Carla van der Stap
Maria Austria, pseudonym of Marie Karoline Oestreicher, followed and documented the performing arts in the Netherlands with her camera after the Second World War. She attended the rehearsals and performances of theatre, opera, ballet, dance, mime, cabaret, and music. Austria initially worked with other photographers in the collaborative framework of Particam Pictures, a photographic collective. After 1963, she continued Particam on her own. In addition to theatrical photos, she produced portraits of musicians, actors, dancers, directors, and writers. Austria was particularly interested in experimental theatre.
Marie Karoline Oestreicher is born in Karlsbad, presently Karlovy Vary, in Czechoslovakia.
After completing the Gymnasium (a Dutch prep or grammar school), Maria Austria enrols in a photography study at the Höhere Graphische Bundes Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt (‘Higher Graphics Federal Institute of Training and Research’) in Vienna, Austria. The school offers a thorough education in photography and the graphic arts. In Vienna, Austria finds work with a woman photographer, whose identity remains unknown. Austria is inspired by the avant-garde theatrical performances she regularly photographs in the smaller theatres of Vienna.
Austria plans a temporary stay in the Netherlands, with the intention of familiarising herself with the culture and social life in the ‘West’. After one year, she settles there permanently, due to the growing political influence that Germany now exercises in Austria and Czechoslovakia. Maria Austria moves in with her sister, Lisbeth, who lives in Amsterdam. Austria photographs the models for Lisbeth’s knitting designs. They give their agency the name ‘Model en Foto Austria’ (‘Model and Photo Austria’), from which Austria later derives her artist’s name.
The two sisters are forced to shut down their joint business, as Lisbeth is arrested by the Germans and deported to Westerbork transit camp.
Starting in September, Austria is forced to go into hiding. She stays at various addresses and works as a nurse in the Portuguese-Israeli hospital in Amsterdam, among other activities during the war. In the resistance, she meets the actor/director Rob de Vries, who will become a long-term friend.
At the address where she has gone into hiding on the Vondelstraat in Amsterdam, Austria meets Henk Jonker, who is involved in the forging of identity papers. Austria takes passport photos for identity papers and also acts as a courier.
In May, photographers and filmmakers in the resistance are called together by Albert Helman (pseuodonym of Lou Lichtveld) to record the liberation of the Netherlands with their cameras. A number of photographers from this group set up the photo agency Particam (a blend derived from the words ‘Partizanen Camera’, ‘partisans camera’). The photographers participating are: Maria Austria, Lood van Bennekom, Henk Jonker, Aart Klein, Paul Huf, Puck Voûte, and Wim Zilver Rupe. A few photographers soon decide not to continue with the group. Maria Austria, Henk Jonker, Aart Klein, and Wim Zilver Rupe form the nucleus of Particam. They set up the agency on the Willemsparkweg in Amsterdam. In this same year, Austria assumes a position on the management board of the GKf (Gebonden Kunsten Federatie, vakgroep fotografie, ‘United Arts Federation, Department of Photography’). It is also probably at this time that she becomes a member of the NVF (Nederlandse Vereniging van Fotojournalisten, ‘Netherlands Association of Photojournalists’).
Henk Jonker and Maria Austria wed. Both continue living and working on the Willemsparkweg. Austria and Jonker’s collaboration intensifies: they photograph theatrical performances more so than before. Wim Zilver Rupe leaves Particam. On the initiative of Aart Klein, the name of Particam is changed to Particam Pictures.
Aart Klein decides to start a business of his own, leaving Austria and Jonker to continue Particam alone. Jonker focuses more on photographing opera and ballet performances, while Austria covers musical performances of the Nederlands Kamerorkest (‘Netherlands Chamber Orchestra’) and the Nederlands Kamerkoor (‘Netherlands Chamber Choir’). Both do regular work as freelance photographers for socially engaged theatrical companies, including Zuidelijk Toneel, Ensemble, and Arena.
In 1963, Austria and Jonker separate. Austria continues to run Particam on her own, working more intensively than ever. She has several student assistants during this period: Vincent Mentzel, Jaap Piepe, and Bob van Dantzig. Austria works to create a greater appreciation for photography and to promote its acknowledgement as a full-fledged discipline. At the Ministry of WVC (Welzijn, Volksgezondheid en Cultuur, ‘Welfare, Public Health and Culture’), she argues on behalf of the GKf for a share of the budgetary funds designated for the arts. Austria becomes the ‘house photographer’ of the Mickery Theater, where experimental theatrical groups perform, both from the Netherlands and abroad. She drops virtually all of the mainstream theatrical companies in favour of innovative theatre. She does the same with classical ballet, choosing experimental dance and movement groups in its stead. She continues photographing for the Nederlandse Opera Stichting (‘Netherlands Opera Foundation’) and the annual Holland Festival.
Maria Austria dies on 10 January, soon after resuming her work following a major flu infection.
The Stichting Fotoarchief Maria Austria-Particam (‘Maria Austria-Particam Photo Archive Foundation’) is established. The foundation’s aim is to ensure the accessibility of Maria Austria’s archive and to work towards the founding of a Netherlands Photo Archive. A share of the revenue coming out of the foundation is applied towards supporting photographers and promoting Dutch photography. Every two years, the AFK (Amsterdams Fonds voor de Kunst, ‘Amsterdam Fund for the Arts’) awards a prize in Maria Austria’s name.
Maria Austria’s photography has an intense radiance that lies, on one hand, in the dramatic quality of the subjects she photographed, and on the other, in her working method. The combination of photography and theatre was well-suited to Austria’s character. She was intense, assertive, and professional, but also highly empathetic, and supportive of her colleagues.
Austria’s initial training in Vienna was primarily technical in nature. The Höhere Graphische Bundes Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt (‘Higher Graphics Federal Institute of Training and Research’) was established in 1888 as an institute specialised in the graphic arts. It included a separate department of photography as its ‘fourth section’. Students at this institute received a technical training. Austria’s personal formation was actually much more influenced by her years of practical experience working for a woman photographer in Vienna, who gave her the freedom to visit theatres to photograph performances.
When Austria left for the Netherlands in 1937 to practice photography, it had little to do with theatre. Instead, she photographed the knitting designs of her sister, Lisbeth, who had previously studied Weberei (‘weaving’) at the Bauhaus. Prior to Austria’s appearance, Eva Besnyö had photographed for Lisbeth. Austria’s fashion photos reveal an objective approach. All attention is devoted to the clothing, with a uniform background. The unusual camera angles and the shadow effects achieved through the lighting keeps the poses from being boring, though a somewhat static positioning was as yet common practice at this time.
After the war, Austria made several fashion reportages commissioned by companies and designers. In the 1950s, she occasionally shot these reportages on the canals of Amsterdam, as such moving fashion photography to the outdoors, as Emmy Andriesse had done. Absent from Austria’s photos is the playfulness found in the work of other Dutch fashion photographers active at this time, nor does one find the anecdotal quality of, for instance, Andriesse’s fashion photos.
In the post-war years, the revitalisation of the Netherlands was a topic frequently photographed. The members of Particam—with Maria Austria, Henk Jonker, Aart Klein, and Wim Zilver Rupe forming its nucleus—devoted substantial attention to economic topics, such as the practicing of one’s profession and artisanal enterprises. Nevertheless, their chief area of interest was the building up of culture. The Particam photographers made documentary reportages on a wide variety of topics, examined in great depth and from various points of view. These reportages were then submitted to newspapers and magazines. Magazines such as Margriet and Spiegel, as well as the newspaper Handelsblad, published their pieces on a regular basis. Austria’s reportages were distinctive from those of others due to her extraordinary interest in the emotions and experiences of the people she photographed. In a reportage she produced at a household fair, for instance, we can observe that people enjoying themselves was her primary concern. When required, e.g. for reportages on a profession or an artisanal trade, she combined personal involvement and business information in a manner that was understandable. Austria devoted significant attention to women in the home or in their working environments. Whenever possible, she avoided having people pose and tried to record those moments when they were most themselves: children engaged in playing, adults while doing their work.
Besides fashion photos, Austria also shot portrait photos at the start of her career prior to the war. She photographed families and children often belonging to emigrants’ circles. Stemming from Particam’s specialisation in theatrical photography after the war, Austria became the portraitist of numerous actors, directors, dancers, musicians, and cabaret entertainers. These portraits were used for publicity in newspapers, magazines, programme books, album covers, or as eye-catchers in theatre showcases. As early as the 1940s, Austria produced action portraits of orchestra conductors—before it became common practice in Europe—which portrayed the empathy, improvisational talent, and utmost concentration entailed. Austria would sit among the members of the orchestra or directly adjacent to the conductor, so as to optimally observe the gestures and facial expressions from where she was sitting. In doing so, she was applying the same approach as Felix H. Man, a German photographer living in the United States who was a pioneer in photographing conductors while in action.
After 1945, a new generation of theatrical photographers began to take form, who worked on location. This was contrary to the practice of renowned theatrical photographers such as Godfried de Groot and Mies Rosenboom-Merkelbach. The photographers of Particam also belonged to this group: Austria, Jonker, and Klein. Wim Zilver Rupe rarely took theatrical photos. In 1948, another important Dutch photographer in this area appeared on the scene: Frits Lemaire. There was never much competition between Lemaire and Particam, however, as they both did freelance work for their own respective theatrical companies.
Maria Austria and Aart Klein were granted the opportunity to photograph the first performances in the Stadsschouwburg (‘Civic Theatre’) in Amsterdam in the aftermath of the war, presented by actors who had refused to join the Kultuurkamer (‘Chamber of Culture’ under the Germans). For the Particam photographers, this was ultimately a definitive step in the direction of theatrical photography. Starting in 1945, Austria, Jonker and Klein photographed virtually every performance in the Amsterdam Stadsschouwburg (‘Civic Theatre’). This led almost automatically to an expansion of their working territory to include the Concertgebouw Orchestra, the Nederlandse Opera Stichting (‘Netherlands Opera Foundation’), and the larger ballet companies.
In the early days after the war, Klein and Austria also made numerous photo reportages on circus and cabaret (‘kleinkunst’) performances in Amsterdam. The work that Particam was doing at this point still differed little from their pre-war photography. The image was determined by a living room decor. Typically, the actors were asked to portray—as if frozen—a moment that the photographer deemed to be of interest. This kind of shot is called a ‘freeze’, to be considered as a staged form of theatrical photography. What did change was that camera angles were more varied than prior to the war, consequently leading to greater variety in the design. In 1947, Aart Klein made a technical discovery, which essentially allowed the Particam photographers to do their work in the theatre in a less static manner. Klein had found a way to photograph under difficult lighting conditions without having to use a flash, by forcibly (using a higher temperature) developing slow film shot with insufficient lighting. Nevertheless, the Particam photographers continued with their traditional working approach well into the 1960s—there was simply no pressing reason for them to change their ways. The newspapers requested photos with the actors being easily recognisable, preferably with the star of the show standing in the most important spot.
Over the years, the photographic insights of Austria, Jonker, and Klein shifted. One important factor was the selected repertoire of Toneelgroep Theater in Arnhem. Austria felt a strong connection to this company due to her friendship with its director, Rob de Vries. Starting in 1953, Toneelgroep Theater presented socially minded contemporary theatre, introducing writers such as Beckett and Ionesco. These plays were absurdist in nature and required an execution that differed entirely from conventional drama. The uniform lighting typically used on stage was now replaced by strong localised spotlighting and heavy shadow effects, which accentuated the actors. This resulted in a theatrical imagery that worked both in an expressive as well as an abstract manner. Such shifts in content and form in the theatrical world were to have an effect on Austria’s photography. The actor’s expression became an essential element in her photographic work. Because she was now able to go up on stage and stand in the actors’ very midst—virtually right on top of them—Austria’s photography became livelier and more penetrating.
In the 1960s, new forms of theatre inspired Austria. Internationally, the critique that many artists expressed regarding the cultural world’s elitist nature and materialism as a way of life had its effect on theatrical art. A play’s content now had first priority, with the emphasis placed on facial gesticulation and physical expression. The mythic image of the glamorous artist and the actor as an idol disappeared. It was partly under this influence that Austria’s theatrical photography took on a dynamic and brutal character.
Austria was a very loyal visitor to the Mickery Theater, where both national and international avant-garde groups appeared on stage. Austria photographed virtually every performance. After having become acquainted with innovative theatre, also referred to as ‘fringe’ theatre, it was only with difficulty that Austria was able to sympathise with the standard theatrical repertoire. In an interview conducted in December 1972, she related: ‘I have the feeling that the last three, four years were more interesting than the previous twenty-four’.
During the final years of her life, Austria was very much involved as a photographer in promoting socio-political theatre, which was garnering tremendous interest in the Netherlands in the early 1970s. Austria photographed performances done by the Werktheater , Proloog , and Baal en Sater. She devoted special attention to the formative theatre of Proloog, by producing reportages on this company’s events, meetings, and plays. She tried to depict the essence of Proloog’s theatre as best she could, by choosing for a more restrained approach to her photography. She avoided personal input by means of a sensational design, favouring a more objective visual registration. Austria followed some new forms of theatre and dance very closely. She was particularly fascinated by the Stichting Eigentijdse Dans —with Ellen Edinoff as the company’s principal dancer—for which she photographed virtually every performance. Austria continued her work as the ‘permanent’ freelance photographer of the Nederlandse Opera Stichting. She loved this work, more so for the music and less for the stage production. Analogous to the form of this kind of theatre, which is generally classical and traditional, Austria photographed these performances in a conventional manner. Whenever the opera was presented as a multimedia show or included other innovative elements, she depicted this creatively.
Performances at the Holland Festival were then, and still are aesthetic spectacles. The photos that Austria shot at this yearly festival bear a similar aesthetic character: well-balanced compositions, a perfect distribution of gradations in light, and an appropriate monumentality. During the month of the Holland Festival, Austria would run around day and night—together with whomever was her assistant at any given moment—shooting photos and subsequently delivering them to the newspapers in time for the next issue. Many photos were then sent on for publication abroad. The Netherlands Opera and the Holland Festival were what kept Austria afloat in her final years. The work she did for the latter event eventually received so much publicity that people began associating her name directly with the festival.
Starting in the 1950s, the shifts in Maria Austria’s photographic insights were influenced not only by changes in the theatrical arts, but were also a consequence of international developments in photography. From 1951 onward, the German photographer had begun propagating and expressing his ‘Subjective Photography’. The direction he and his followers urged was not based on any principle of style: anything was ‘permitted’, as long as it was inspired by a personal desire for form. Emphatically applied were new or revitalised technical and formal visual tools, e.g. solarisation, grey-tone reduction, strong rhythmicity, powerful linear play, and the representation of movement—whether suggestive or not. With the exception of solarisation, all of these visual means are also found in Austria’s photography.
Austria’s early interest in the work of Ed van der Elsken demonstrates that she valued his working method, the strong contrasts, the blackness, the close contact with his subject, and the depiction of movement. Inspired in this way, she utilised the effect of contrast in her photography, resulting in black-velvety prints.
The photos that Austria shot depicting the avant-garde groups performing at the Mickery Theater in the 1960s are entirely in accordance with the expressionistic photography of contemporary photographers such as Gerard Fieret and Ralph Prins. Like them, Austria made use of highly varied angles of view, applied dramatically alternating fields of sharpness and blur, and produced coarse-grained prints.
Austria always used a Rolleiflex well into the 1970s. It was for this reason that she had a small encasement built, in order to photograph while making as little noise as possible during the performances. She always travelled with her own lighting and a tripod in tow. Only in her final years did she switch to a 35mm camera and begins photographing with the camera in her hand. Austria possessed the experience and intuition to work without a photometer, even in difficult lighting situations. She did her own printing—perfectly and intuitively. The newspapers gladly published her photos. Austria’s apprentices acquired chiefly technical skills during the time they worked for her.
Austria printed almost always on glossy paper, resulting in a bright photograph. The sharpness found in her photos is optimal. She rarely made use of selective sharpness: from the front to the rear of the stage, everything could be seen clearly. Only with scenes ‘à deux’—still very common in theatrical photography of the 1950s—was the background photographed with reduced sharpness. Scenes were photographed with her own lighting. As a consequence, the mise-en-scene and areas of shadow diverged from what was seen during the actual performance. In her later work, Austria made use of available light and fast film.
Maria Austria brought change to the static character and the glamour atmosphere of theatrical photography in the Netherlands. Through her photography, she stayed aground of the latest developments in theatre, both in the Netherlands and abroad, for a period of thirty years. Through the specialisation she created, she gave theatrical photography its own face and status.
Diverse dagbladen als Het Handelsblad, NRC-Handelsblad, Het Parool, Trouw, De Volkskrant, de Waarheid en in regionale dagbladen.
Geïllustreerde bladen als Beatrijs, Concertgebouwnieuws, Elsevier, De Groene Amsterdammer, Haagse Post, Hervormd Nederland, De Katholieke Illustratie, Libelle, Margriet, Nieuwe Revu, Operajournaal, Panorama, Preludium, Princes, Romance, De Spiegel, De Tijd, Vrij Nederland, De Week in beeld.
Folders en programmaboekjes voor cabaretgroepen, theater- en balletgezelschappen en schouwburgen.
Kalenders voor circus en opera.
Theaterjaarboeken, balletjaarboeken en operajaarboeken.
Radio- en televisiebladen VPRO, AVRO Televizier, KRO.
Het Kermisblad, ca. 1940-’60.
Het Toneelschild, 1945-’57.
Het Toneel, 1957-’65.
Mickery Mouth, 1965-’72.
Toneel Teatraal, 1972-’75.
Jurriaan Schrofer e.a., Foto ’48. Tentoonstelling in het Stedelijk Museum te Amsterdam (Speciale editie van de Kroniek voor Kunst en Kuituur), Amsterdam (Contact) 1948.
Bruno Walter, Thema en Variaties. Autobiografie. Herinneringen en gedachten, Amsterdam/Antwerpen (Van Ditmar) 1948.
Catalogus tent. 9e Salon Albert 1er, Charleroi 1951.
Catalogus tent. Fotoschouw ’52, Den Haag (Gemeentemuseum) 1952.
Catalogus tent. Young European photographers, New York (Museum of Modern Art) 1953.
Eric van der Steen, Alkmaar, Amsterdam (De Bezige Bij) 1954.
Bert Schierbeek, Kijkprikkels (november/ december 1958) 231, p. 16, 27, 49.
Dag en Nacht, vijftig stadsfoto’s van ‘s ochtends tot ‘s avonds met gedichten van Lucebert, Forum 12, 1959-’60, Hilversum,
Baarn (Het Wereldvenster) 1960.
Willem O. Duys, Muzikanten van nabij,
Baarn (Het Wereldvenster) 1960.
Music in Holland, Amsterdam (Meulenhoff) 1960.
Bernard Gavoti, Szymon Goldberg (les grands interprètes), Portraits de Maria Austria, Genève 1961.
Han Hoekstra, Dag Amsterdam, Amsterdam (N.V. Het Parool) 1961, p.51, 55, 63, 71, 73, 98, 99, 106, 130.
Jubileumuitgave Toneelgroep Theater 1953-1962, Amsterdam (De Bezige Bij) 1962.
Haagsche Courant 13 september 1966.
Revue (3 sept. 1966) 37, omslag, p. 26-29.
Avenue (december 1968) 12, p. 90-95, 97.
Catalogus tent. Theater in blik. Een tentoonstelling van theaterfotografie, Amsterdam (Toneelmuseum) 1969.
Cultuur van de jaren zestig, uitgave van Onze Jaren, 1945-1970, (oktober 1973) 88, Berchem (Het Spectrum).
Opera kalender, (Nederlandse Opera Stichting) 1974.
Avenue (februari 1974) 2, p. 75.
Calico, Amsterdam (Stichting Eigentijdse Dans) 1974.
Monteverdiweken, Den Haag (Gemeentemuseum) januari 1974.
Alfred Hoffman, Repère muzicale, Bucuresti, 1974.
H. Peekel, 70 jaar Carré, Amsterdam, 1977.
Aktion Deutsch, Amsterdam (W. Versluys) 1978.
Kunstschrift Openbaar Kunstbezit 22 (1978).
Janny de Jong, Elly Ameling, Vocaal avontuur, Bussum (De Gooise Uitgeverij) 1978.
Tony van Verre, Ko van Dijk (uit de serie Tony van Verre ontmoet), Bussum (De Gooise Uitgeverij) 1978.
Keso Dekker, Balletboek Hans van Manen, Amsterdam 1979.
Verlinden, Elseviers Groot muziekboek, Amsterdam 1979.
H. Lodewick, Ik probeer mijn pen, Amsterdam 1979.
Rudi van Dantzig, Olga de Haas, Zutphen 1981.
Eva van Schaik, Op gespannen voet, geschiedenis van de Nederlandse theaterdans vanaf 1900, Amsterdam 1981.
Keso Dekker (samenstelling), Hans van Manen + modern ballet in Nederland, Amsterdam (Bert Bakker) 1981.
Wim lbo, En nu de moraal, geschiedenis van het Nederlandse Cabaret 1936-1981,
Alphen aan den Rijn (Sijthoff) 1982.
Schipholland 6 (18 december 1982) 16, p. 12.
Jan Plekker, Albert van Dalsum, man van het toneel, Zutphen (Walburgpers) 1983.
Jan Kassies, Op zoek naar cultuur, Nijmegen (Socialistische Uitg.) 1980.
Kijk, Annie M.G. Schmidt, de schrijfster in beeld, Amsterdam (Querido) 1984.
Wolfgang Wangler, Bauhaus am Beispiel der Lisbeth Oestreicher, Köln (Verlag der Zeitschrift Symbol) 1985.
Annemarie Oster, Verder is er niet zoveel, Amsterdam (Rap) 1985.
M. Baroni en R. Dalmante, Bruno Maderna Dokumenti, (edicioni Suvini Zerboni) 1985.
Jan Blokker, ‘Wij zullen dan maar hopen dat we er met een kleiner bedrag afkomen’. Het Holland Festival en de Hollandse samenleving, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1987.
Auteur onbekend, Werk van fotografen, in De Week in Beeld (16 oktober 1948) 29.
W. van Ophuijsen, Photography is a language … Foto ’48 heeft ons iets te vertellen, in Foto 3 (1948) 11, p. 326-333.
Catalogus tent. Photo + Scène. Tweede internationale tentoonstelling voor theaterfotografie, 1953.
Auteur onbekend, 2e Internationale theater-fototentoonstelling ter gelegenheid van het Holland Festival 1953, in Focus 38 (27 juni 1953) 13, p.279.
Auteur onbekend, Europese fotokunst in New Yorks museum, in Het Parool 1 augustus 1953.
Peter Hunter, The GKf. A federation of photographers in Amsterdam, in Photography oktober 1958, p. 25-30, 61.
Auteur onbekend, Foto-expositie in het Stedelijk Museum te Amsterdam, in Foto 14 (februari 1959) 2, p.67.
Auteur onbekend, Kritische speurtocht. Hengelo, in Foto 15 (augustus 1960) 8, P-39Ï-392-
Th. Ramaker, Vliegende estheten. Henk Jonker en Maria Austria aan de Rivièra, in Focus 45 (20 februari 1960) 4, p. 93-95 (met foto’s).
Auteur onbekend, Dertig fotografen zwermden uit over Amsterdam, in Het Parool 16 september 1960.
Auteur onbekend, Drie vrouwen met een kiekkast. Maria Austria was 20 “keien” te erg, in Brabants Dagblad 21 november 1961.
Auteur onbekend, Foto-kerstsalon in Arti, Het Parool 18 december 1961.
Auteur onbekend, De mens in de lens. Fototentoonstellingen in Amsterdam, in Trouw 21 december 1961.
I. Jungschleger, De consequente beeldinformatie van Maria Austria, in Mickery Mouth (december 1972) 23, p. 10-12.
Bas Roodnat, Fiolet zet experiment met fotogalerie voort, in NRC Handelsblad 22 april 1974.
Auteur onbekend, Maria Austria overleden, in NRC Handelsblad 10 januari 1975.
Hans Heg, Fotografe Maria Austria in Amsterdam overleden. Verlies voor kunstwereld, in De Volkskrant 11 januari 1975.
Auteur onbekend, In memoriam Maria Austria, in Trouw 13 januari 1975.
Nic Brink, Een zwerfster in theaters en concertzalen, in De Groene Amsterdammer 15 januari 1975.
Auteur onbekend, Fotografie als kunst, in De Telegraaf 16 januari 1975.
W. Boswinkel, Maria Austria, een ontembare fotografe, in NRC Handelsblad 17 januari 1975.
Auteur onbekend, Expositie van foto’s van Maria Austria, in NRC Handelsblad 5 februari 1975.
Auteur onbekend, Foto-expositie van Maria Austria in het v. Gogh-museum, in De Volkskrant 5 februari 1975.
Hans Heg, Maria Austria, in tff. Maandblad voor audiovisuele communicatie maart 1975, p. 16-17 (met foto’s).
W. Boswinkel, Expositie als eerbetoon aan Maria Austria, in NRC Handelsblad 4 juni 1975
Hans Vogel, ‘Een eigenzinnig mens’ bezeten van theater. Holland Festival foto’s van Maria Austria in Van Goghmuseum, in Het Parool 6 juni 1975.
Hans Heg, Maria Austria, in De Volkskrant 6juni 1975.
Auteur onbekend, Maria Austria, in Het Financieele Dagblad 13 juni 1975.
F. Densier, Bijvoorbeeld, in De Tijd 20 juni 1975.
Kees Nieuwenhuijzen (samenstelling), Maria Austria, Amsterdam (De Bezige Bij) 1976.
M. van Emde Boas, In memoriam Maria Austria, in De Journalist 1 februari 1976.
Bas Roodnat, Eer aan Maria Austria met indrukwekkend fotoboek, in NRC Handelsblad 26 oktober 1976.
Auteur onbekend, Maria Austria, in De Volkskrant 29 oktober 1976.
Willem Jan Otten, De ‘oja-ervaring’ en de toneelfoto. De foto’s van Maria Austria in een boek, in Vrij Nederland-boekenbijlage, 20 november 1976, p. 69.
Auteur onbekend, Maria Austria, in Foto 32 (januari 1977) I, p. 19.
Auteur onbekend, Theaterfoto’s van Maria Austria, in NRC Handelsblad 12 januari 1977.
Bert Sprenkeling, Twintig jaar kunst-foto’s. Werk van toneelfotografe Maria Austria in boek en Stedelijk Museum, in Het Parool 17 januari 1977.
Nic Brink, Foto’s uit de schemer van schouwburg en koncertzaal, in De Groene Amsterdammer 26 januari 1977.
Henk van den Anker, Theater-foto’s van Maria Austria, schouwburg-galerie Tilburg, in Nieuwsblad van het Zuiden 7 september 1977.
Auteur onbekend, Maria Austria’s theaterwerk, in Het Parool 9 november 1977.
Els Barents (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1940-1975, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978.
Flip Bool en Kees Broos (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1920-1940, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1979, p. 96, 140.
Bas Roodnat, Expositie van foto’s Maria Austria, in NRC Handelsblad 9 maart 1979.
Tineke de Ruiter, Eva Besnyö, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) 1984 e.v.
Louis Zweers, Dolf Kruger, in Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse fotografie, Alphen aan den Rijn (Samsom) 1984 e.v.
Auteur onbekend, Subsidie voor archief van fotonegatieven op komst, in NRC Handelsblad 1 juli 1984.
Gkf, van 1945-1975.
Nederlandse Vereniging van Fotojournalisten.
Federatie van beroepsverenigingen van kunstenaars.
Lid van de Commissie van bestuur van de Stichting Amsterdams Fonds voor de Kunst (samen met André Lamoth, Jo Bokma, Eva Besnyö, Onno Meeter).
Zilveren medaille Internationale triënnale
Theatre dans 1’art photographique, Novi
Sad, Joegoslavië, 1971.
1948 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Foto ’48.
1950 (g) Eindhoven, Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, Vakfotografie.
1952 (g) Den Haag, Gemeentemuseum, Fotoschouw ’52.
1952 (g) Luzern, Kunsthaus, Welt-Ausstellung der Photographie.
1953 (g) New York, Museum of Modern Art, Post-war European Photography.
1953 (g) Wiesbaden, Stedelijk Museum, Photo + Scene. Tweede Internationale Tentoonstelling voor Theater-Fotografie (rondreizende tentoonstelling).
1954 (g) Utrecht, Jaarbeurs, Voorjaarsbeurs.
1955 (g) World Press Photo.
1958 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, World Press Photo ’57.
1958 (g) Leiden, Prentenkabinet der Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, Foto’s Gkf.
1958 (e) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum.
1959 (g) Den Haag, Gemeentemuseum, World Press Photo ’59.
1959 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, (foto’s uit eigen collectie).
1960 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum.
1960 (g) Hengelo, Hengelose Kunstzaal, (77 foto’s uit de collectie van het Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam).
1961 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 23e Nationale Foto Tentoonstelling (Kerstsalon) (rondreizende tentoonstelling).
1961 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Dag Amsterdam.
1969 (g) Amsterdam, Toneelmuseum, Theater in blik.
1971 (g) Novi Sad, Joegoslavië, Internationale triënnale Theatre dans l’art photographique.
1973 (g) World Press Photo 1973.
1973 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Groepsfoto.
1974 (g) Amsterdam, Fotogalerie Fiolet, Maria Austria en Edouard Boubat.
1974 (g) World Press Photo.
1975 (e) Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, In memoriam Maria Austria, theaterfotografe.
1975 (g) Amsterdam, Nederlands Theater Instituut, Gijsbrecht-tentoonstelling.
1977 (e) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Maria Austria.
1977 (e) Amstelveen, Cultureel Centrum, Maria Austria.
1977 (e) Tilburg, Schouwburg-galerie, Theater-foto’s van Maria Austria.
1977 (e) Hilversum, De Vaart, Maria Austria.
1977 (e) Arnhem, Gemeentemuseum, Maria Austria.
1978 (e) Eindhoven, Philips Ontspannings Centrum, Foto’s uit de collectie Maria Austria.
1979 (e) Alkmaar, De Vest, Theaterfoto’s van Maria Austria.
1986 (g) Amsterdam, Nederlands Instituut voor de dans, Dansfotografie 1947-1975.
1986 (g) Amsterdam, Nieuwe Kerk, Dans te Kijk.
1986 (g) Haarlem, De Vishal (Frans Halsmuseum), Het Spaarnestad Fotoarchief
Amsterdam, Maria Austria Instituut.
Amsterdam, Nederlands Theater Instituut.
Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.
Amsterdam, Maria Austria Instituut
Amsterdam, Nederlands Theater Instituut.
Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum.
Haarlem, Stichting Nederlands Foto- & Grafisch Centrum (Spaarnestad Fotoarchief)
Leiden, Prentenkabinet van de Rijksuniversiteit.