PhotoLexicon, Volume 6, nr. 12 (September 1989) (en)

Paul Schuitema

Flip Bool


Paul Schuitema—together with Piet Zwart and Gerrit Kiljan—gave both a face and form to New Photography and New Typography in the Netherlands. Schuitema saw the mechanical character of photography as befitting a new era of mechanical means of production and rapid optic communication. He was also one of the first in the Netherlands to apply photomontage in his print advertising. Schuitema also applied his capacities as a designer in the political arena. Through these activities and his position as an instructor at the KABK (Koninklijke Akademie van Beeldende Kunsten, ‘Royal Academy of Visual Arts’) in The Hague, Schuitema encouraged young people to take up their cameras in the spirit of New Photography and focus on people in their social surroundings.




Geert Paul Hendrikus Schuitema is born on 27 February in Groningen as the son of a life insurance inspector.


Schuitema begins his studies at the ABK (‘Academie van Beeldende Kunsten en Technische Wetenschappen, ‘Rotterdam Academy of Fine Arts and Technical Sciences’) in Rotterdam.

Ca. 1920

Schuitema receives his academy diploma.


Schuitema receives the Koninklijke Subsidie (‘Royal Subsidy’) for young painters three years in a row.

Ca. 1924-’25

Schuitema becomes a member of the association ‘Opbouw’.


In the fall, Schuitema designs a poster for an exhibition organised by Opbouw in the Oude Raadhuis (‘Old City Hall’) of Rotterdam. His inspiration is the facade of the De Unie Café on the Coolsingel in Rotterdam, designed by J.J.P. Oud in 1924.

Schuitema attends the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs (‘International Exhibition of Decorative Arts’) in Paris, together with Leendert Bolle and Hendrik Chabot.


Schuitema becomes the first chairman of the ‘Centrale van Bonden van Leerlingen en Oud-leerlingen van Kunstscholen in Nederland’ (‘Centre of Federations of Students and Former Students of Art Schools in the Netherlands’). Schuitema becomes chief editor of this organisation’s publication De Fakkel (‘The Torch’), with the start of its second year (in July).

Schuitema moves to a home of his own at Witte de Withstraat 79B in Rotterdam.

Ca. 1926-’28

Schuitema collaborates with the Schiedam photographer Jan Kamman.


Schuitema does all of the publicity for the company ‘N.V. Mij. Van Berkel’s Patent’.


Schuitema attends the exhibition Pressa in Cologne, Germany.

Schuitema becomes the board secretary of Opbouw.


Dick Elffers works as Schuitema’s assistant.


Schuitema becomes a member of the ‘Ring neuer Werbegestalter’ (‘Circle of New Advertising Designers’).

Schuitema opens his own studio at Mauritsweg 42B in Rotterdam.


Schuitema is hired as an instructor in advertising and design at the KABK (Koninklijke Akademie van Beeldende Kunsten, ‘Royal Academy of Visual Arts’) in The Hague, a position he holds until his retirement in 1962.

Ca. 1930-’31

Schuitema begins designing steel furniture for a sales organisation initiated by J. van Ettingen and Ph. Dekker, later known as the steel furniture manufacturer ‘d 3’. Schuitema begins work on his documentary film De Maasbruggen (‘The Bridges of the Meuse River’).


Schuitema visits the Soviet Union for the period of a month and makes a film account of his travels there.


Schuitema becomes a co-worker of the monthly magazine Filmliga (‘Film League’) and an advisory member of the management board of the ‘Genootschap Nederland – Nieuw Rusland’ (‘Society Netherlands–New Russia’).

Schuitema becomes actively involved in the VAF (Vereeniging van Arbeiders-Fotografen, ‘Association of Worker Photographers’) as well as the ‘Rotterdamse arbeiders-schrijvers-collectief “Links Richten”‘ (‘Rotterdam workers/writers collective “Aim Left”‘).


Schuitema designs nearly all of the ads appearing in De 8 en Opbouw, beginning with its fourth year of publication, No. 22 (28 October).


Schuitema spends four months in Paris for the shooting of the film De markthallen van Parijs (‘The Market Halls of Paris’).


Schuitema takes a trip to Czechloslovakia and presents lectures in Brno and Prague. Schuitema marries Elly van Dobben, whom he met at the so-called ‘Gemeenschapshuis’ (‘Community House’) in Voorburg, where a group of politically engaged youths (including academy students) reside. The Schuitemas move to The Hague.


Schuitema co-organises the exhibition Foto ’37 at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.


Schuitema completes the shooting of the film De Bouwhoek van Harlingen (‘The Construction Corner of Harlingen’), during a half-year stay in Pietersbierum.

Schuitema and his family move to Wassenaar.


Schuitema paints—chiefly portraits—together with L. de Lang-van Schaik, Paul Citroen, and Henk Meyer. He becomes part of H.J. Reinink’s resistance group. Schuitema shoots film footage of bicycles being confiscated by the German occupying forces, as well as water inundations. These films are subsequently smuggled into Great Britain.

Schuitema works on reports concerning industrial design and film production in the Netherlands for the Commissariaat voor de Wederopbouw (‘Commissioners Board of the Reconstruction’).


Schuitema is one of the founders of the Nederlandsche Werkgemeenschap voor Filmproductie (‘Netherlands Cooperative of Film Production’). He oversees this organisation, together with Jan Bouman, Lou Lichtveld, Allan Penning, and Eddie Verschueren.

Schuitema collaborates on various films, including a film about the city of Arnhem, commissioned by ‘Volksherstel’ (‘People’s Recovery’).

For the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (‘Dutch Railways’), Schuitema directs the film De slagboom (‘The Crossing Gate’).

The ‘N.V. Filmverhuurkantoor Nederland’ (‘Film Rental Office Netherlands’) commissions Schuitema to make the colour film Partisanenlied (‘Partisans Song’).


Schuitema becomes a member of the ‘cultural advisory committee’ of the Nederlandse Bioscoopbond (‘Netherlands Movie Theatre Federation’)


Schuitema makes the film Klompendans (‘Wooden Shoe Dance’).


Schuitema becomes a member of the ‘Voorlopige Raad voor de Kunst, sectie film’ (‘Temporary Council of Art, film department’).

Schuitema is commissioned to make two films about rayon (=artificial silk) for the Algemene Kunstzijde Unie (‘General Rayon Union’).

Schuitema is charged to design the typography for Cement—tijdschrift gewijd aan cement en beton (‘Cement—Magazine Devoted to Cement and Concrete’), a publication of the Verkoopassociatie (‘Sales Association’) Enci-Cemij N.V.


Schuitema builds a showroom for the company Eternit at Leidsestraat 86-88 in Amsterdam.


Schuitema retires.


Schuitema is made an honorary member of the ‘Gebonden Kunsten Federatie’ (‘United Arts Federation’).


Schuitema designs the interior and printed matter for a travelling exhibition on suppression and resistance in the years 1940-1945, entitled Homo homini lupus.


Schuitema develops a four-colour system called ‘Syst-O-Color’, published in book format by Mouton Publishers in The Hague. A one-man exhibition held at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam is devoted to Schuitema’s work.


Schuitema is a guest instructor at the West of England College of Art in Bristol.


A retrospective of Schuitema’s work is held at the Kunstgewerbe Museum in Zurich.


Schuitema works on a sequel to the exhibition Homo homini lupus, entitled we nemen ‘t wéér niet, 1933-1945-19nu (‘We Won’t Take It Again, 1933-1945-19now’).


A television programme about Schuitema is televised on 8 November, as part of the series De Onvergetelijken (‘The Unforgettables’).

Schuitema receives a special honorary remuneration from the Ministry of CRM (‘Cultuur, Recreatie en Maatschappelijk Werk’, ‘Culture, Recreation, and Social Work’).


Paul Schuitema dies on 25 October in Wassenaar.


The Gemeentemuseum in The Hague acquires most of the works from Schuitema’s legacy.


In a January 1929 article published in Schoonheid en Opvoeding, Paul Schuitema gave a description of the incandescent lightbulb and used it as a metaphor for his own work. He wrote that: ‘… the round form of the electric light bulb is based on the requirement posed by the construction. It is technically impossible to give the lamp any other form, because it would then very simply prove incapable of withstanding external atmospheric influences and heat radiation from within. Its form is the precise interface of the heat-arc, which arises due to the glowing of the filaments, simultaneously the most appropriate form to withstand the pressure difference between the content and the surroundings. The goal of the light bulb is: light. The light bulb that satisfies this requirement best is at the same time the most beautiful. (…) Seeking special forms simply for the sake of that form is downright nonsense, because this formalism exceeds the purpose of the thing.’ Paul Schuitema is one of the founding fathers of the so-called New Typography and New Photography in the Netherlands. Having completed his traditional schooling as a painter at the ABK (‘Academie van Beeldende Kunsten en Technische Wetenschappen, ‘Rotterdam Academy of Fine Arts and Technical Sciences’) in Rotterdam, around the mid-1920s Schuitema discovered graphic design as a field of work with unprecedented opportunities. Inspired by his contact with a circle of architects belonging to the Rotterdam association ‘Opbouw’, he became convinced it was his task to find solutions for practical problems in society. It was in this association that the architects C.van Eesteren, J.J.P. Oud, Mart Stam, and others laid the foundation for what was called ‘Nieuwe Bouwen’ (‘Modern Architecture’) in the Netherlands. This inspired Schuitema to introduce a new form and content to advertising, a field that, prior to this time, had scarcely been approached systematically.

One of Schuitema’s first designs was an advertising booklet for P. van Berkel, a meat and sausage factory in Rotterdam. It was totally in line with H.Th. Wijdeveld’s design for the magazine Wendingen. The application of the colour green in connection with meat products indicates that Schuitema was as yet hardly aware of the psychological effects of colour and the specific requirements posed by advertising.

In January 1926, an article by Schuitema appeared in the magazine De Fakkel, entitled ‘Constructie als stijlbegrip’ (‘Construction as a Concept of Style’). The content of the article and the cover he conceived for this magazine—executed in linocut—indicate a reorientation. Schuitema emphasised the modern artist’s admiration for the machine, constructed of ‘materials concentrated to the utmost necessity’, void of superfluous frills. The spirit of the message expressed was entirely different than that found in the series of articles on ‘Het batikken’ (‘Batik’) that Schuitema had published in the same magazine six months earlier. Schuitema’s contacts with the innovative architects of Opbouw had clearly given his work and thinking momentum. In the print advertising he designed, he freed typography of its formalistic and historically developed aesthetic. He studied all of the technical and design tools at his disposal based on their elementary properties and applied them based on his findings. In his view, the pace of time required a visual message, with all distracting frills discarded. Schuitema incorporated photos in his printed matter, because they were faster, more direct, and more concise than words. In an article published in the magazine Internationale Revue i 10, Schuitema juxtaposed five recent examples of printed matter—including his own poster for an exhibition of Opbouw, designed in 1925 and inspired by J.J.P. Oud’s 1924 facade for the Café De Unie—with five examples of printed matter clearly illustrating the opportunities made possible by photography in the area of visual communication. He denounced the first five as ‘artistic, decorative, symbolic, fantastical, anti-social, lyrical, passive, romantic, aesthetic, theoretical, traditional’; he described the latter five as ‘realistic, direct, photographic, objective, competitive, argumentative, active, current, effective, practical, technical’.

The magazine i 10 appeared for the first time in January 1927 on the initiative of Arthur Muller Lehning, together with Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, as the magazine’s photography and film editor. Hungarian by origin, Moholy-Nagy was a former Bauhaus instructor who had published the ground-breaking book Malerei Photographie Film (‘Painting, Photography, Film’) in 1925. Schuitema owned a copy of this book, which most certainly played a part in his introducing photography as a visual element in the print advertising he designed between 1925 and 1928. Moholy-Nagy had taken on the role of the fiery advocate of countless new applications for photography. He also propagated phenomena such as the ‘typophoto’, which he characterised as follows: ‘Typography is a message expressed in print. Photography is a visual representation of what is optically conceivable. The typophoto is the most precisely represented visual message.’

Although Schuitema had never been schooled in typography or photography, he embraced the full range of photography’s application in advertising with tremendous enthusiasm. An advertising booklet for weighing scales brought out by the company Toledo-Berkel, entitled De lokkende magneet trekt koopers (‘The Luring Magnet Attracts Buyers’), was one of the earliest works of printed matter in which he experimented with photography. This booklet is likely to have been produced in 1926, at a time when Schuitema himself was as yet unable or scarcely able to work with a camera. Jan Kamman, a friend and photographer from Schiedam, had furnished photos of personal weighing scales, which Schuitema then cut up and combined with images of stores in Rotterdam, so as to also visually convey ‘the idea that stepping on a scale for free is sure to draw customers’. His work therefore involved ‘photomontage’, a term first introduced by Moholy-Nagy in his aforementioned book. Experiments with the technique of photomontage had been conducted as early as the nineteenth century. Around the turn of the century, the picture postcard industry in particular had applied this technique in virtually every manner conceivable. By about the mid-1920s, people were beginning to understand the photomontage’s expressiveness as a propagandistic visual tool (the photo collage had already served a similar function in the Dada movement prior to this time) and to study its potential more systematically. The most important early examples of photomontage in advertising—at the international level—arose no earlier than 1923-’24. The photomontages in Schuitema’s booklet De lokkende magneet trekt koopers are among the first to be produced in the Netherlands.

Circa 1930, Schuitema wrote about the application of photography and photomontage in his typographic work. In an unedited proof sheet bearing the title ‘Typo-foto-montage’ intended for a publication of the printing company C. Chevalier (unpublished), he observed: ‘In advertising, individuality distracts attention from the argument. The photo technique replaces the actual hand-production of the illustration; it is neutral, impersonal, does not draw attention to the maker’s hand, but to the argument it illustrates. It follows the rapid and mechanical manner in which the further technical production has been set up and is not dependent upon the randomness of the illustrator’s hand. Argumentation in the area of advertising can then directly be solved photographically, because by accentuating the arguments, we can highlight that which is required for the propaganda. The construction of a series of visualised arguments is photomontage. This can be done by pasting images to each other in their functional order, but also by means of projecting the various images next to each other and letting them flow into one another, so that the one image evolves from the other.’ Schuitema used the so-called ‘positive montage’ for his booklet De lokkende magneet. At a later point, however, applications of the so-called ‘negative montage’ also appear frequently in his work. The effect of a magnet is also optically expressed in the letters and words on the booklet’s cover. The repetition of the word ‘koopers’ (‘buyers’) in successively smaller sizes gives rise to a pronounced spatial effect, comparable to the ostensible three-dimensionality of a photomontage. Parallels with this cover are primarily to be found in the work of Piet Zwart. That the two men were familiar with each other’s work is plausible: Zwart is likely to have been a member of Opbouw even prior to 1927. He also taught classes at the ABK in Rotterdam. Moreover, Schuitema remained in close contact with the academy long after completing his studies.

In an article on the topic of ‘Elementaire typografie’ (‘Elementary Typography’) published in the magazine De Reclame in 1927, Machiel Wilmink placed the work of Schuitema, Zwart, and—the much lesser known—Gerrit Kiljan, in an international context. Wilmink related the discussion of a number of their works to an October 1925 ‘sonderheft elementare typographie’ (‘special edition elementary typography’) in the German magazine Typographische Mitteilungen (‘Typographic Notices’), edited by Jan Tschichold. The kind of critique that Wilmink voiced with regards to Schuitema’s booklet De lokkende magneet is typical of the many responses to this so-called ‘elementary’ typography at the time: ‘The theory appears to have been very troublesome to the designer, as we can hardly think of any plausible reason to have letters roam about as such, or it must have been that the designer made this little book (inspired by printed matter designed by the Bauhaus of Dessau) more for his own pleasure than that of Toledo-Berkel.’ This last remark is effectively discounted by the fact that Schuitema began doing all of the publicity work for ‘N.V. Mij. Van Berkel’s Patent’ starting in 1927.

A desire to accomplish an optimal cohesion between the photo and the text in his print advertising was what motivated Schuitema to take up a camera himself in 1928. The first trials of his experiments in this area are the illustrations accompanying his second contribution to the Internationale Revue i 10 of February 1929: a discussion of Jan Tschichold’s book Die neue Typographie (‘The New Typography’) of 1928. Schuitema turned to a positive and negative print of lead type pieces in sans serif to illustrate Tschichold’s intentions. Tschichold’s book marked the international breakthrough of a new development in typography that has since generally been referred to as ‘New Topography’.

In the same year as Tschichold’s book, 1928, Kurt Schwitters established the ‘Ring neuer Werbegestalter’ (‘Circle of New Advertising Designers’) in Hanover, Germany. The goal of this group was to present the results of this New Typography to a wider audience via publications and exhibitions. In addition to Piet Zwart, Schuitema also joined this circle quite quickly. It was in this context that he exhibited his work for the first time at the ABK during the week of Christmas 1928, even though he was accepted as a member not until two months later. Less than a week after, Schuitema exhibited his own photographs for the first time at an exhibition of the Rotterdamsche Kring (‘Rotterdam Circle’), together with Jan Kamman, Henri Berssenbrugge, and Leen van Oudgaarden. Thanks to a review in the magazine Focus of 19 January 1929, we know that Schuitema showed ‘peculiar’ photos of printing type pieces, incandescent light bulbs, and gramophones ‘… in which a beautiful linear effect and a good suggestion of movement were to be appreciated.’ This interest in movement was indeed essential to Schuitema. In the 1930s, this would find its logical conclusion in three documentary films: De Maasbruggen (‘Th Bridges of the Meuse River’), De Markthallen van Parijs (‘The Market Halls of Paris’), and De Bouwhoek van Harlingen (‘The Construction Corner of Harlingen’), in which, respectively, mechanical movement, the movement of people, and the movement of the camera were central themes.

The same page in Focus coincidentally featured a notice regarding the exhibition Film und Foto (Fifo), organised by the Deutsche Werkbund (‘German Association of Craftsmen’) in the spring of 1929 in Stuttgart, Germany. Schuitema’s entry to this exhibition consisted of fourteen photographs, in addition to his posters and print advertising. The photos’ titles suggest a number of these submissions had previously been shown at the Rotterdamsche Kring.

Remarkably, Schuitema often chose to display more than one photo for any given topic, with his photographic experiments directly applied, sooner or later, in his print advertising. As early as 1929, the rotating gramophone led to photos in a brochure made for the company ‘N.V. Mij. Van Berkel’s Patent’. Shot from a low vantage point, light bulbs appeared much bigger in photos than they actually were. Discoveries of this kind—at the time completely new—have had a decisive influence on the further development of advertising technique ever since.

For Schuitema, taking photographs was a journey of self-exploration. In early 1929, he photographed a series of mounted pins. Excited about the results, he sent these photos to J.J.P. Oud for publication in i 10, accompanied by the following commentary: ‘Enclosed a couple of photos for i 10. They’re quite fun, aren’t they. (…) Also pins … which show that pins can have major pretences. I never knew there was a small bead at the tip.’ (Letter dated 12 February 1929).

‘Free photography’ plays a very minor role in Schuitema’s oeuvre. His photographic experiments are almost always directly or indirectly related to his activities in advertising. Close-up shots of the axles and connecting rods of a printing press are directly linked to a blotter for the printing company C. Chevalier from 1929 that bears the catch line: ‘The ink rollers of our offset machines move at 1000s of rotations per hour’. A series of exceedingly sharp photos of bottles and tin cans was made for blotter number four of this same firm, concerning the printing of labels. This blotter is one of the finest examples of phototypographic printed matter that Schuitema produced. Schuitema himself provides an extensive analysis of this work in the book Gefesselter Bliek (‘Captivated Gaze’) by Heinz and Bodo Rasch, published in Stuttgart, Germany, in 1931: ‘The surface has dissolved spatially. The only word still relating to the paper’s edge is at the same time also the catchword: ‘labels’. The remaining words are in relation to the photo: first and foremost, the name of the company “C. Chevalier”. This has been placed in the same direction of perspective as the photo and at the same time forms its base. (…) Only the photo and the name of the company are printed in black, and because of this, they draw the eye immediately. The remaining terms are subordinate and thus printed diagonally across the photo: ‘For tins, boxes, bottles’.

The book Gefesselter Bliek is one of the most important outcomes stemming from Kurt Schwitters’ efforts to bring greater notoriety to New Typography via the Ring neuer Werbegestalter. In addition to Paul Schuitema, more than twenty-five international avant-garde artists are represented in this book with works of print advertising, including: Walter Dexel, Cesar Domela, Werner Graff, John Heartfield, El Lissitzky, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Hans Richter, Kurt Schwitters, Mart Stam, Jan Tschichold, Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart, and Piet Zwart. The print advertising featured was part of an exhibition held in February 1930 at the ‘Graphische Klub’ in Stuttgart. Each participant provided his own commentary and an introduction to accompany his specific contribution to the book. Schuitema’s introduction is particularly extensive and summarises ideas that had crystallised for him during the second half of the 1920s.

In the 1930s, Schuitema developed a form of print advertising in which the written word was increasingly relegated to the background. The most successful example of this is an advertising booklet of 1935 for the company ‘N.V. De Vries Robbé & Co.’ in Gorinchem, and its subsidiary, N.V. Betondak, in Arkel. The text is limited to no more than an introduction of approximately sixty lines and a table of contents containing a brief description of the sixty-one pages with photos. According to Schuitema’s estimate, this involved 350 to 400 different photos used to highlight the various aspects of these two companies—specialised in steel structures and building materials—in a systematic, almost film-like manner. The dynamic of the companies is strikingly translated into images, achieved through the montage of photographs shot at various angles. Mass production is visualised by taking photos depicting large quantities of the same products and materials, in some cases spread across two successive pages. With the technique of photomontage, Schuitema was able to incorporate numerous phases of the production process within the limited space available. The emphasis lay not necessarily on the final product, but on the labour preceding it. In contrast to his print advertising from the 1920s, Schuitema now showed an interest in the role of the labourer as well. Nevertheless, the technical aspects remained central.

The year 1930 signalled a turning point in Schuitema’s life. He was hired as an instructor of the newly established advertising department at the KABK (Koninklijke Akademie van Beeldende Kunsten, ‘Royal Academy of Visual Arts’) in The Hague as of 1 September. Gerrit Kiljan, the founding father of this department, had devised a ‘makeshift curriculum’ in 1929. The day programme was set up in 1930, with a curriculum consisting of nine classes: geometric and professional drawing, drawing from nature, form grammar, descriptive geometry, history of form development, form and colour normalisation, practical design, photography, and lithography. In doing so, the KABK became the first official educational institution in the Netherlands to offer photography as part of its teaching programme.

In the Netherlands, the creation of the advertising department at the KABK marked the breakthrough of New Typography and New Photography. The government recognised the significance of this step, not only by naming Paul Schuitema as an instructor (in spite of his lacking the proper teacher’s certification), but also by granting design commissions for government printed matter.

In 1931, the ‘Staatsbedrijf der PTT’ (the former Dutch national postal, telegraph, and telephone company) gave Piet Zwart the opportunity to design several postage stamps. Zwart in turn seized this opportunity to introduce the possibilities of the ‘typo-photomontage’ to an audience of millions. In this same year, Gerrit Kiljan designed a series of postage stamps with photos of underprivileged children, which, in terms of their realistic character, remain unrivalled even to this day. In 1932, Schuitema himself was extended an opportunity to design a series of surcharge stamps on behalf of the ‘Algemeene Nederlandsche Vereeniging van Vreemdelingenverkeer’ (‘General Netherlands Association of Immigration Traffic’). What is special about Schuitema’s design is that, in addition to the positive montage, he also applied the negative montage, thus creating a strong spatial effect. Certainly in the Netherlands, New Typography and New Photography both initially evolved in correlation with advertising. During the 1930s, Schuitema experimented not only with the postage stamp, but also with applications for posters, book and magazine covers, and monumental photo wall murals. In 1930, Schuitema designed the first Dutch poster in which photomontage was used, produced for the Centrale Bond van Transportarbeiders (‘Central Transport Workers Federation’).

The topic of labourers in itself, but also comments made in an article published in De Reclame (‘Advertising’) of November 1933 on this very matter, clearly reflect Schuitema’s social orientation: it was essential to his oeuvre as a whole. For Schuitema, the innovation of form was not a goal in itself, but derived from a desire to play a real role in the production process as an artist. In his texts, he repeatedly emphasised the importance of the then existing technical means of production. Schuitema believed their acceptance was an important condition for the actualisation of a new prospective culture. Yet he was nevertheless convinced from the start that technology in itself was incapable of solving societal problems. He therefore applied his design capacities not only in advertising, but also in support of the political cause.

Via Arthur Müller Lehning, Schuitema had come into contact with the magazine De Wapens Neder (‘The Weapons Down’) of the Antimilitaristische Vereeniging (‘Anti-Militaristic Association’). In 1929, Schuitema produced the cover, and later, several Christmas issues with political photomontages. Especially after his trip to the Soviet Union with the Genootschap Nederland-Nieuw Rusland (‘Netherlands-New Russia Society’) in 1931, his sympathies lay increasingly with the CPH (Communistische Partij Holland, ‘Communist Party of the Netherlands’) and other associated organisations. In 1932, Schuitema became highly involved in the VAF (Vereeniging van Arbeidersfotografen, ‘Association of Workers Photographers’) and the ‘Rotterdamse arbeiders-schrijvers-collectief “Links Richten”‘ (‘Rotterdam workers/writers collective “Aim Left”‘). The objective of the VAF, set up in February 1931, read as follows: ‘… to instruct workers in the field of photographic labour, in order to make them capable of taking shots related to the demonstrations of the revolutionary workers movement.’ (De Tribune, 10 March 1931). At this point in time, however, no photographs taken by workers from the Rotterdam branch of the VAF have ever been ascertained, thus raising the question if any part of this plan ever came to fruition. Certain is that, in addition to Paul Schuitema himself, Dick Elffers (Schuitema’s assistant) and Wally Elenbaas also used their cameras in support of the workers’ cause in Rotterdam. In any event, at least one of Schuitema’s photos is known to have been published in De Tribune: a worker who shows how he was beaten by the police during an unemployment protest demonstration on 22 December 1932 (De Tribune 7 January 1933).

In Rotterdam, the workers/writers collective ‘Links Richten’ was closely tied to the VAF. Schuitema had a major influence on the formation of this organisation’s image by providing the basic cover for the magazine of the same name, which appeared in twelve issues starting in the summer of 1932. In line with the organisation’s objective, this cover shows the hand of a writing labourer, in turn directed by the hand of an intellectual. Under the pseudonym S. Palsma, Schuitema published two texts in February 1933 in Links Richten, one about ‘De Collectieven’ (‘The Collectives’) and another on the ‘Foto als wapen in de klassenstrijd’ (‘Photo as Weapon in the Class Struggle’). In the second article, he states in no uncertain terms how his experiences in advertising could be translated into politics: ‘The exercise of the proletarian photo correspondent should first be how to work with his camera; in the second place, the study of suggestion. No romance, no art, but [an] objective, strongly suggestive propaganda: tactically oriented to the class struggle, technically oriented to the profession’.

In the catalogue of the exhibition Foto ’48, Piet Zwart, whose participation in the VAF was indirect, observed in retrospect: ‘If a later generation observes that we involved people too infrequently in our photos, then that’s a correct assessment. We were not principally reportage photographers. We did not present an image of the times, which indeed meant a devaluation of our movement.’ While it is true that Schuitema and Zwart were by no means reportage photographers in the truest sense, they both exercised a decisive influence—through their work and personal devotion—on sociocritical reportage photography, which had begun to develop in the Netherlands in the 1930s. In this respect, it is no coincidence that the KABK in The Hague and the VAF both served as important ‘breeding grounds’.

In addition to his activities in the areas of politics, film, and teaching, Schuitema worked for various companies in the 1930s. Besides the companies De Vries Robbé & Co. and Betondak, he also did print advertising for companies such as the contracting firm Boele & Van Eesteren, the Verkoopassociatie (‘Sales Association’) Enci-Cemy, ‘N.V. De Plaatwellerij’ of Velzen, and the ‘Nederlandsche Mij. van Havenwerken’ (‘Netherlands Company of Harbour Works’). Starting in October 1933, he also designed the advertising section of the magazine De 8 en Opbouw, in order to ‘achieve a greater correlation between [the] content and form’ of the magazine. As board secretary of Opbouw, Schuitema was intensely involved in the organization’s magazine from the very start, with the first issue appearing in 1932. Considering the aforementioned combination of innovations in architecture, photography, and typography, it comes as no surprise that Schuitema’s most important clients were in the construction business.

The second half of the 1930s signalled a period of activity in Schuitema’s work that was generally less significant, unquestionably stemming from the ever-deteriorating political climate. While the inexorable expansion of National Socialism and the threat of World War II had perhaps fallen short of dashing all hope for a new world order, in the short term its realisation was now impossible. These developments eventually put an end to Schuitema’s intensive contact with the international avant-garde. His trip to Czechoslovakia in 1937 can therefore be seen as his last, at least until after World War II. Another important event is Schuitema’s decision to leave Rotterdam in that same year. As a result, the frequency of his contacts with the workers movement in Rotterdam and Opbouw diminished—contacts that had once had a persistently stimulating influence on his work.

In the book Waar Nederland trotsch op is—Hoe we tegen het water vochten en wat we er mee deden (‘What the Netherlands is Proud of—How We Fought Against the Water and What We Did With It’) of 1940, Schuitema included photographs by Cas Oorthuys, Eva Besnyö, Wim Brusse, John Fernhout, Carel Blazer, Dop Heyns, Emmy Andriesse, and Piet Zwart. This indicates that, during this period, he was still in contact with many of his Dutch colleagues. The book’s concept, title, and Schuitema’s own texts, however, clearly betray the burden of the war.

Finally, one must acknowledge that several young graphic designers from Schuitema’s own circle had begun to express doubts concerning the working method developed and propagated by Schuitema and his colleagues, Kiljan and Zwart. Telling in this respect is an article that Dick Elffers wrote for the special edition of Prisma der Kunsten (‘Prism of the Arts’), published on the occasion of the Foto ’37 exhibition at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, which Schuitema had helped to organise. Elffers first quotes J.D. Voskuil’s comments concerning an exhibition of international print advertising, photos, and photomontages organised at the same museum in 1931: ‘Kiljan, Zwart, and Schuitema prove with their photos that the camera’s view commands its own field of vision. Their exploratory journey down these virtually untrodden roads furnishes surprising results’. Elffers then writes: ‘Now, six years later on, we may conclude that the roads that were then still untrodden gave them the advantage of being truly up to date. Now that they, and the many who followed them, have more or less smoothened the roads (to their credit), it turns out these roads are not that long and the view no longer that striking, occasionally even tediously bothersome.’ Similarly, Wim Brusse voices critical remarks in the ‘Grafies-nummer’ (‘Graphic issue’) of De 8 en Opbouw from 1939.

Schuitema’s response to Elffers’ and Brusse’s articles affirms his fighting spirit was in no way diminished. Yet a disappointment with this development among ‘young people’ undoubtedly contributed to the slowdown that became perceptible in his work in the second half of the 1930s.

After World War II, Schuitema focussed his efforts primarily on film and the development of an elaborate four-colour system—’Syst-O-Color’—with renewed idealism. In his post-war work, photography was fairly subordinate. The pioneering role that Schuitema and his sympathisers had played in this area prior to the war had now been taken over by a younger generation. Consciously or unconsciously, they assimilated or rejected the principles of New Photography, which Schuitema continued to promote right up to his retirement as an instructor at the KABK in The Hague in 1962.

In 1960, Schuitema expressed his disappointment with the apathetic attitude of young photographers after the war in an article published in Kroniek voor Kunst & Kultuur (‘Chronicle of Art & Culture’): ‘The threats that one believed could still be solved by political assertiveness in the beginning, i.e. prior to the big world war, are now seen, in the aftermath of these horrors, as inevitable and fighting against them ridiculous. The concept of socialism, for them, has been written off as idealistic. They barely recognise any ideal other than the ego. (…) They are becoming negative thanks to their love and their fear of life. They are a typical product of the post-war situation.’

Schuitema’s influence on later generations is today seen in a much more positive light when compared to his own view of the situation as it was in 1960. The accomplishments of New Photography can no longer be overlooked in terms of the post-war applications of photography. The implementation of photography in support of the political cause has also had a follow-up, particularly in the 1970s. Schuitema and those around him brought about a radical break with the era of art photography, ringing in a new era of photography as a medium with highly specific qualities.


Primary bibliography

Het batikken, in De Fakkel 1 (juni 1925) 3, p. 26-30; 1 (juli 1925) 4, p. 38-41, 48; 1 (augustus 1925) 5, p.54, 56-58; 1 (september 1925) 6, p. 71-72.

Constructie als stijlbegrip, in De Fakkel 1 (januari 1926) 8/9, p. 88-93.

Reclame, in Internationale Revue i 10 2 (15 november 1928) 16, p. 76-77.

Gisteren en vandaag, in Schoonheid en Opvoeding 23 (januari 1929) 1, p. 1-6.

Letters: het materiaal van den drukker, in Internationale Revue i 10 2 (15 februari 1929) 19, p. 124.

Mobiele meubelen en bruikbare gebruiksvoorwerpen, in Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant 1 oktober 1929, p. 1.

Typo-Foto-Montage, Rotterdam (ca. 1930), (geschreven voor een brochure van drukkerij C. Chevalier te Rotterdam, niet gepubliceerd, alleen in drukproef bewaard gebleven).

Heinz en Bodo Rasch (samenstelling), Gefesselter Blick. 25 Kurze Monografien und Beiträge über neue Werbegestaltung, Stuttgart (Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Zaugg & Co.) 1930, p. 79-87.

(bewerkt door Paul Schuitema) G. Kloezis, Fotomontage in de USSR, in Nieuw Rusland 3 (juli/augustus 1931) 4, p. 23-28.

G. Kiljan en Paul Schuitema, Reclame is een handels-aangelegenheid!, in De 8 en Opbouw 3 (14 april 1932) 8, p. 78-80.

Auteur onbekend, Verslag tentoonstelling ‘Klank en Beeld’. De manifestatie van het huidige leven, in De 8 en Opbouw 3 (9 juni 1932) 12, p. 120.

(onder het pseudoniem S. Palsma), Foto als wapen in de klassestrijd, in Links Richten 1 (1 februari 1933) 5/6, p. 21-22.

G. Kiljan, Paul Schuitema (en Piet Zwart), Foto als beeldend element in de reclame, in De Reclame november 1933, p. 429-438.

Bespreking fotoalbum uitgegeven door de n.v. ned. aannemingmij, v./h. h.f. boersma, in De 8 en Opbouw, 5 (23 juni 1934) 13, p. 111 , (met een naschrift van Ir. J.B.van Loghem).

Welke vragen rijzen als we over de hedendaagsche film spreken?, in De 8 en Opbouw 6 (12 oktober 1935) 21, p. 229.

Fotografie en reclame, in Binnenhuis en Buitenwereld 17 (28 november 1935) 24, p. 229; 17(12 december 1935) 25, p. 250.

De tentoonstelling foto’ 37, in Catalogus tent. foto ’37, Prisma der Kunsten 1937, p. 97-98.

Materiaal en kleur in de reclame, in De Reclame januari 1937, p. 3-6; februari 1937, p. 37-40.

Fotovraagstukken 1937, in De Groene Amsterdammer 61 (19 juni 1937) 3133, p. 5.

Materiaal en kleur in de reclame, in De Reclame oktober 1937, p. 204-208.

De Hollandsche film, in De Kunst 31 (3 juni 1939) 1456, p. 160.

Kiljan e.a., Nog meer discussie over het Grafisch-Nummer, in De 8 en Opbouw 10 (5 augustus) 1939) 15, p. 160.

Timbres-poste pour la A.N.V.V., in Les timbres-poste des Pays-Bas de 1929 a 1939, Den Haag (PTT) 1939, p. 18-19.

Waar Nederland trotsch op is. Hoe we tegen het water vochten en wat we er mee deden, Leiden (SijthofT) 1940 (met afb.).

Paul Schuitema, Jan Bouman en Piet Zwart, Rapport inzake de richtlijnen en mogelijkheden eener technisch-kunstzinnig verantwoorde industrieele productie van gebruiksvoorwerpen op basis eener sociaaleconomisch verantwoorde productie, Den Haag 1945.

Paul Schuitema e.a., Rapport inzake de stimuleering, ontwikkeling en ordening van het Filmwezen in Nederland, Amsterdam 1945.

Een rol?, in De Vrije Katheder 7 (5 december 1947) 32, p. 507.

But not in vain, in Mededelingenblad van de Beroepsvereniging van Nederlandse Cineasten (15 oktober 1948) 15, p. 1-3.

Montage in de film. Compositie in de literatuur, in Beeld en Verbeelding, Critisch Bulletin winter 1948, p. 123-135.

Wij maakten een film, in Rayon Revue 3 (april 1949) 2, p. 65-70.

Experimentele filmkunst, in X-functie. Tijdschrift van de Vereniging van Studerenden aan het Voortgezet en het Hoger Bouwkunstonderricht, Rotterdam 3 (november 1949) 3, p. 9-12.

Zonder Koos van de Griend, in Cinemagia 1 (februari 1950) 1, p. 4-7.

Beeld, in Cinemagia 1 (oktober 1950) 4, p. 7-10.

Afdeling II, in De hanekraai. Maandblad haagsche academieclub december 1950/januari 1951, p. 15-19.

Paul Citroen gezien door Paul Schuitema, in Paul Citroen gezien door …, Den Haag 1956.

Kwaliteit van de documentaire als uitgangspunt nemen, in Elseviers Weekblad 26 december 1959, p.47.

Royal College of Art behoeft niet zo hemelhoog geprezen. Liet B. Majorick zich imponeren door outillage?, in Vrij Nederland 20 (9 april 1960) 33, p. 7.

De foto, in 25 Jaar Kunst & Kultuur, Kroniek voor Kunst & Kultuur (1960) 7/8 (jubileumnummer), p. 135-143.

Neue Typografie um 1930, in Neue Grafik 11 (december 1961), p. 2-21, (idem in Catalogus tent. Paul Schuitema. Ein Pionier der holländischen Avantgarde, Zürich (Kunstgewerbemuseum) 1967).

Werken vanuit een gerichtheid die niet passé kan worden. (Open brief aan Rolf Mager n.a.v. zijn artikel: Een uiteenzetting met een oude rebel. Het werk van Paul Schuitema uit 1930), in Ariadne 20 (11 augustus 1965) 32, p. 808-809.

Paul Schuitema over zijn nieuwe kleurtheorie, in Het Vaderland 27 oktober 1965, p. 9.

Syst-O-Color. Vierkleurensysteem, Den Haag (Mouton) z.j. (1965), losbladig.

A statement, in Circuit. The Magazine of the West of England College of Art herfst 1966, p. 1-5.

The syst-o-color (s-o-c) system, in Art & Project Bulletin (1969) 5, ongepag.


images in:

F. Roh en J. Tschichold (samenstelling), Foto-Auge. 76 Fotos der Zeit, Stuttgart (Wedekind & Co.) 1929, afb.68.

W.F. Gouwe, Ruimte. Jaarboek van Nederlandsche Ambachts- & Nijverheidskunst 1929, p. 149.

F.A. Merceren W. Gaunt (eds.), Posters & publicity 1929. Fine printing & design. „Commercial Art” Annual, Londen 1929.

J. Tschichold, Eine Stunde Druckgestaltung. Grundbegriffe der neuen Typographie in Bildbeispielen für Setzer, Werbefachleute, Drucksachenverbraucher und Bibliofilen, Stuttgart (Akademischer Verlag Dr. Fritz Wedekind & Co.) 1930, p. 31, 36-37.

P. (= Piet Zwart), Fotovisie, in Wereldkroniek (20 december 1930) 1915, p. 1062.

D.A.M. Binnendijk e.a., Balans. Algemeen Jaarboek der Nederlandsche Kunsten 1930-31, Maastricht 1931.

Centrale Bond van Transportarbeiders. Verslag van de verrichtingen en werkzaamheden gedurende de jaren 1930-1931, Rotterdam 1931.

Menno ter Braak, De absolute film, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1931, p.4.

Modern Photography 1931 (The special autumn number of „The Studio”), p. 44, 120.

G. Knuttel Wzn., Reclame, in Wendingen 12 (1931) 2, p. 13.

Focus 19 (10 december 1932) 25, p. 742.

P. Bromberg, Practische woninginrichting. Een handleiding voor iedereen, Amsterdam (Kosmos) 1933.

De 8 en Opbouw 5 (17 maart 1934) 6, p. 50-52.

‘Enci’ van mergel tot cement, in De Reclame november 1934, p. 371.

Auteur onbekend (Vereniging tot bevordering van het aesthetisch element in het voortgezet onderwijs), Beeldende kunst. Het leren zien en begrijpen van kunstwerken, deel 1, Den Haag (Vaevo) 1935, ongepag.

Auteur onbekend, Reclame-boekje De Vries Robbé Betondak, in De Reclame maart 1935, p. 87.

Nico de Haas, Fotografie, in De 8 en Opbouw 7 (8 februari 1936) 3, p. 30-31.

Catalogus tent. foto’ 37, Prisma der Kunsten 1937 (speciaal nummer), p. 132.

De 8 en Opbouw 8 (13 maart 1937) 5, p. 36.

J.N. (= J. Niegeman), (artikel over de tentoonstelling De weg, gehouden t.g.v. het internationale wegencongres), in De 8 en Opbouw 9 (6 augustus 1938) 16, p. 158.

K. Gerstner en H. Kutter, Die neue Grafik, Teufen (Niggli) 1959.

B. Majorick, Ontwerpen en verwerpen. Industriële vormgeving als noodzaak, Amsterdam (Querido) 1959.

Chr. de Moor, Postzegelkunst. De vormgeving van de Nederlandse postzegel, Den Haag (Staatsbedrijf der Posterijen, Telegrafie en Telefonie) 1960.

Drukkersweekblad en Autolijn (1961) 52 (Kerstnummer), p.48.

Catalogus tent. Werbegrafik 1920-1930, Frankfurt am Main (Göppinger Galerie) 1963.

Catalogus tent. i 10. Internationale avantgarde 1927-1929, Amsterdam (Stedelijk Museum) 1963.

Catalogus tent. Dokumenta III, Kassei (Staatlichte Werkkunstschule) 1964.

Drukkersweekblad en Autolijn (1965) 52 (Kerstnummer), afb. 135, 149.

Catalogus tent. Affiches honderd jaar kunstleven in Den Haag 1866-1966, Den Haag (Haags Gemeentemuseum) 1966, p. 15.

D. Dooijes en Pieter Brattinga, A history of the Dutch poster 1890-1960, Amsterdam (Scheltema & Holkema) 1968, p. 13, 37, 39, 44, 151, afb. 59, 200-202.

H. Wescher, Die Collage. Geschichte eines künstlerischen Ausdrucksmittels, Keulen (Dumont-Schauberg) 1968.

Catalogus Tiende tentoonstelling van beeldende kunst op het Waarheid Festival, Amsterdam (RAI) 1968.

Catalogus tent. Project Katshoek, Rotterdam 1968.

H. Spencer, Pioneers of modern typography, Londen 1969.

Catalogus Manifesti d’Arte (Biennale di Venezia), Venetië (Sala delle Colonne) 1969.

Henri de Haas, Vijf eeuwen Nederlandsche boekdrukkunst, Amsterdam (De Arbeiderspers) 1971,p. 13.

J. Müller-Brockmann, A history of visual communication, Teufen (Niggli) 1971.

J. enS. Müller-Brockmann, Geschichte des Plakates, Zürich (ABC) 1971.

Philip B. Meggs, A history of graphic design, Londen (Allen Lane) 1983, p. 356.

Yve-Alain Bois, Arthur Lehning en Mondriaan. Hun vriendschap en correspondentie, Amsterdam (Van Gennep) 1984, p. 23, afb. 57, 58.

Renny Ramakers, Tussen kunstnijverheid en industriële vormgeving: de Nederlandse Bond voor Kunst in Industrie, Utrecht (Reflex) 1985, afb. 32.

Secondary bibliography

C. Boost, Dutch art today. Film, Amsterdam z.j., p. 55-56, 60.

K.D. (=K. Doelman), Beschouwingen over hout- en linoleumsneden, in De Vonk 1 (maart 1925) 5, p.4-9 (met afb.).

M. Wilmink, Reclame-typografie, over hedendaagsche stroomingen, elementaire typografie, in De Reclame 6 (januari 1927) 1, p. 36-40 (met afb.).

Auteur onbekend, Kersttentoonstelling van schilderijen, in Nieuwe Rotlerdamsche Courant 25 december 1927, Ochtendblad B, p. 1.

J. Tschichold, Die neue Typographie. Ein Handbuch für zeitgemass Schaffende, Berlijn (Verlag des Bildungsverbandes der Deutschen Buchdrucker) 1928, p .64. (herdruk: Berlijn (Brinkmann & Bose) 1987).

M. Wilmink, Reclame-typografie, over oude en nieuwe mogelijkheden, besprekingen van drukwerken en tijdschriften, in De Reclame 7 (januari 1928) 1, p. 25-29 (met afb.).

M. Wilmink, Fotografie, reclame, typografie, in De Reclame 7 (maart 1928) 3, p. 126-129 (met afb.).

Typo, Gisteren, vandaag, morgen. Over foto-typografie enz., in De Reclame 8 (januari 1929) 1, p. 19-20 (met afb.).

Auteur onbekend, Tentoonstelling van moderne fotokunst te Rotterdam, in Focus 16 (19 januari 1929) 2, p. 33.

Auteur onbekend, Tentoonstelling in den „Rotterdamschen Kring”, in Lux-De Camera 40 (26 januari 1929) 2, p. 23-24.

(G. Kiljan), De kunst van het verleden en de kunst der toekomst. De Heer Kiljan spreekt voor Arti et Industriae over actueele problemen, in Schoonheid en Opvoeding 23 (maart 1929) 2, p. 17-23.

Willem Brouwer, Aan Paul te Rotterdam, ‘va Schoonheid en Opvoeding 23 (maart 1929) 2, p. 27-28.

Auteur onbekend, Wat de N. V. van Berkel’s Patent doet. Een voorbeeld ter navolging, in Meer Bael 1 (mei 1929) 6, p. 154-155 (met afb.).

K., Lezingen P. Schuitema. Kunst in het dagelijksch leven, in De Brandaris 4 (april 1929) 6, p. 82-84.

d.K., Gisteren en vandaag, in De Brandaris 4 (juli 1929) 9, p. 104-108.

J. Tschichold, New life in print, in Commercial Art 9 (juli 1930) 49, p. 2-20 (met afb.).

J. Tschichold, The composite photograph and its place in advertising, in Commercial Art 9 (december 1930) 54, p. 236-249 (met afb.).

W.F. Gouwe, Werk, Jaarboek van Nederlandsche Ambachts- en Nijverheidskunst 1930, p. 124, 133-134, 137 (met afb.).

Ar (= Aronson), Een eere-saluut, in Meer Baet 3 (maart 1931) 4, p. 873.

Aronson, Tentoonstelling Foto en Fotomontage, in Meer Baet 3 (april 1931) 5, p. 912.

Auteur onbekend, Rotterdamsche kring. Werk van G. Kiljan, Paul Schuitema en Piet Zwart, in Rotterdamsch Nieuwsblad 8 april 1931.

B. Knol, Schots en scheef (n.a.v. de tentoonstelling der heeren Kiljan, Schuitema en Zwart), in De Reclame 10 (mei 1931) 5, p. 223.

Auteur onbekend, Tentoonstelling foto-montages en reclame-ontwerpen, in Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant 23 juni 1931.

Jan D. Voskuil, Internationaal reclame-drukwerk, fotos en fotomontages, in De Groene Amsterdammer (4 juli 1931) 2822, p. 9.

R. van Oven, Moderne reclame, in Binnenhuis 13 (30 juli 1931) 16, p. 135.

A.P. Prins, Reisjournaal van de studiereis 1931, in Nieuw Rusland 3 (november/december 1931) 5, p. 37-40.

A.B. (= Adriaan Boer), Moderne foto’s en drukwerken te Utrecht, in Bedrijfsfotografie 13 (13 november 1931) 23, p. 424-426.

C.W. Geleedts, Modern drukwerk en foto’s, in De Tampon 12 (Kerstnummer 1931) 1/3, p. 116-122 (met afb.).

O. van Tussenbroek, Industrieele fotokunst. Georganiseerde reclamecampagnes voor handel en industrie door middel van foto’s, in De Groene Amsterdammer 56 (6 februari 1932) 2853, p. 10-11.

H.J. v. T., Waarom kunst, in De Brandaris 7 (april 1932) 8, p. 108-109.

M. (= Merkelbach), Bijkantoor van de Firma R. Mees & Zoonen aan de ’s Gravendijkwal te Rotterdam. Architecten Brinkman en van der Vlugt, Rotterdam, in De 8 en Opbouw 3 (1 april 1932) 7, p. 63-66 (met afb.).

Auteur onbekend, Nederlandsche tentoonstelling te Moskou, in Nieuw-Rusland (Orgaan van het Genootschap Nederland-Nieuw Rusland) juni 1932, p. 82-83.

A.B. (= Adriaan Boer), Internationale fototentoonstelling te Leiden en Rotterdam, in Focus 19(10 december 1932) 25, p. 731-733.

H. Rosen, Fotomontage auf der Briefmarke. Ausgaben 1931/32, in Die Form 7 (15 december 1932) 12, p. 389-390.

B. Modderman, Allegorische- en luchtpostzegels, in Drukkersweekblad (1932) Kerstnummer, p. 38-43.

Henrik Scholte, Nederlandsche filmkunst, Rotterdam (Brusse) 1933, p. 52.

B.R., Bauen in Holland. Zu dem Buch von ir. J.B. van Loghem, Rotterdam, in Zirkel (1 augustus 1933) 2/3, p. 48-49.

Aan onze adverteerders (Mededeling van De Administratie van De 8 en Opbouw), in De 8 en Opbouw 4 (30 september 1933) 20, na p. 190.

J.S., Bij de afbeeldingen, in Boekcier. Mededeelingen van den Nederlandschen Exlibris-Kring 2 (1 december 1933) 10, p. 49, 51.

Auteur onbekend, Internationale prijsvraag voor de beste aluminiumstoel, in De 8 en Opbouw 4 (23 december 1933) 26, p. 235.

Jaarbeurs 1934 Utrecht, in De 8 en Opbouw 5 (17 maart 1934) 6, p. 50-52.

P.Br. (= P. Bromberg), De 32e Utrechtse Jaarbeurs, ‘m Binnenhuis 17 (21 maart 1935) 6, p. 45-48 (met afb.).

Kiljan, Catalogus 1935 van de firma Wijnbeek & Zonen, in De 8 en Opbouw 6 (27 april 1935) 9, p. 104.

J.B. van Loghem, Functionalisme, in De 8 en Opbouw 7 (4 juli 1936) 13/14, p. 11 .

Dick Elffers, Ontwerpers en de fotografie, in Catalogus tent. foto ’37, Prisma der Kunsten 1937 (speciaal nummer), p. 108-110.

Auteur onbekend, Stand firma De Vries Robbé en Co. Architectenbureau Merkelbach-Karsten-Duiker, in De 8 en Opbouw 8 (13 maart 1937) 5, p. 37.

Z. Rossmann, Pismo a fotografie v reklame, Brno (Index) 1938.

Auteur onbekend, Tentoonstelling ‘De Weg’, in Binnenhuis en Buitenwereld 20 (juli 1938) 7, p. 76-77 (met afb.).

W. Brusse, De kunst van het tentoonstellen, in De 8 en Opbouw 11 (16 november 1940) 23/24, p. 201-214.

H.L.C. Jaffé, Najaarsbeurs Utrecht 1941, in De 8 en Opbouw 12 (november 1941) 11, p. 145-156.

A.v.D. (= A. van Domburg), Twee films van Paul Schuitema, in De nieuwe film 1 (6 juli 1946) 2, p. 7 (met afb.).

A. van Domburg, Vier Nederlandsche films, in De nieuwe film 1 (september/oktober 1946) 3/4, p. 2-3.

Johan Schwencke, Exlibriskunde. Een nieuwe kunstwetenschap met een beschrijvende bibliografie van het exlibris in Nederland en België. 1837-1946, Amsterdam (Wereldbibliotheek) 1947, p. 65, 104.

C, ‘Partisanenlied’ van Paul Schuitema als kleurenfilm, in Nieuw Weekblad voor de Cinematografie 21 (11 juli 1947) 41, p. 8.

Piet Zwart, Gereinigde fotografie, in Catalogus tent. Foto ’48, Kroniek voor Kunst en Kultuur 1948 (speciale editie), p. 4-8.

v.O. (= A.J.D. van Oosten), Experimenten met film-kleuren, in ’t Getouw 5 (1948) 11/12 (Kerstnummer), p. 42-43.

Puissant, Experimentele filmkunst, in V.B.O. Kontakt 2 (november 1949), ongepag.

W.F. Gouwe, Het ontwerpen van postzegels 1852-1952, Den Haag (PTT) 1953, p. 50.

B.B. Westerhuis, Parade der minnaars, in Forum 9 (juli 1954) 7, p. 273-295 (met afb.).

H.L.C. Jaffé, De functionele typografie in Nederland, in Amor Librorum. Bibliography and other essays. A tribute to Abraham Horodisch on his 60th birthday, Amsterdam (Erasmus) 1958, p. 157-166 (met afb.).

D. Dooijes, Piet Zwart en Paul Schuitema en de nieuwe Nederlandse typografie, in Drukkersweekblad 50 (4 mei 1962) 19, p. 498-499 (met afb.). (idem in Over typografie en grafische kunst. Bloemlezing uit artikelen verschenen in de jaren 1953-66 hoofdzakelijk in het Drukkersweekblad, Amsterdam 1966, p. 62-66).

H. van Hall, Portretten van Nederlandse beeldende kunstenaars. Repertorium, Amsterdam (Swets en Zeitlinger) 1963, p. 299.

B. Wissing, Paul Schuitema, Typographica 8 (december 1963), p. 35-46 (met afb.).

G.W. Ovink, Anderhalve eeuw boektypografie in Nederland, in Anderhalve eeuw boektypografie. 1815-1965, Nijmegen (Thieme) 1965, p. 331-404.

E. Neumann, Typografie, Graphik und Werbung am Bauhaus, in Neue Grafik, 17./18. Ausgabe, februari 1965, p. 29-70.

D. Dooijes, Typografie-tentoonstelling in Amsterdamse en Haagse musea, in Drukkersweekblad 53 (18 juni 1965) 25, p. 676-677 (met afb.).

R. Mager, Een uiteenzetting met een oude rebel. Het werk van Paul Schuitema uit 1930, in Ariadne 20 (7 juli 1965) 27, p. 714-716 (met afb.).

Auteur onbekend, Baanbreker voor communicatie en ordening: Paul Schuitema. Overzicht in Stedelijk Museum, in Algemeen Handelsblad 8 juli 1965.

B. Wissing, ‘Syst-O-Color’ van Paul Schuitema – 9999 kleuren direct analyseerbaar dank zij uniek coderingssysteem, in Revue der Reclame 25 (18 augustus 1965) 16, p. 629-630.

Benno Wissing, The well-tempered colourchord, in The Penrose Annual 59 (1966), p. 121-124.

E. Neumann, Functional graphic design in the 20’s, New York (Reinhold) 1967.

W. Schmalenbach, Kurt Schwitters, Keulen (DuMont Schauberg) 1967, p. 57.

Catalogus tent. Paul Schuitema. Ein Pionier der holländischen Avantgarde, Zürich (Kunstgewerbemuseum) 1967.

J. Rempt, Omtrent kleur. Studie over kleur. Functie van kleur in de 20e eeuwse kunst, (ongepubliceerde doctoraalscriptie), Leiden 1968.

Claude Magelhaes, Nederlandse fotografie. De eerste honderd jaar, Utrecht/Antwerpen (Bruna & Zoon) 1969, p. XXI, afb. 89-90.

Catalogus tent. Foto-portret, Den Haag (Haags Gemeentemuseum) 1970, p. 46.

P.H. Hefting, Postzegel-kunst?, in Museumjournaal serie 15, (november 1970) 5, p. 244-251.

J. de Werd, Paul Schuitema, in Studio. Officieel weekblad van de Katholieke Radio-Omroep 8 t/m 14 november 1970, p. 21-23 (met afb.).

B. Meijer, Van onder op! Vooroorlogse herinneringen van een rotterdams arbeider, Rotterdam (Rotterdamse Kunststichting) 1971.

N. Lumng Prak, De ontwikkeling van het Nieuwe Bouwen, in Catalogus tent. Bouwen ’20-’40. De Nederlandse bijdragen aan het Nieuwe Bouwen, Eindhoven (Van Abbemuseum) 1971, p. 29-49.

H. Reedijk, De invloed van vorm en theorie op het Nieuwe Bouwen, in Catalogus tent. Bouwen ’20-’40. De Nederlandse bijdragen aan het Nieuwe Bouwen, Eindhoven (Van Abbemuseum) 1971, p. 50-67.

Johan van de Beek en Gerrit Smienk. Ir. J.B. van Loghum b.i. architect, in Plan (1971) 12.

K. Broos, Piet Zwart, Den Haag (Haags Gemeentemuseum) 1973 (catalogus), (herdruk: K. Broos, Piet Zwart 1885-1977, Amsterdam (Van Gennep) 1982).

Flip Bool, Paul Schuitema 1897-1973, in De Groene Amsterdammer 97 (14 november 1973) 46, p. 14.

Piet van der Ham, In memoriam Paul Schuitema, T.F.F. Maandblad voor audiovisuele communicatie mei 1974, p. 19.

Auteur onbekend, Links Richten tussen partij en arbeidersstrijd. Materiaal voor een teorie over de verhouding tussen literatuur en arbeidersstrijd, Nijmegen (Projektgroep ‘literatuursociologie’ 1) 1975, 2 dln., p. 204-206, 237, 242-245, 250-251, 263, 265, 285, 289, 299, 366-367, 370, 410, 422-424, 433, 517, 578, 587-589, 598-600, 624, 643.

Flip Bool, John Heartfield in Nederland, in Museumjournaal serie 20, (juni 1975) 3, p. 122-124 (met afb.).

Flip Bool (red.), De bevrijde camera, Vrij Nederland-Bijvoegsel 37 (15 mei 1976) 20, omslag, p.4-7, 10, 13-15, 20, 22-23, 27, 31 (met afb.).

Hans Mulder, Het verraden linkse kunstenaarsverzet uit de jaren dertig, in Vrij Nederland 39 (7 januari 1978), p. 19.

Els Barents (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1940-1975, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978, p. 4-5, 7-8, 16-17.

Els Barents en Evert Rodrigo (samenstelling), Fotografie in Nederland 1940/75, in Stedelijk Museum 22 december 1978 – 4 februari 1979 (extra bulletin).

Flip Bool en Kees Broos (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1920-1940, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1979, omslag, p. 28-30, 32-34, 36-43, 49, 51-53, 56-60, 62, 64-68, 72-73, 75, 79-81, 85, 87-89, 109, 120-121, 124-129, 133-137, 141-142, 156-157 (met afb.).

Karl Steinorth, Photographen der 20er Jahre, München (Laterna Magica) 1979, p. 90-91.

Ute Eskildsen en Jan-Christopher Horak (samenstelling), Film und Foto der zwanziger Jahre. Eine Betrachtung der Internationalen Werkbundausstellung „Film und Foto” 1929, Stuttgart (Württembergischer Kunstverein) 1979 (met afb.).

Catalogus tent. Glanzlichter der Photographie. 30 Jahre Photokina Bilderschauen. Das imaginäre Photo-Museum. Film als Kunst und Dokument, Keulen 1980, p. 264.

Lily van Ginneken, Fotografie-boek vult leegte. Expositie in Den Haag, in De Volkskrant 5 januari 1980.

Ben Stroman, Vandaag bestaat niet. Autobiografische fragmenten, Den Haag (Nijgh & Van Ditmar) 1981, p. 128-130, 159.

Leo Ott, Hendrik Chabot. Leven en werk, Rotterdam (Ad. Donker) 1981.

Bertus Schmidt, Rodejaren. Herinneringen van een anti-fascist, Rotterdam (Rotterdamse Kunststichting) 1981.

Flip Bool en Jeroen de Vries (red.), De arbeidersfotografen. Camera en crisis in de jaren ’30, Amsterdam (Van Gennep/Pegasus) 1982.

Kathinka Dittrich, Paul Blom en Flip Bool (red.), Berlijn – Amsterdam 1920-1940 wisselwerkingen, Amsterdam (Querido) 1982.

Jan Coppens, De bewogen camera. Protest en propaganda door middel van foto’s, Amsterdam (Meulenhoff/Landshofi) 1982, p. 285-288.

Catalogus tent. De Maniakken. Ontstaan en ontwikkeling van de grafische vormgeving aan de Haagse akademie in de jaren dertig, Den Haag (Rijksmuseum Meermanno-Westreenianum) 1982, omslag, p. 5, 7, 12-14, 24, 31-32 (met afb.).

Gert Staal, Jongerts reclame altijd esthetisch, in De Volkskrant 2 maart 1982.

Marius Wagner, De Maniakken, in Pulchri 10 (1982) 5, p. 19-21.

Bertus Schmidt, Paul Schuitema c.s. op feesttentoonstelling. ‘Stelletje rooie maniakken’ verdeelde Haagse academie, in Het Vrije Volk 4 oktober 1982.

Janneke Wesseling, Tentoonstelling over Haagse reclamegrafiek in de jaren dertig. Overdreven barok in nieuw-zakelijke vormgeving, in NRC Handelsblad 27 oktober 1982.

Frank Gribling, De Maniakken. Toen wel, in De Groene Amsterdammer 3 november 1982, p. 20.

Charles Hagen, After De Stijl: The New Photography in Holland, in Artforum december 1982, p.80.

Flip Bool, Paul Schuitema und Piet Zwart. Die Neue Typografie im Dienste der Industrie und des politischen Kampfes, in Stanislaus von Moos en Chris Smeenk, Avantgarde und Industrie, Delft (Delft University Press) 1983, p. 121-134.

Tinus Heijmans, Links Richten en Links Front 1930-1934, in Kunst en communistische beweging ’20-’40, Amsterdam (Ipso) 1983, (Cahiers over de geschiedenis van de CPN, nr. 8), p. 119-140.

Tineke de Ruiter en Hripsimé Visser, Carel Tirion, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) afl. 1, 1984.

Flip Bool, Fotografie en reclame, in Neerlands Volksleven 33 (1984) 4, p. 357-364.

Szilágyi Gábor, Európai körkép. A modernizmus térnyerése Hollandiában, in Foto. Fotószaklap, Megjelenik Havonta 31 (april 1984) 4, p. 164-166 (met afb.).

Arij de Boode en Pieter van Oudheusden, De Hef: biografie van een spoorbrug met een woord vooraf van Joris Ivens, Rotterdam (De Hef) 1985, p. 76-88.

Paul Hefting, Piet Zwart en het boek van PTT. Een commentaar, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1985.

Hripsimé Visser, Emmy Andriesse, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) afl. 2, 1985.

Evelyn de Regt, Cok de GraafF, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) afl. 3, 1985.

Lin Jaldati en Eberhard Rebling, Sag nie, du gehst den letzten Weg, Berlijn (Der Morgen) 1986, p. r 18-120.

Ania Prazáková, Carl Emil Mögle, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) afl. 4, 1986.

Tineke de Ruiter, Eva Besnyö, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) afl. 5, 1986.

Catalogus tent. Paul Schuitema, Rotterdam (Museum Boymans van Beuningen) 1986.

Renny Ramakers, Paul Schuitema in Rotterdam. Dynamisch en zakelijk, in Kunstbeeld juli/augustus 1986, p. 46-48 (met afb.).

Ida Jager, Schuitema maakt foto gelijkwaardig aan tekst, in De Volkskrant 19 juli 1986.

Gert Staal en Hester Wolters (eds.), Holland in vorm. Dutch design 1945-1987, Den Haag (Stichting Holland in vorm) 1987, p. 76, 181-182, 192, 213, 250, 252-253, 268, 278.

Eric van ‘t Groenewout en Tineke de Ruiter, Mark Kolthoff, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) afl. 6, 1987.

Auteur onbekend, Roots & Turns. 20th Century photography in The Netherlands, in Dutch Heights (winter 1987/1988) 4, p. 11-17.

Flip Bool, Paul Schuitema, in Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf e.a., Roots & Turns. 20th Century photography in The Netherlands, Den Haag (SDU Publishers) 1988, p. 42-47, 170 (met afb.).

Bert Hogenkamp, De Nederlandse documentaire film 1920-1940, Amsterdam (Van Gennep) 1988, p. 64, 106-108.

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf, Spiegelreflecties in de fotografie, in Nico J. Brederoo e.a. (samenstelling), Oog in oog met de spiegel, Amsterdam (Aramith) 1988, p. 173.

Robert A. Sobieszek, The art of persuasion. A history of advertising photography, New York (Harry N. Abrams) 1988, p. 5, 198.

André Stufkens, Jan de Vaal en Tineke de Vaal (samenstelling), Rondom Joris Ivens wereldcineast. Het begin, 1898-1934,

Houten/Nijmegen (Het Wereldvenster/Nijmeegs Museum ‘Commanderie van Sint Jan’) 1988, p. 64, 113.

André Koch, Industrieel ontwerper W.H. Gispen (1890-1981) een modern eclecticus, Rotterdam (De Hef) 1988 (met afb.).

Terry James-Kester, Dutch Photography: A broad view, in Holland Herald 23 (maart 1988) 3, p. 22-33 (met afb.).

E.B. (= Els Barents), Pikturaal & Funktioneel – een keuze uit de foto-collectie 1905-1940, in Stedelijk Museum Bulletin mei 1988, p.36.

Flip Bool, Photographie et typographie dans i 10, in Catalogus tent. i 10 et son époque, Parijs (Institut Néerlandais) 1989, p.41-47.


Opbouw, secretaris van 1928 tot 1934.

Ring neuer Werbegestalter, vanaf 1929.


Vereeniging van Arbeidersfotografen.

Links Richten.

GKf, erelid vanaf 1963.

Culturele Adviescommissie Nederlandse Bioscoopbond, vanaf 1946.

Voorlopige Raad voor de Kunst, vanaf 1948.


1927 (g) Rotterdam, Akademie van Beeldende Kunsten en Technische Wetenschappen, „13″ Tentoonstelling van schilderijen en beeldhouwwerk.

1928 (g) Rotterdam, Akademie van Beeldende Kunsten en Technische Wetenschappen, Ring neuer Werbegestalter.

1929 (g) Rotterdam, Rotterdamsche Kring, Moderne fotokunst.

1929 (g) Berlijn, ehem. Kunstgewerbemuseum, Typographie.

1929 (g) Stuttgart, Ausstellungshallen Interimtheaterplatz, Film und Foto (Fifo) (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1929 (g) Keulen, Kunstgewerbemuseum, Ring neuer Werbegestalter (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1929 (g) Magdeburg, Adolf-Mittag-See, Sonderschau Neue Typographie. Ring neuer Werbegestalter.

1929 (g) Essen, Museum Folkwang, Neue Typografie.

1930 (g) München, Graphisches Kabinett, Ausstellung der Sammlungjan Tschichold: Plakate der Avantgarde.

1930 (g) Stuttgart, Graphische Klub.

1930 (g) München, Bavaria-park, Das Lichtbild.

1931 (g) Arnhem, Artibus Sacrus, Foto’s uit de Sowjetunie (ook foto’s van Zwart, Schuitema en Kiljan).

1931 (g) New York, Art Center, An exhibition of foreign photography.

1931 (g) Berlijn, Lichthof ehem. Kunstgewerbemuseums, Fotomontage.

1931 (g) Rotterdam, Rotterdamsche Kring, Foto, fotomontage, fotoreclame.

1931 (g) Essen, Ausstellungshallen, Kunst der Werbung.

1931 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Internationaal reclamedrukwerk, foto’s en fotomontages.

1931 (g) Utrecht, Genootschap voor de Kunst (Nobelstraat), (moderne foto’s en drukwerken).

1932 (g) Moskou, Museum van Moderne Westerse Kunst, (Nederlandse hedendaagse kunst).

1932 (g) Brussel, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Exposition Internationale de la Photographie.

1932 (g) Leiden, Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal, (internationale fototentoonstelling).

1932 (g) Rotterdam, Kunstzaal Van Hasselt, (internationale fototentoonstelling).

1933 (g) Den Haag, HBS (Nieuwe Duinweg), (foto’s, fotomontages en fototypografie).

1934 (g) Rotterdam, Studio ’32, (Opbouw).

1935 (g) Amsterdam, Nieuwe Kunstschool (Reguliersdwarsstraat 73), Modern Schilderwerk, grafiek, reclame, fotografie.

1935 (e) Rotterdam, Toonkamer van drukkerij C. Chevalier, Foto’s, typo-foto’s, fotomontages van Paul Schuitema.

1935 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Reclamekunst.

1936 (g) Praag, Spolek Vytvarnych Umelco „Manes” , Mezinárodní Vystava Fotografie.

1937 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, foto ’37.

1948 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Foto ’48.

1949 (g) Wassenaar, Kunstcentrum Duinrell, Tentoonstelling Wassenaar.

1951 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 60 Jaren Nederlandsche affiches.

1952 (g) Den Haag, Gemeentemuseum, Fotoschouw ’52.

1957 (e) Leiden, Prentenkabinet van de Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, Tekeningen en grafiek van Paul Schuitema.

1958 (e) Rotterdam, ‘t Venster.

1960 (g) Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Gedrukt in Nederland. Vijf eeuwen letter, beeld en band.

1963 (g) Frankfurt am Main, Göppinger Galerie, Werbegrafik 1920-1930.

1963 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum,i 10 – internationale avantgarde 1927-1929.

1964 (g) Stuttgart, Dokumentation der Grafik. Sieben Jarhzehnte Werbegrafik.

1964 (g) Kassel, Staatlichte Werkkunstschule, Dokumenta III.

1965 (e) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Paul Schuitema.

1965 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Toegepaste kunst 1880-heden.

1965 (e) Den Haag, Galerie Al-Veka, Tentoonstelling van het vierkleurenstysteem Syst-O-Color van Paul Schuitema.

1966 (g) Den Haag, Gemeentemuseum, Affiches honderd jaar kunstleven in Den Haag 1866-1966.

1966 (g) New York, International Centre for the Typographic Arts, Typomundus 20.

1967 (e) Zürich, Kunstgewerbemuseum, Paul Schuitema. Ein Pionier der holländische Avantgarde.

1968 (g) Amsterdam, RAI, Tiende tentoonstelling van beeldende kunst op het Waarheid Festival.

1968 (g) Rotterdam, Project Katshoek.

1969 (g) Ingolstadt, Stadttheater, Die Fotomontage. Geschichte und Wesen einer Kunstform.

1969 (g) Den Bosch, Noord-Brabants Museum, Nederlandse fotografie. De eerste honderd jaar (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1969 (g) Amsterdam, Galerie Art & Project, Paul Schuitema: syst-o-color systeem, alfabet, grafiek. Aldo v.d. Nieuwelaar: lampen.

1969 (g) Gent, Pluskern, Made in Holland.

1969 (g) Venezia, Sala delle Colonne, Manifesti d’Arte (Biennale di Venezia).

1970 (g) Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum, Foto-portret.

1970 (g) Amsterdam, Nederlandse Kunststichting, Honderd jaar fotografie 1839-1939.

1971/1972 (g) München, Haus der Kunst, Internationale Plakate 1871-1971.

1972 (e) Amsterdam, Galerie Inart, Paul Schuilema.

1973 (g) Amsterdam, Kunsthistorisch Instituut, Naar de foto.

1973 (s) Zürich, Kunstgewerbemuseum, Die zwanziger Jahre. Kontraste eines Jahrzehnts.

1973 (g) Utrecht, Hedendaagse Kunst, Letterpret.

1973/1974 (g) Amsterdam, Nederlandse Kunststichting, Varianten. Abstrakt-geometrische kunst in Nederland.

1975 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Boeken-keuze uit de ‘Kollektie Nijkerk’.

1975 (e) Eindhoven, Technische Hogeschool.

1975 (e) Utrecht, ‘t Hoogt, Paul Schuitema, vormgeving rond 1930, typografie-vormgeving-fotografie.

1976 (g) Florence, Palazzo Strozzi, Quinta Biennale Internazionale della Grafica d’Arte.

1977 (g) Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum, Zelfportretten uit de verzameling van het Prentenkabinet.

1978 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Nieuwe typografie 1915/40 (zomer presentatie met keuze uit de eigen collectie typografie).

1978/1979 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Fotografie in Nederland 1940-1975.

1979 (g) Stuttgart, Württembergischer Kunstverein, Film und Foto der zwanziger Jahre (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1979 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Affiches: informatie/manipulatie.

1979 (g) Den Haag, Gemeentemuseum, Foto 20-40.

1980 (g) Keulen, Glanzlichter der Photographie. 30 Jahre Photokina. Büderschauen. Das imaginäre Photo-Museum. Film als Kunst und Dokument.

1982 (g) Den Haag, Rijksmuseum Meermanno-Westreenianum, De Maniakken. Onstaan en ontwikkeling van de grafische vormgeving aan de Haagse akademie in de jaren dertig.

1982 (g) New York, Prakapas Gallery, After De Stijl: The New Photography in Holland.

1986 (e) Rotterdam, Museum Boymans van Beuningen.

1988 (g) Houston, Sarah Campbell Blaffer Gallery, Roots & Turns. 20th Century photography in The Netherlands.

1988 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Pikturaal & Funktioneel – een keuze uit de foto-collectie 1905-1940.

1988 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Roots & Turns.

1989 (g) Parijs, Institut Néerlandais, i 10 et son époque.

Films ( a selection)

1937 De Maasbruggen.

1939 De Markthallen van Parijs.

1939 De Bouwhoek van Harlingen.

1945 De Slagboom.

1945 Partisanenlied.

1947 Klompendans.

Television programs

1970 De Onvergetelijken (NOS-serie, een aflevering gewijd aan Paul Schuitema).


Den Haag, Flip Bool, documentatie (o.a. ongepubliceerde doctoraalscriptie: Paul Schuitema (1897-1973) een poging tot ordening van zijn werk voor de Tweede Wereldoorlog, Amsterdam 1974).

Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.


Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum.

Den Haag, Haags Gemeentemuseum.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet van de Rijksuniversiteit.