-1968.


1959 Quellinusprijs voor zijn typografische werk.

1964 David Roëllprijs voor zijn gehele oeuvre.

1966 Honorary distinction of Royal Designers for Industry.

1970 H.N. Werkmanprijs voor zijn werkzaamheden de afgelopen 50 jaar waarmee hij mede het gezicht heeft bepaald van de Nederlandse typografie.


1928 (g) Rotterdam, Akademie van Beeldende Kunsten en Technische Wetenschappen, Ring neuer Werbegestalter.

1929 (g) Keulen, Kunstgewerbemuseum, Ring neuer Werbegestalter (rondreizende tentoonstelling Wiesbaden, Berlijn, Hamburg, Barmen, Bochum, Rotterdam, Hannover, Halle, Dresden, Bremen, Berlijn, München, Basel, Kopenhagen, Aarau).

1929 (g) Stuttgart, Ausstellungshallen Interimtheaterplatz, Film und Foto (Fifo) (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1930 (g) Basel, Gewerbemuseum, Neue Werbegrafik.

1930 (g) München, Graphische Gesellschaft, Gefesselter Bliek.

1930 (g) München, Bavaria-park, Das Lichtbild.

1931 (g) Berlijn, Lichthof des ehemaligen Kunstgewerbemuseums, Fotomontage.

1931 (g) München, Münchener Bund, Das Inserat.

1931 (g) New York, Art Center and Associated Galleries, Exhibition of Foreign Adverlising Photography.

1931 (g) Essen, Folkwang Museum, Das Lichtbild (vervolgens naar Düsseldorf en Dessau).

1931 (g) Rotterdam, Rotterdamsche Kring, Foto, fotomontage, fotoreclame.

1931 (g) Utrecht, Genootschap voorde Kunst (Nobelstraat), (moderne foto’s en drukwerken).

1931 (g) Essen, Ausstellungshallen, Kunst der Werbung.

1931 (g) Parijs, Petit Palais, Salon international du livre d’art.

1931 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Internationaal reclamedrukwerk, foto’s en fotomontages.

1931 (g) Arnhem, Artibus Sacrus, Foto’s uit de Sowjetunie (ook foto’s van Zwart, Schuitema en Kiljan).

1932 (g) Brussel, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Internationale de la Photographie.

1932 (g) Leiden, Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal, (internationale fototentoonstelling).

1932 (g) Moskou, Museum van Moderne Westerse Kunst, (Nederlandse hedendaagse kunst).

1933 (e) Den Haag, Drukkerij Trio, Drukwerk en fototypografie door Piet Zwart.

1933 (g) Amsterdam, Gebouw IOOF, Nieuwe richtingen in de fotografie.

1935 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Reclamekunst.

1960 (g) Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Gedrukt in Nederland. Vijf eeuwen letter, beeld en band.

1961 (e) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Piet Zwart – typotekt.

1966 (g) New York, International Centre for the Typographic Arts, Typomundus 20.

1967 (g) Eindhoven, Stedelijk Van Abbe Museum, Artypo in de 20e eeuw.

1968 (e) Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum, Piet Zwart en PTT.

1968 (e) Zeist, Nederlandse Kunststichting, Piet Zwart en PTT.

1973 (e) Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum, Piet Zwart (rondreizende tentoonstelling Munster, Westfälisches Landesmuseum; Zürich, Kunstgewerbemuseum; Keulen, Kunstgewerbemuseum).

1974 (e) Wassenaar, Wassenaarse galeriebibliotheek, Piet Zwart.

1977 (g) Berlijn, Galerie Breiting, Fotografie der 20er und 30er Jahre in Europa.

1978 (g) Berlijn, Galerie Breiting, Portratfotografie 1864-1977.

1978 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Fotografie in Nederland 1940-1975.

1979 (g) Stuttgart, Württembergischer Kunstverein, Film und Foto der zwanziger Jahre (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1979 (g) Den Haag, Gemeentemuseum, Foto 20-40.

1983 (e) Rotterdam, Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Piet Zwart en het gezicht van Bruynzeels potlodenindustrie (expositie in kader van een ‘Presentatie uit de collecties’).

1984 (g) Amsterdam, Galerie Marijke Winnubst, Bauhaus Fotografie.

1984 (e) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Typografie van Piet Zwart.

1985 (e) Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum, Piet Zwart. Het boek van PTT (1938).

1988 (g) Houston, Sarah Campbell Blaffer Gallery, Roots & Turns. 20th Century photography in The Netherlands.

1988 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Roots & Turns.

1989 (e) Wassenaar, Galerie Bianca, Piet Zwart (1885-1977).


Arnhem, Kees Broos, documentatie.

Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.


Amsterdam Stedelijk Museum.

Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet van de Rijksuniversiteit.

Rotterdam, Nederlands Fotomuseum