PhotoLexicon, Volume 6, nr. 11 (March 1989) (en)

Paul den Hollander

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf


Since the second half of the 1970s, the photographic style and vision of Paul den Hollander have made their mark on Dutch autonomous photography. His photos have been published and exhibited in places far beyond the borders of the Netherlands. Through photography, Den Hollander investigates concepts such as space, time, and timelessness, as well as his own relationship with his personal surroundings. The most significant themes in Den Hollander’s work include: cultivated nature, flora and fauna in artificially ‘natural’ spaces or maintained in a preserved state, and the interaction between interior and exterior spaces.




Paul den Hollander is born on 5 July in Breda.


Den Hollander obtains his education in the department of photography at the St. Joost Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten (‘St. Joost Academy of Fine Arts’) in Breda. In 1972, he begins making series and sequences in South Limburg. During this year of internship, he travels for three months by bike with his camera across Belgium, France, England, Wales and Ireland. In 1972, work by Den Hollander is acquired by the Nederlandse Kunststichting (‘Netherlands Art Foundation’) for the exhibition Ooggetuigen (Eye-Witnesses). With the completion of Den Hollander’s study in May 1973, the city of Breda awards him with the ‘St. Joost Medal’ as well as the pecuniary prize that comes with it.


For a brief while after the academy, Den Hollander takes a break from photography. To earn his living, he sets up a biological-dynamic agriculture company, bakes bread, assists with the running of a store, etc. He resumes taking photos in 1975. As the year progresses, Den Hollander shows his work to Lorenzo Merlo, the director of the Canon Photo Gallery in Amsterdam. From the autumn of 1975 to the spring of 1976, he travels to the Middle East and the Far East, but without his camera.


Starting in the spring, Den Hollander resumes taking photos on a regular basis. In December 1976, he has his first exhibition at the Canon Photo Gallery, together with his brother, Dutchie den Hollander. The Arthotheek (‘Art Library’) of Breda purchases Den Hollander’s photos.


During this period, Den Hollander’s photos gain notoriety through their regular appearance in publications and exhibitions in the Netherlands and abroad. (In 1982, photos from this period are published in the book Moments in Time).


Den Hollander marries Annemarie Aardewerk, who plays an important role in encouraging him to show his work to the public.


Den Hollander receives two international awards for his work in this year: Second Prize, for his black-and-white work at the Triennial Exhibition of Photography at Fribourg, Switzerland; and the Grand Prix de la Recherche Photographique (‘Grand Prize of Investigative Photography’) in Royan, France.


The city of Naples (Italy) commissions Den Hollander to shoot photos inspired by the theme ‘city and sea’. Uitgeverij Bert Bakker publishes the first book on Den Hollander’s photography, entitled Moments in Time.


Den Hollander teaches photography at the Stichting Sinus (‘Sinus Foundation’) in ‘s-Hertogenbosch. He is commissioned to make a series of photos on the island of Capri by Studio Trisorio of Naples (in collaboration with the photographers Ralph Gibson, Luigi Ghirri, Franco Fontana, and Wilhelm Schürmann).


Den Hollander turns his attention to colour photography. During this period, he takes mainly photos of objects related to natural history.


Den Hollander wins a legal battle with the Inspectie van Belastingen (‘Department of Tax Inspection’), which he initiated in 1980, concerning a reduction in the VAT tax rate for autonomous photography. Prior to this time, photography was subject to a narrow interpretation of the law, i.e. as a mechanical reproduction technique rather than a form of art, with the consequence that photographers were obliged to apply a higher VAT tax rate than other artists. As it turns out, however, the interpretation of the law already provides ample provision for the activity of photographers working as artists to be considered as a form of artistic expression based on certain criteria, therefore making them eligible for the same VAT rate as other artists.


Den Hollander resumes his work with series of 35mm photographs (as in 1972): spaces with columns, stairways, walls, and sculpture, photographed in a fairly flat style. Den Hollander works on an assignment for the project ‘Kunst over de vloer’ (‘Art on Visitation’) at the Entropotdok in Amsterdam. His entry consists of two large photo tableaus on wall surfaces: a series of six and a series of three photos.


The city of Leiden and the Fotomania photo gallery commission Den Hollander to make a photo tableau consisting of nine colour photos taken at the Natural History Museum and the Anatomical Museum for the exhibition De Verbeelding van Leiden (‘The Representation of Leiden’). Starting in the fall, Den Hollander takes black-and-white photos with a strong leaning towards abstraction. During this new period, the theme of nature temporarily makes way for architectural segments and (parts of) machines.


Paul den Hollander’s oeuvre is an example of photography that goes beyond the boundaries of traditional observation and makes the unseen visible. A reality is found in his photos that the observer can recognise, but which he is certain to never have seen before in this manner. In Den Hollander’s photography, the relationship between nature and culture is a key theme. This reflects—how could it be otherwise—his own personal interests: Den Hollander alternates between gardening and photography.

In the years that Den Hollander studied at the St. Joost Academy in Breda, photography was viewed exclusively as an applied art (portrait, architectural, and advertising photography). The student was required to graduate with a project for each of the study disciplines. The period of restructuring that occurred in the 1970s, as well in education, led to discussions regarding the proper relationship between the practical and artistic aspects of photography in the study programme. Through these obligatory reforms, students were given the space to start working with their own creative ideas, which were nevertheless to be assimilated with the rest of the regular curriculum. Den Hollander was one of the first to make optimal use of turning in autonomous work. He also fulfilled his one year of internship in the same alternative fashion: instead of working in a photo studio, as was customary at the time, he set out on a journey abroad, travelling by bicycle to photograph whatever he pleased. Den Hollander saw the academy as a workshop, where he could exchange ideas with his teachers and fellow students, versus an institution were one receives instruction. In his development at the St. Joost Academy, he was greatly stimulated by the critical commentary of two instructors: Hans Katan and Cas van Os.

From the outset, thinking about photography and observing with a minimum of bias have been the two components guiding Den Hollander’s creative endeavours. Periods of intensive photographic activity are followed by periods of contemplation. Once he feels he has fully explored a certain approach to photographing or a topic at hand, he then requires a bit of distance from photography, both literally and figuratively. To be continually busy with photography is neither within his capacity nor is it his desire. Because of these intervals, his work can generally be divided into periods and trends.

Den Hollander’s earliest period, from the spring of 1972 to 1977, are characterised by searching and experimenting. His work during these years involved photo series, presented in various ways: in horizontal and vertical sequences, and in block form. The phenomenon of photo series and sequences appeared in the early 1970s under the influence of developments in the visual arts. It provided photographers with new possibilities for the experimental investigation of optical laws, of the visualisation of layers of meaning in reality, and of the psychological factors that play a role in visual observation. Den Hollander’s photo series do not form a narrative, but depict a period of time as an extra dimension within the flat surface. He photographed an environment at moments that changes occurred. On occasion he favoured a fixed vantage point; at other times he changed his physical position in relation to his subject. One such example is a sequence of shots taken in the surroundings of a beach house: hikers passing by, shadows shifting, and a child on a bike. In this series, which Den Hollander called Verandering en Duurzaamheid (‘Change and Durability’), the emphasis was on form and rhythm. His preference was to choose austere surroundings, ensuring that the photos were simple and clear in composition, with a tendency towards abstraction.

In 1978, Den Hollander abandoned this serial approach, by his own account for the following reason: ‘With series, you have to deal with factors such as horizons that have to coincide, distances that have to change rhythmically, etc. You have to devote a great deal of attention to all of these issues. They got in the way of my ability to see clearly. I was much more preoccupied with the technical exterior as opposed to the photos’ content.’

Den Hollander’s investigation of place, space, and time continued to play a role in the period that followed: the years 1977 to 1980. He no longer conceived his photos as part of a series, but as independent units. In 1982, a selection of photos from this period were published in a photobook entitled Moments in Time. The photos and title evoke associations with the work of the French photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson and his famous book The Decisive Moment (1952). Nevertheless, Cartier-Bresson’s notion of the decisive moment in photography—i.e. the moment when all moving elements are in balance with each other—is not the same as the decisive moment one encounters in Den Hollander’s photos. In his work, there is also a balance, but not one of an implied harmony. There are opposing powers at work, which appear to draw the image out of balance: a static environment, in which minimal, though visually critical events occur, e.g. a newspaper flying into the air, people or objects about to disappear, or still-standing figures looking at something that the viewer is unable to see. Den Hollander’s chosen moment refers to the moment that immediately follows, but which has not been photographed. It suggests a continuous movement over time. As a result, his photos resemble film stills.

Large open spaces in which both natural as well as man-made elements are present serve as entourage in Den Hollander’s photos, such as beaches with changing huts, boulevards with benches, exotic parks and gardens with historical architecture and shorn hedges. Nature often appears to be playing the leading role, but people are (un-) ambiguously present, as the creator of his surroundings and as a fleeting passer-by—sometimes suggested by nothing more than a foot, arm, or shadow.

The element of time has a more subtle character in the series that Den Hollander series produced during this period. Spans of time were ‘depicted’ through a succession of moments. These days, he relies primarily on the cropping of the frame, and occasionally blur, as visual tools for suggesting movement and the passage of time. Den Hollander’s experiments with the depiction of time and space may perhaps seem contrary to his interest in timelessness. It is precisely with this concept in mind, however, that he selects elements to be included in his photos: historic architecture; the primordial forms of cactuses and succulents; people dressed in ‘neutral’ clothing, without plastic bags or other objects that date the image. A high degree of tension is introduced in these photos through the timeless aspect of the surroundings, the objects, and the people, as well as the suggestion of movement created by freezing a fleeting moment and cropping the image. Such tension is sometimes also caused by a ‘restrained silence’, a foreboding threat, as if something could happen at any moment. Intimidating skies filled with wisps of clouds, seen especially in the spring and fall, intensify this suggestion of a threat through their spatial effect.

In many of the ‘moments of time’ photos, one encounters the interaction of a static environment, human movement, and a threatening atmosphere, cleverly worked out, both on an aesthetic and technical level. It is due to Den Hollander’s lively and alert spirit that this continual repetition in his work has not led to empty stereotypes. He is fully aware of what he is doing and keeps in mind that circumstances are continually changing. In the work of many of his numerous imitators, this repetition has taken on elements of a caricature.

Following a period of two years investigating new possibilities achievable with his 35mm camera, in 1982 Den Hollander adopted a completely different approach and began working with a larger format camera. His camera angles are different than before, his perspective on the world is more narrow, and his focus has shifted to detail. As in previous years, Den Hollander seeks his motifs in botanical and private gardens, ‘jardins exotiques’ (‘exotic gardins’) in Southern Europe, and zoos, where nature is held captive. His choices reflect his fascination with the interaction of nature and culture in these constructed spaces, where people maintain the upkeep of ‘natural’ processes with care. Landscaped gardens displaying the architect’s personal nature, the unique forms of cactus and succulents, stationary greenhouse plants, and unshakable reptiles in their terrarium: all reflect Den Hollander’s feelings while photographing his own emotions. The boundaries between interior and exterior, as well as life and death, appear to fade.

In retrospect, it seems almost inevitable that Den Hollander would one day come to address matters of ‘life after death’. Display cases in natural history museums provide an environment perfectly suited for the composition of still lifes reflecting this theme, shot primarily in colour. In the early 1980s, an astounding captivation for natural history museums had begun to emerge among photographers, both in the Netherlands and abroad. Through the striking manner in which he frames his images, Den Hollander introduces a new relationship linking the objects and spaces he encounters. In his photos, a museum’s monumental architecture appears startled by the flying birds, or the antlers of a deer that might just turn the corner at any moment. The movement of these animals, however, was frozen long before Den Hollander’s shot was even taken. Through the use of reflections, he introduces a connection between the stuffed and mounted animals in different spaces. In his photos, it seems as if a new symbiosis is being formed between these creatures and the architecture that surrounds them. The use of colour intensifies the sense of reality, creating added confusion. This regrouping of reality in the photos evokes an oppressive atmosphere, occasionally with a subdued humoristic undertone. No staging or other form of visual trickery is used to create this surrealistic and disorienting atmosphere. Den Hollander achieves this effect solely by photographic means, with no mystery to be revealed. In his project for the exhibition De Verbeelding van Leiden (‘The Representation of Leiden’, 1988), Den Hollander implemented colour as a mystical, visual element: strange tints of green, yellow, and brown bring together nine photos taken at the Natural History Museum and Anatomical Museum in Leiden, all presented in a block format. A stuffed ape removed from his box, deer skeletons in plastic ‘coats’, mounted eagles in front of the painted portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Van Wickevoort Crommelin, cardboard museum boxes in which the tusk of an elephant could not possibly fit: all of these odd elements obtain a magical character through the special way in which Den Hollander applies colour.

Den Hollander belongs to the purists among the photographers, who work exclusively with the tools made available through photographic technique, optics, and chemistry. By making choices based on a consistent personal vision with respect to composition, camera angle, framing, tonality in black-and-white photos, and gradations of colour found in colour photos, he creates his own identifiable style. Den Hollander composes with his camera as opposed to the darkroom, using the entire negative.

Den Hollander seeks to maximise emptiness in his photos. Unnecessary details are excluded from the image when possible. His desire for simple forms allows him to achieve a certain level of abstraction. Other aspects of his working method are his unexpected crops, with the margins no less important than the photo’s centre. Den Hollander’s photos rarely possess a primary motif: every element is part of the photo, void of any hierarchical order. For this reason, he usually leaves his work untitled.

During his study at the academy, Den Hollander spent a lot of time working with a technical camera. His next camera was a Nikkormat with a 35mm wide-angle objective—a camera well suited for his many travels. In 1982, his decision to photograph subjects involving greater detail, as well as a desire to make bigger prints, motivated a switch to a larger format camera. He began using a 6×6 Hasselblad, typically working with a tripod. As a consequence, Den Hollander’s prints went from the format of a horizontal rectangle to a square. In the 1980s, larger cameras were again popular with some of the younger photographers who ‘composed’ or staged their photographs. Den Hollander’s move to a large camera also stems from a renewed interest in still lifes in photography. An eye for texture and a fine surface structure are important aspects of this genre, just as in the 1930s.

In 1984 and ’85, Den Hollander often worked with colour film in the format 6×6, which he still currently uses on an incidental basis. He has his slides developed on cibachrome, chiefly in the format 50×50 cm. In the 1980s, large-format colour photos took over museum walls, stimulated in part by the options made available by Polaroid in this format. Colour photos have surpassed the ‘print room collection’ stage and are competing with works produced by painters. Den Hollander’s cibachromes are demonstrative of this competition, as are the colour photos of Gérald Van Der Kaap, Henk Tas, and others.

Since the 1970s, one can observe an emerging individualism, a greater orientation towards the ‘self’, both in society as well as in the visual and applied arts. This growing self-awareness and the conscious realisation of one’s personal relationship to his surroundings has motivated the artist to seek personal forms of expression for decades. Den Hollander does this by primarily working with (cultivated) nature. In this regard, he ostensibly joins the ranks of the Spanish photographer Joan Fontcuberta. Nevertheless, a world of contrast separates each photographer’s respective approach to nature. Fontcuberta is an urban dweller, who in fact regards nature as something threatening and uncontrollable. He turns to elements of nature based on a purely philosophical and intellectual motivation. For a nature-lover like Den Hollander, humanity’s domination over nature is anything but self-evident and even borders on alarming. Based on their outward appearance, Den Hollander’s static, serene ‘landscapes’ are reminiscent of the sterile dream worlds devised by metaphysical painters of the 1930s, such as Giorgio de Chirico and Carel Willink. Den Hollander shares the same level of awareness with these painters as well in terms of content: artists whose works were based on the expression of their own selves in relation to their surroundings, versus the Surrealists, who focused instead on the psychic problems arising from the subconscious. The painter Pyke Koch formulated the distinction succinctly: ‘Magic Realism draws from representations that are possible, but not probable; Surrealism, by contrast, from impossible, non-existing or not-possibly-existing situations. Between what is clearly impossible and that which is probable lies the world of the Surrealists and Magic Realists.’ Den Hollander shares the same sense of oppression—of being cut off from life—felt by these artists: in a general sense, a feeling of impotence when it comes to humanity’s domination over nature and its threat to the environment; in a personal sense, an impotence with respect to his activities in the field of photography, where he sometimes feels like a victim.

Den Hollander is a photographer whose work is frequently ‘quoted’ in the Netherlands and abroad. His plain, clear style and form-oriented working approach have led to numerous imitations and frequent copying, even in advertising photography. Den Hollander’s creative spirit, however, keeps him from getting caught up in his success. He remains open to innovative ideas and new issues related to form, so as to avoid overemphasising formalism and the repetition of his own idiom. This can as well be observed in his recent work, in which there is a greater tendency towards abstraction than ever before. In addition, he is currently focusing on subjects related to matters that are man-made, with no role accorded nature. Through his photography, Paul den Hollander remains part of the European avant-garde, without conforming to the latest trends.


Primary bibliography

Set of 8 postcards, (self-edited) 1981.

Lorenzo Merlo (inl.), Moments in time, Amsterdam (Bert Bakker) 1982.

(brief), in European Photography (okt./nov./dec. 1983) 16, p. 10-13 (met foto’s).

Set of 11 postcards, Amsterdam (Art Unlimited) 1984.

Tracy Metz (tekst), Bouwen in Berlijn. Een internationale staalkaart, in Avenue 23 (augustus 1988) 8, p. 50-57.


images in:

De Revisor 5 (augustus 1978) 4, p. 10, 11, 14,

Catalogus tent. Nederlands landschap, Amsterdam (Canon Photo Gallery) 1979.

Catalogus (behorende bij de jubileumexpositie van 24 t/m 30 maart 1979 met werk van 15 hedendaagse Nederlandse fotografen)

Vijf jaar Canon Photo Gallery Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Canon Photo Gallery) 1979.

Ingeborg Leijerzapf, Vijf jaar Canon Photo Gallery, in Foto 34 (april 1979) 4, p. 35, 48.

BK-Informatie 1 (december 1979) 2, p. 24.

De Revisor 6 (december 1979) 6, p. 15, 17, 19.

Print letter 5 (juli/aug. 1980) 4, p. 13.

European Photography (juli/aug./sept. 1980) 3, p. 24-25.

Catalogus 10e Salon International de la Recherche Photographique. S.I.R.P., Royan (Palais des Congres) 1981.

Catalogus Troisième Triënnale Internationale de la Photographie, Fribourg (Musée d’Art et Histoire) 1981, p. 41-44.

Catalogus tent. Zoeken/zien. De geregisseerde foto, Amsterdam (Nederlandse Kunststichting) 1981.

Taptoe 62 (21 maart 1981) 26.

De Revisor 8 (april 1981) 2, p. 14-21.

Photographie 5 (september 1981) 9, p. 108.

Willy Juwet en Guido Debusscher (samenstelling), Kunstwerken verworven door de Staat in 1980-1981, z.p. (Ministerie van Nationale Opvoeding en Nederlandse Cultuur) 1982, afb. 77.

Catalogus tent. Aspects of landscape, Jerusalem (The Jerusalem Theatre) 1982.

Partner (oktober 1982) 17, p. 53-61.

Passion (oktober 1983) 27.

De Groene Amsterdammer 108 (augustus 1984) 31.

Galerieën rond Van Abbe. Het programma van zeven Eindhovense galerieën tijdens de jubileumviering van het Van Abbemuseum 1936-1986, Eindhoven 1986.

PhotoVision (1986) 16, p. 16, 36-40.

Camera International (herfst 1986) 8, p. 76.

OVO Magazine 15(1986) 59/60/61, p. 40-41.

Photoart (1986) 65, p. 28.

Kalender Neroc bv, Leiden 1987.

Catalogus Mois de la Photo, Luik, oktober 1997, p. 65.

Michael Tophoff, Het kanaal, Amsterdam (Meulenhoff) 1988, omslag.

Catalogus Stipendia 86/87. Werken op het gebied van fotografie, industriële vormgeving en landschapsarchitectuur van kunstenaars die in de periode 1 juli 1986 – 1 oktober 1987 een individueel subsidie ontvingen van het Ministerie van WVC, Amsterdam (Fragment) 1988, p. 32.

Catalogus 10 Ans Festival Photographique du Tregor, Lannion (lTmagerie) 1988, p. 4.1.

Mare Belit en Guy Jouaville, La photographie, Tarbes (Parvis 2. Centre de Developpement Culturel) 1988.

Liberation (juli 1988) 2217, supplement, p. 28.

Avenue 23 (augustus 1988) 8, p. 59-62.

Secondary bibliography

Auteur onbekend, Paul den Hollander, winnaar van Sint Joostpenning: „Als de foto klaar is, kom ik weer terug bij mezelf”, in Dagblad De Stem 9 mei 1973.

Aloys Ginjaar, Dutchie en Paul den Hollander, in Foto 31 (december 1976) 12, p. 74.

Auteur onbekend, Fotografen en hun werk. Paul den Hollander, in Foto 32 (juni 1977) 6, p. 48-55 (met foto’s).

Els Barents (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1940-1975, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978.

Evelyn Beer en Frans van Burkom (tekst), Foto’78, Amsterdam (Nederlandse Kunststichting) 1978.

Miricaé, Portfolio of the month – Paul den Hollander, in Reflexions 2 (februari 1978) 2, p.4-5 (met foto’s).

Auteur onbekend, Cameracapriolen. Kennismaking met de Nederlandse fotografie, in De Nieuwe Gazet 6 juni 1978.

Peter Weiermair (red.), Kunst als Photographie 1949-1979, Innsbruck (Allerheiligenpresse) 1979, p. 96-97.

Catalogus tent. Aspecten hedendaagse fotografie, Schiedam (Stedelijk Museum) 1979.

Catalogus tent. Paul den Hollander, Antwerpen (Internationaal Cultureel Centrum) 1979, (catalogus nummer 174).

Olivier Vrooland, Gewaarwording leidt tot bewustwording, in Foto 34 (maart 1979) 3, p. 28-35 (met foto’s).

Bas Roodnat, Expositie Schiedam: fotografie als middel en als doel, in NRC Handelsblad 21 juni 1979.

Aad Flapper, Te veel missers op fototentoonstelling, in Het Parool 19 juli 1979.

Joan Fontcuberta, Paul den Hollander, in Reflexions 3 (oktober 1979) 10, p. 2-3 (met foto’s).

Rommert Boonstra, Het gras van de realiteit. Exposities in oktober, in Elseviers Magazine 6 oktober 1979, p. 124-125.

E.V.D.G, Paul den Hollander, in ICC Bulletin 1 november 1979, p. 2.

Lorenzo Merlo, New Dutch photography/Hedendaagse fotografie in Nederland, Amsterdam/Antwerpen (Kosmos) 1980, p.4, 7, 8, 46-49 (met foto’s).

Catalogus Première Triënnale Internationale de Photographie, Charleroi (Palais des Beaux Arts) 1980, p. 22-23, 114.

Catalogus tent. Grupa Junij ’80. Prisotnost metafizike/Metaphysical presence, Ljubljana 1980, p. 42-43.

Auteur onbekend, Paul den Hollander, in Hel Spiegel Boeken & Grafiek. Catalogus lente 1980.

Auteur onbekend, Chatteries, in Photo (juni 1980) 153, p. 33.

Auteur onbekend, Paul den Hollander. Le plat-pays, in Photo reporter (oktober 1980) 24, p.4-9, 126 (met foto’s).

Joan Fontcuberta, Paul den Hollander, in A Propos (november 1980) 8, p. 11.

Antonia Trave, Paul den Hollander. El misterio de la realidad, in Flash Foto (1981) 79, p. 22-29 (met foto’s).

Peter Thomas, Paul den Hollander / Harm Botman, in The Newsletter of the Association of Photographers in Wales (voorjaar 1981) 1.

Herman Hoeneveld, Wat gaat er gebeuren? Paul den Hollander in Parijs, in Kunstbeeld juni/juli 1981.

Piet van Leeuwen, De misleidende eenvoud van Paul den Hollander, in Zero (zomer 1981) 4, p. 129-130.

Trix Broekmans, ‘Ik wil de ziel in een foto’, in Algemeen Dagblad 2 juli 1981, p. 2.

Anna Tilroe, Paul den Hollander. ‘Mijn foto’s worden herkend van dromen’, in Avenue 16 (augustus 1981) 8, p. 46-49.

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf, Niederlande: Die Emanzipation der kreatieven Fotografie nach 1945, in Andreas Muller-Pohle (samenstelling), Fotografie in Europa heute, Keulen (DuMont) 1982, (dumont foto 4), p. 54-57, 62-63, 234 (met foto’s).

Carole Naggar, Dictionnaire des photographes, Parijs (Seuil) 1982, p. 119-120.

Catalogus tent. Napoli ’82. Citta sul mare con porto, Milaan (Electa) 1982, p. 77-91, 119-120 (met foto’s).

Eric van der Schalie, Losing control, in Perspektief (jan./febr./mrt. 1982) 10, p. 8.

Auteur onbekend, Paul den Hollander. Portfolio van recent werk, in Foto 37 (maart 1982) 3, p. 60-67 (met foto’s).

Roger Coenen, Fotograaf Paul den Hollander, in ‘t Pepertje 2 (april/mei 1982), p.11.

Pauline Terreehorst, Vervreemdend spel met mensen op foto’s van Den Hollander, in De Volkskrant 30 juni 1982.

BV., Moments in time, in Perspektief (juli/ aug./sept. 1982) n , p . 52.

Auteur onbekend, Fotografen exposeren in wachthal, in Schipholland 6 (17 juli 1982) 9, p. 15.

Kees Kuil, Paul den Hollander, in Perspektief (herfst 1982) 12, p. 12-19 (met foto’s).

Auteur onbekend, Boeken, in Vrij Nederland Bijvoegsel (11 september 1982) 36, p. 36.

L.C., Paul den Hollander, in Catalogus 40S Encontros de Fotografia de Coimbra, Coimbra 1983.

Martin Schouten, Het belang van een bijschrift, in Haagse Post 20 november 1982.

Catalogus European Photography. An exhibition of Contemporary Western European Black and White Photography at Northeastern University, Boston (Northeastern University) 1983.

Catalogus tent. Zeitgenössische europaïsche Fotografie, Schaffhausen (Museum zu Allerheiligen) 1983.

Hansmaarten Tromp, A photographic artist, in Holland Herald 18 (1983) 2, p. 34-37.

Lorenzo Merlo, De nieuwe generatie Nederlandse fotografen en het landschap. ‘Eigen observaties transformeren in beelden die zowel de tijd als de ondergane emotie weergeven, in Harlekijn 13 (1983) 3, p. 14-17.

Lorenzo Merlo, Tentoonstelling Dubrovnik, gezien door 6 internationale fotografen, in Reflexions 2 (maart/april 1983) 7, p. 2.

Mathilde Visser, Zes fotografen zien Dubrovnik, in Het Financieele Dagblad 4 maart 1983.

Auteur onbekend, ‘Significati del visibile’, in Fotografia Oltre (aug./sept. 1983) 2.

Auteur onbekend, Paul den Hollander. Photographies en noir et blanc, in Contact (oktober 1983) 8, p. 11.

Pauline Terreehorst, Foto-expositie toont vooruitgang, in De Volkskrant 1 november 1983.

BV., Artikel Paul den Hollander P12, in Perspektief (winter 1983) 13, p.49.

Auteur onbekend, Fotografias de Paul den Hollander, in Catalogus 50s Encontros de Fotografia de Coimbra, Coimbra 1984, (met foto’s).

Els Barents (samenstelling), Zeven hedendaagse Nederlandse fotografen, in Catalogus tent. Foto’84, Amsterdam (Stichting Amsterdam Foto) 1984, p. 56-61.

Catalogus Fotobiennale Enschede. Amerikaanse en Nederlandse fotografie, Enschede (Stichting Fotobiennale Enschede) 1984, p. 40, 61.

Els Barents, Van afbeelden naar verbeelden, in Foto in vorm. Grafisch Nederland 1984, Amsterdam (Koninklijk Verbond van Grafische Ondernemingen) 1984, p. 44.

Wim Broekman, Paul den Hollander. De wereld is kleiner geworden, in Foto 39 (maart 1984) 3, p. 5, 52-59.

Lorenzo Merlo, Tentoonstelling Paul den Hollander — Holland, in Reflexions 3 (mrt./ april 1984) 13, omslag, p. 2-3 (met foto’s).

Pauline Terreehorst, Den Hollander laat zoveel mogelijk elementen weg: „Mijn foto’s zijn moeilijk te plaatsen in de tijd”, in De Volkskrant 9 maart 1984.

Thea Figee, Foto’s uit eigen tuin, in De Waarheid 14 maart 1984.

Auteur onbekend, Paul den Hollander, in Foto & Doka (mei 1984) 5, p. 60.

Dirk van der Spek, Imitatie of vernieuwing, in Focus 69 (mei 1984) 5, p. 37-39.

Auteur onbekend, Paul den Hollander, in Camera International (november 1984) 1, p. 72-81 (met foto’s).

Pauline Terreehorst, Paul den Hollander, in Catalogus Torino Fotografia 85, Modena (Panini) 1985, p.85-88 (met foto’s).

Auteur onbekend, Paul den Hollander, in Photographie Ouverte (jan./febr. 1985) 34, omslag, p. 2-3.

Pauline Terreehorst, Den Hollander, in Clichés (juni 1985) 17, p. 24-31 (met foto’s).

Steffen Thomas, Tentoonstelling Paul den Hollander, in Reflexions 4 (sept./okt. 1985) 22, p. 6-7 (met foto’s).

Herman Hoeneveld, Paul den Hollander. De weg naar verandering, in Kunstbeeld 10 (oktober 1985) 1, p. 25-27 (met foto’s).

Steffen Thomas, Paul den Hollander. De esthetiek van de verlatenheid, in Foto 40 (oktober 1985) 10, p. 42-49 (met foto’s).

Sjon Hauser, Paul den Hollander en het vage contrast tussen leven en dood, in Avenue 20 (november 1985) 11, p. 134-137 (met foto’s).

Evelyn Beer e.a. (samenstelling), Rijksaankopen 1985. Werk van hedendaagse beeldende kunstenaars, Amsterdam/Den Haag (Rijksdienst Beeldende Kunst) 1986, p. 18-19, 144, 147-148.

Catalogus II Fotobienal – Vigo ’86, Vigo 1986, p. 46-51 (met foto’s).

Catalogus tent. Nature morte, nature vive. 7es Journées Internationales de la Photographie et de 1’Audiovisual, Montpellier 1986.

JT/MT, Nederlandse kleurenfotografie, in Catalogus tent. Foto ’86, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1986, p. 95-97.

Catalogus 50 Jahre Moderne Farbfotografie 1936-1986, Keulen (Photokina) 1986, p. 191, 326.

Laura Antillano, El tiempo y sus encarnaciones, in PhotoVision (1986) 16, p. 5-7.

MdJ (= Margot de Jager), Amsterdam Foto’86, in Perspektief (september 1986) 25, p. 54-55.

Catalogus tent. Kunst over de vloer. Fotovideo-installaties, Amsterdam (Stichting Kunst over de vloer) 1987, p. 97-99.

Auteur onbekend, Paul den Hollander, in Nueva Imagen (jan./febr./mrt. 1987) 2, (met foto’s).

Francisco Javier Labargo, Paul den Hollander, in Diario Navarra 13 maart 1987, p. 34.

Robbert van Venetië, Paul den Hollander maakt foto’s om heel lang naar te kijken, in Mare 9 april 1987.

Nancy Stoop, Onverwachte effecten in fotowerk van Paul den Hollander, in Leidsch Dagblad 16 april 1987.

Paul Hefting, Paul den Hollander, in Ingeborg Leijerzapf e.a., Roots & Turns, 20th Century photography in The Netherlands, Den Haag (SDU Publishers) 1988, p. 138-143, 169 (met foto’s).

Steffen Thomas, Paul den Hollander, in Catalogus 90S Encontros de Fotografia, Coimbra 1988.

Frits Bruins en Linda Roodenburg (red.), De Verbeelding van Leiden, Leiden (SMD Informatief) 1988, p.8, 40-47 (met foto’s).

A. de Jongh-Vermeulen, Paul den Hollander, in Colin Naylor (ed.), Contemporary photographers, Chicago/London (St. James Press) 1988, 2de dr., p. 238-239.

Vladimir Birgus, Paul den Hollander, in Revue Fotografie 88 32 (1988) 3, p. 28-33 (met foto’s).

Renée Steenbergen, Kleurenfoto’s als surrealistische schilderkunst. Expositie Stipendia in Amsterdam toont werk van jonge en ervaren beeldend kunstenaars, in NRC Handelsblad 17 mei 1988.

Steffen Thomas, Paul den Hollander, in Clichés (maart 1989) 54, p. 40-47 (met foto’s).


mei 1973 Sint-Joostpenning, Breda.

1981 Second prix pour la photographie en noir et blanc. Troisième Triënnale Internationale de la Photographie, Fribourg.

1981 Grand prix 10e Salon International de la Recherche Photographique, Royan.


1972 (g) Amsterdam, Nederlandse Kunststichting, Ooggetuigen.

1976 (g) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery, Dutchie J. den Hollander. Paul den Hollander.

1977 (e) Breda, Cultureel Centrum De Beyerd.

1977 (g) Middelburg, De Vleeshal, 10 Kunstenaars uit Breda.

1977 (e) Leiden, Prentenkabinet der Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, (aanwinsten-tentoonstelling).

1978 (g) Amsterdam, Nederlandse Kunststichting, Foto ’78 (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1978 (e) Amsterdam, ABN-Galerij (Vijzelstraat).

1978 (e) Antwerpen, Galerie Paule Pia.

1978 (g) Bologna, Arte Fiera, Photography since 1955.

1978/1979 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Fotografie in Nederland 1940-1975.

1979 (e) Modena, Centro Culturale.

1979 (g) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery, (15 Nederlandse fotografen).

1979 (g) Den Bosch, Kruithuis, Foto-facetten.

1979 (e) Barcelona, Fotomania, Paul den Hollander. Fotografias.

1979 (g) Schiedam, Stedelijk Museum, Aspecten hedendaagse fotografie.

1979 (g) Lima (Peru), To be a child (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1979 (g) Innsbruck, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Photographie als Kunst 1879-

1979 Kunst als Photographie 1949-1979 (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1979 (g) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery, Nederlands landschap.

1979 (g) Amsterdam, Exposorium Vrije Universiteit, Nederlands landschap. Ons land gezien door 23 Nederlandse fotografen.

1979 (e) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery.

1979 (e) Parijs, Galerie Phot’Oeil.

1979 (g) Amsterdam, Fundatie Kunsthuis Amsterdam, Vijf jaar kunst in De Revisor.

1979 (e) Antwerpen, Internationaal Cultureel Centrum.

1980 (e) Athene, Photographic Centre.

1980 (e) Thessaloniki, Fotografia Gallery.

1980 (e) Den Bosch, Kruithuis.

1980 (g) Eindhoven, Stedelijk van Abbe Museum, Brabant Biennale.

1980 (g) Charleroi, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Première Triënnale Internationale de la Photographie.

1980 (g) Ljubljana, Grupa Junij ’80. Prisotnost metafizike/Metaphysical presence (rondreizende tentoonstelling door Joegoslavië).

1980 (g) Toulouse, Photogalerie Voir, Photographes el Chats.

1980 (e) Hasselt, Cultureel Centrum Hasselt.

1980 (g) Milaan, Galerie Figura-Biella, Naked environment.

1980 (g) Parijs, Canon Espace, New Dutch Photography.

1980 (g) Antwerpen, Galene Paule Pia, Magie of Nude.

1981 (e) Genève, Canon Photo Gallery.

1981 (e) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery.

1981 (e) Milaan, II Diaframma/Canon.

1981 (e) Cardiff, The Photographic Gallery, Paul den Hollander. Gardens of the mind.

1981 (e) Londen, Night Gallery.

1981 (g) Enschede, Galerie Beeld en Aambeeld.

1981 (g) Amsterdam, Nederlandse Kunststichting, Zoeken/zien. De geregisseerde foto.

1981 (e) Parijs, Institut Néerlandais, Paul den Hollander. Photographies.

1981 (e) Hannover, Galerie Novum.

1981 (g) Fribourg, Musée d’Art et Histoire, Troisième Triënnale Internationale de la Photographie.

1981 (g) Royan, Palais des Congres, 10ème Salon International de la Recherche Photographique

1981 (g) Brussel, Festival of Phantastic Art.

1981 (g) Tokyo, New European Photography (rondreizende tentoonstelling door Japan).

1981 (e) Nidau-Bienne, Galerie Suzanne Küpfer, Paul den Hollander. Photographies.

1982 (e) Dessel (België), Fotogalerij Minnen.

1982 (e) Hoensbroek, Fotogalerie 68 (Cultureel Centrum Kasteel Hoensbroek), Impressions.

1982 (e) München, Galerie Renner, Paul den Hollander. Fotografen.

1982 (e) Diepenbeek, Galerij ‘t Pepertje.

1982 (e) Parijs, FNAC Forum Les Halles (rondreizende tentoonstelling).

1982 (g) New York, KLM Plaza, In my view.

1982 (g) Genève, Canon Photo Gallery, New Dutch Photography.

1982 (g) Jeruzalem, The Jeruzalem Theatre, Aspects of landscape.

1982 (g) Gent, Centrum voor Kunst en Cultuur, Kunstwerken verworven door de Staat in 1980-1981.

1982 (e) Amsterdam, Galerie Robert Premsela.

1982 (g) Arles, Salie des Fêtes, Vingt et un pholographes Europeens en 1982. (Rencontres Internationales de la Photographie Arles 82).

1982 (g) Amsterdam, Art display Schiphol.

1982 (g) Amsterdam, Stichting Perspectief (Amstel 34).

1982 (g) Utrecht, Stichting Perspectief (Oude Gracht 4).

1982 (e) Amsterdam, De Moor.

1982 (e) Breda, De Beyerd.

1982 (e) Rotterdam, Galerie Perspektief.

1982/1983 (g) Napoli, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Napoli ’82.

1983 (g) Venetië, Palazzo Fortuny, Napoli ’82.

1983 (e) Christchurch, The Photographers Gallery.

1983 (e) Biella, Galerie Figura.

1983 (g) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery, Dubrovnik.

1983 (g) Bari, Expo Arte Bari.

1983 (g) Capri, Capri.

1983 (g) Coimbra, Five Dutchmen (rondreizende tentoonstelling door Portugal).

1983 (g) Rimini, Art Festival of Rimini.

1983 (g) Schaffhausen, Museum zu Allerheiligen, Zeitgenössische europaïsche Fotografie.

1983 (g) Boston, North Eastern University Art Gallery, European Photography.

1983 (g) Amsterdam, Stichting Beeldende Kunst, Fotografie in Nederland.

1984 (e) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery, (Recent werk Paul den Hollander).

1984 (e) Lissabon, Galerie Modulo.

1984 (e) Diepenbeek, Galerij ‘t Pepertje.

1984 (g) Amsterdam, Nieuwe Kerk, 7 Hedendaagse Nederlandse fotografen. (Foto ’84).

1984 (g) Enschede, Fotobiennale Enschede.

1984 (g) Nürnberg, Galerie Pro-Photo, Begegnung mit den Niederlanden 84.

1985 (g) Charleroi, Galerie du Musée de la Photographie.

1985 (g) Amsterdam, Museum Fodor, (hoogtepunten uit de fotografiecollectie van het Stedelijk Museum).

1985 (g) Parijs, Société des Autoroutes du Sud de la France, Rives et Rivages d’Europe.

1985 (g) Torino, Galleria Luisella d’Alessandro, Torino Fotografia 85.

1985 (g) Emmen, Bruggebouw, Zoo dieren verbeeld.

1985 (e) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery.

1985 (e) Gent, Galerie XYZ.

1986 (g) Amsterdam, Koopmansbeurs, Nederlandse kleurenfotografie (Foto ’86).

1986 (e) Breda, Galerie Goh.

1986 (g) Houston, Benteler Galleries, Introductions.

1986 (g) Lannion, LTmagerie, 8ème Festival de Photographie de Trégor.

1986 (g) Keulen, 50 Jahre moderne Farbfotografie 1936-1986. (Photokina).

1986 (e) Tarragona, Galerie Forum.

1986 (g) Caracas, Museo de Bellas Artes.

1986 (g) Montpellier, Nature morte, nature vive. 7es Journées Internationales de la Photographie et de l’Audiovisuel.

1986 (g) Vigo, View on the town of Vigo by six photographers.

1986 (g) Maratea (Italië), Maratea Fotografia.

1986 (g) Den Haag, Rijksdienst Beeldende Kunst, Rijksaankopen 1985. Werk van hedendaagse beeldende kunstenaars.

1986 (e) Eindhoven, Galerie Pennings.

1987 (e) Parijs, Galerie J.P. Lambert.

1987 (e) Parijs, FNAC Forum Les Halles.

1987 (e) Genova, Galerie Polleria Immaginaria.

1987 (e) Leiden, Galerie Fotomania.

1987 (e) Pamplona, Galerie Nueva Imagen.

1987 (e) Bari, Galerie Spazio Immagine.

1987 (g) Sesto Fiorentino, Quatro Fotografia Olandesi.

1987 (g) Amsterdam, Entrepotdok, Kunst over de vloer.

1987 (e) Breda, De Beyerd.

1987 (g) Luik, Musée d’Art Moderne, Photographie Européens. (Mois de la Photo).

1987 (g) Metz, Galerie FNAC, La Photographie Hollandaise. (Metz pour la Photographie).

1987 (e) Lucera, Museo Civico G. Fiorelli.

1987 (e) Osimo, Galleria Rondïni.

1988 (g) Houston, Sarah Campbell Blaffer Gallery, Roots & Turns. 20th Century photography in The Netherlands.

1988 (c) Tarbes, Parvis 2. Centre de Developpement Culturel.

1988 (g) Amsterdam, Uitleenzalen SBK Amsterdam, Fototentoonstelling uit eigen collectie.

1988 (g) Coimbra, 90s Encontros de Fotografia.

1988 (g) Gregolimano, Tour d’Europe.

1988 (g) Amsterdam, (Stadhouderskade 6), Stipendia 86/87.

1988 (g) Lannion, L’Imagerie, 10 Ans Festival Photographique du Tregor.

1988 (g) Leiden, De Waag, De Verbeelding van Leiden.

1988 (g) Lissabon, Gulbenkian Modern Art Centre, Events.

1989 (e) Leer, Volkshochschule Haneburg, Paul den Hollander.


Breda, Paul den Hollander, documentatie en mondelinge informatie.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand (o.a. ongepubliceerd werkstuk van Rick Suermondt).


Amsterdam, Polaroid Collectie.

Antwerpen, Provinciaal Museum voor Fotografie.

Breda, Artotheek.

Brussel, Musée Royal des Beaux-Arts.

Chalon-sur-Saóne, Musée Nicéphore Niepce.

Den Haag, Rijksdienst Beeldende Kunst.

Fribourg, Museum Fribourg.

Leiden, Museum De Lakenhal.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet van de Rijksuniversiteit.

Lissabon, Gulbenkian Modern Art Centre.

Londen, Victoria and Albert Museum.

Parma, Centre of Photography of the Parma University.

Parijs, Bibliothèque Nationale.

Parijs, Fond National d’Art Contemporain

Parijs, Ville de Paris.

Tokyo, Museum of Modern Art.