PhotoLexicon, Volume 3, nr. 5 (September 1986) (en)

Steef Zoetmulder

Hripsimé Visser


Steef Zoetmulder has always worked with two forms of photography at the same time: publicity photography and autonomous photography. In terms of technique, Zoetmulder belongs to the first generation of Dutch photographers who put the tenets of New Photography into practice. Zoetmulder’s visual idiom, however, can best be described as subjective versus objective. His entire oeuvre reveals a preference for decorative images that tend towards abstraction. In terms of content and form, Zoetmulder’s work is based on concepts encountered in movements such as Otto Steinert’s Subjective Photography from the 1950s.




Stephanus Johannes Theodorus (Steef) Zoetmulder is born on 10 September in Schiedam.


For his fifteenth birthday, Zoetmulder receives a folding camera and a darkroom installation. Photography is a hobby he practices fanatically.


Zoetmulder completes his HBS (Hogere Burgerschool, an upper-level secondary school curriculum) and becomes a member of the AFVR (Rotterdamse Amateurfotografenvereniging, ‘Rotterdam Amateur Photographers Association’). He becomes familiar with the principles of New Photography through the association’s discussion gatherings. Zoetmulder provides lessons in photographic technique to his fellow members.


After having followed an administrative course at the Schoevers Institute, Zoetmulder decides to take classes in public relations at the RABK (Rotterdamse Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten en Technische Wetenschappen, ‘Rotterdam Academy of Fine Arts and Technical Sciences’). Jan Kamman and Gerrit Kiljan are among Zoetmulder’s teachers.

Zoetmulder completes the three-year programme in two years. For administrative reasons, however, he receives his diploma one year later.


In December, Zoetmulder opens his first studio as a publicity photographer on the Rotterdamse Dijk in Schiedam. In addition, he devotes his full attention to his autonomous work. He receives numerous awards and prizes at amateur photography competitions.


Zoetmulder’s studio fails to draw in a sufficient number of clients for him to stay in business. He shuts down the studio, and in September, he begins working at International Publicity Service, an advertising agency in The Hague.


Zoetmulder decides to take the risk of working independently versus the strict routine of a regular job and establishes himself once again as a publicity photographer. He sets up a studio on the Schiedamseweg in Rotterdam—the photo and advertising agency STEZO—and receives commissions from companies and private individuals. On 31 March 1943, a bombardment destroys his studio, along with most of his photographic archive.


Zoetmulder opens his third studio on the Avenue Concordia in Rotterdam. During the final years of the war, he works primarily as a portrait photographer.


Following the liberation, Zoetmulder shifts his focus once again to advertising photography. With the post-war reconstruction, advertising commissions increase in number.

In 1947, Zoetmulder marries Milly Hagtingius.

Due to his growing success, Zoetmulder is able to establish a new studio on the Voorschoterlaan in Rotterdam in 1951.


In 1951, Zoetmulder becomes a principal member of the NFK (Nederlandse Fotografen Kunstkring, ‘Netherlands Photographers Art Society’). He remains an active member until the assocation is ‘absorbed’ by the BFN (Beroeps Fotografen Nederland, ‘Professional Photographers Netherlands’). He submits his work to numerous exhibitions and competitions, both on an individual basis and collectively as a member of the NFK.


From this time forward, Zoetmulder’s private address is Voorschoterlaan 108, which is also the location of his studio. His most significant corporate clients are: the Voormolen contracting company in Rotterdam, the construction firm Volker Bouwmij in Rotterdam, various architecture firms, the furniture manufacturer Ouwenbroek in Vlaardingen, the advertising firms Nijgh en Van Ditmar, Bas en Van Haastrecht en Hoogstraten, the concrete firms Betonindustrie De Hoop in Terneuzen and Kemperbeton in IJsselmonde, the company Lenderink in Schiedam, the Nederlandse Dagbladunie (‘Netherlands Newspaper Union’), and the publisher Gebr. Spanjersberg in Rotterdam.


After taking the Agfacolor course in ‘negative/positive’ photography, Zoetmulder works both in colour and black and white, according to his clients’ wishes.


Zoetmulder counsels four students from the St. Joost Academy in Breda during a half-year internship in his studio.


As an external examiner appointed by the state (‘rijksgecommitteerde’), Zoetmulder sits in on the final photography exams at the St. Joost Academy in Breda.


Zoetmulder takes several classes in painting and drawing, as well at the Vrije Academie (‘Free Academy’) in Rotterdam. This hobby becomes increasingly important to him. Both his photographic and painted works are shown at exhibitions.


Zoetmulder works on a retrospective of the best work from his photographic oeuvre. Advertising commissions continue to play a diminished role when compared with his autonomous work, which, from 1983 on, consists primarily of light graphics composed with light and glass. In his own studio, Zoetmulder organises changing exhibitions of his own work, which are open to the public.


Steef Zoetmulder dies on 4 September in Rotterdam, where he was living at this time.


In 1926, at the age of fifteen, Steef Zoetmulder took his first steps as an amateur photographer on the path that would determine his future: photography. In spite of his professional career, Zoetmulder has essentially always remained an amateur: a lover of the creative capabilities of the photographic medium, with his attention primarily focusing on forms and structures. Zoetmulder’s professional photography and autonomous photography are so closely related that his commissioned work has been shown at exhibitions, with his autonomous photos incorporated in his advertising work on more than one occasion.

Zoetmulder learned about photographic technique on his own. He nevertheless cherished a desire to acquire a professional basis on which to further evolve as a photographer. For this reason, he decided to take up a study in the ‘publicity’ department at the RABK (Rotterdamse Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten en Technische Wetenschappen, ‘Rotterdam Academy of Fine Arts and Technical Sciences’). The experimental, New Objectivist approach of Zoetmulder’s instructors Jan Kamman and Gerrit Kiljan appealed to him and ultimately had a decisive influence on his further development. Prior to this time, Zoetmulder had already been working in the spirit of new approaches to photography on his own: his choice of subject matter, camera angle, the expression of surface texture, and use of materials affirm this. Zoetmulder’s 1934 photo of onions, for instance, was very much admired by his instructors for its modern, objectivist character.

With his considerable technical experience and his focused interest in the field of publicity, Zoetmulder was able to complete the three-year study programme within two years. He also graduated as a designer, but was involved in this kind of work only once or twice later on in his career.

Excluding a short break of several months as an employee with an advertising agency in The Hague, Zoetmulder has always been an independent publicity photographer. The start-up of his first studio proved to be less favourable than expected, leading to his perception that it was better to have a job with a regular salary. As this experience failed to meet his expectations, however, Zoetmulder once again returned to working on his own—this time with better results. In the years just prior to the war, he managed to build a decent-sized circle of clientele. Among his first clients were the printing company Drukkerij Roelants in Schiedam, the Tweka company in Geldrop, and various distilleries in Schiedam. After the war, the booming economy led to his receiving a growing number of commissions in the areas of commerce and industry. Zoetmulder produced photographs for brochures, magazine covers, commemorative anniversary publications, album covers, and calendars for all kinds of companies. In letters from the directors of these firms as well as private individuals, still held Zoetmulder’s possession, indicate that he was greatly appreciated for the innovative and professional manner in which he carried out the commissions he received.

In addition to his professional activities, Zoetmulder has always taken and still finds the time to work on his autonomous projects. At the locations he visited for his commissioned work, he occasionally shot photos for his own personal use: whether the intriguing play of light, a striking composition or an unusual form, he could not let such phenomena go ‘unseen’. While nature sometimes provided him with motifs, Zoetmulder’s studio was the perfect environment for his creative work to take form. It was there that he experimented in his free time with still life compositions and—on occasion—with portrait studies.

In Zoetmulder’s oeuvre one finds a wide range of topics, both in his advertising and his autonomous work. He has a definite preference for form: angular, round, hard and soft forms, set apart in detail or in combination with each other. Architecture and still lifes with vases and glasswork are ideally suited for this kind of photography and are therefore amply represented in Zoetmulder’s oeuvre. People play a noticeably subordinate role. Even in Zoetmulder’s portraits, the form seems to be the actual subject rather than the person portrayed. In his most recent work, this attention to form is still prominent. In the last few years, Zoetmulder has been working on light graphics composed with light and glass. These are almost entirely abstract works, which, in their lyrical idiom of form, are reminiscent of experimental abstract art produced in the 1950s derived from music, an area that was likewise a source of inspiration for Pim van Os.

Virtually all of Zoetmulder’s pre-war archive was lost during the bombardment of 31 March 1943. As a result, drawing an adequate picture of his production during this period is no longer possible. Zoetmulder’s post-war work reveals a fairly consistent character.

Various principles of New Photography continue to play a role: a sharp, clear printing technique with a precise expression of surface texture, the worm’s-eye view, and the diagonal line. The application of these stylistic devices, however, is far less objectivist than as intended in the 1930s. Zoetmulder has taken the visual clarity that New Photography tried to achieve through such means and substituted it with complex, decorative images. He combined the effects of linear rhythm, the fall of light, suggestive perspective, and the associative possibilities of subjects and materials explicitly. Zoetmulder’s self-portrait of 1947 is an example of a complex composition, constructed with an abundance of diagonals, mirror images, solarisation, and shifting perspective.

Zoetmulder’s persistent predilection for photomontage is also noteworthy, even during periods when it was completely out of style. In his view, the constructed image resulting from photomontage offers a wide range of variations and combinations that can be applied creatively. Zoetmulder’s autonomous work is predominantly black and white. The non-autonomous work he did in the 1960s and ’70s consists primarily of colour shots, as do his light graphics.

In the area of technique, Zoetmulder is a master in his field. In his work, he has consistently taken advantage of the wide range of options made available through (technical) cameras, negative formats, and lenses.

Through articles and lectures, Zoetmulder has communicated his insights and ideas concerning photography on numerous occasions. In his correspondence with the editorial board of the magazine Cosmorama in November 1936, he presented his views with regards to an issue of the magazine 8 en Opbouw devoted solely to photography, written by Nico de Haas. Zoetmulder stated concisely why he believed its content was relevant, specifically, because of the notion that photography ‘(is) a completely separate and independent area with a design approach all of its own stemming from the possibilities that optics and chemistry provide us.’ He expressly rejected any association with painting, retouching, and fine printing (‘edeldruk’) processes. When it came to the photographer’s choice of subject matter, Zoetmulder’s stance was less extreme than that of De Haas. He expressed the opinion that even the photographer whose sole aim is not to capture a realistic representation of life is just as capable of achieving ‘purely photographic’ results. In an interview with Daan Helfferich in 1950, Zoetmulder made a distinction between photography as the documentation of ‘what is already present, what lies ready before us’—i.e. where the photographer’s only creative decision involves choosing the moment and the camera angle—and ‘purely creative photography’. This latter form, in which the subject to be photographed has to be compiled or ‘composed’—hereby referring not just to the still life, but also the portrait—has his preference as a ‘higher’ form of photography. A similar tiered evaluation of creativity in photography can also be found in Professor Otto Steinert’s written introduction for the exhibition Subjektive Fotografie (‘Subjective Photography’) in 1954­–’55. The same view was likewise shared by many other members of the NFK (Nederlandse Fotografen Kunstkring, ‘Netherlands Photographers Art Society’). This like-mindedness manifested itself in the NFK’s participation—which included Steef Zoetmulder—in the first Subjektive Fotografie-tentoonstelling (‘Subjective Photography Exhibition’) held at Saarbrücken, Germany, in 1951.

Zoetmulder proved his proficiency in creating effective publicity photography, in which he managed to combine his respect for his client’s wishes with an imaginative and professional realisation of the commission. He consistently worked to build an oeuvre that bears the traits of a frequent use of associative, symbolic motifs and a decorative, sometimes complex, form composed down to the finest detail.

Zoetmulder was a staunch adherent and a praiseworthy representative of a photographic movement aiming to promote the artistic appreciation of photography since the end of the nineteenth century by propagating the photographer’s power of imagination as a creativity higher than the representation of reality, whether socially engaged or not. It is interesting to note that the subjective working approach to which Zoetmulder consistently adhered is now again enjoying popularity among a number of contemporary photographers, thus explaining the current resurgence of interest in Steef Zoetmulder’s photography.


Primary bibliography

Fotomontage I, in Kleinbeeldfoto 3 (april 1939) 1, p. 23-25 (met foto’s).

Fotomontage II, in Kleinbeeldfoto 3 (mei 1939) 2, p. 45-47 (met foto’s).

Typisch Kleinbeeld, in Kleinbeeldfoto 4 (sept. 1940) 6, p. 195-197 (met foto’s).

Fotografie als zelfstandige uitingsvorm, in Focus 24 (mei 1937) 11, p. 294-296.

‘Rollei’ bespiedt de kleuters, in Focus 28 (mei 1941) 11, p. 260, 261 (met foto’s).

Fotomontage, in Focus 35 (dec. 1950) 26, p. 553-555 (met foto’s).

Fotomontage I, in Foto 2 (1947) 2, p. 30-32 (met foto’s).

Fotomontage II, in Foto 2 (1947) 4, p. 66-69 (met foto’s).

Kunstzinnige fotografie, in Focus 33 (maart 1948) 6/7, p. 96.

Gedachten over Fotomontage, in Bedrijfsfotografie 24 (dec. 1948) 3, p. 41, 42.

De verhouding tussen kunst en techniek in de fotografie, in Bedrijfsfotografie 24 (jan. 1949) 4, p. 73, 74.

De verhouding tussen kunst en techniek in de fotografie, in Focus 34 (febr. 1949) 4, p. 73, 74 (met foto).

Wanneer is een foto goed, in Focus 34 (mei 1949) 10, p. 224, 225.

Kwaliteit = service = prijs, in Vakfotografie (1966) 4 p. 2.

Photographic abstractions, in Reflexions 4 (mei/juni 1985) 20, p. 8 (met foto).


images in:

Focus 17 (1930) 24, p. 644.

Lux-de Camera 44 (1933) 1, p. 10.

Lux-de Camera 44 (1933) 3, p. 39.

Focus 20 (1933) 8, p. 244.

Focus 20 (1933) 14, p. 414.

Lux-de Camera 44 (1933) 17, p. 226.

Focus 20 (1933) 22, p. 648.

Photograms of the Year 1933, plaat XXXIV.

Photograms of the Year 1934-’35, plaat XLVI.

Bedrijfsfotografie 16 (9 febr. 1934) 3, p. 47.

Focus 21 (1934) 5, p. 121.

Focus 21 (1934) 7, p. 193.

Focus 21 (1934) 8, p. 225.

Focus 21 (1934) 9, p. 241.

Focus 21 (1934) 14, p. 377.

Focus 21 (1934) 19, p. 532.

Focus 21 (1934) 25, p. 703.

Bedrijfsfotografie 16 (28 dec. 1934) 26, p. 471, 473.

Focus 22 (1935) 6, p. 165.

Focus 22 (1935) 12, p. 354.

Focus 22 (1935) 22, p. 629.

Cosmorama 2 (1936) 1, p. 3.

Focus 23 (1936) 16, p. 469.

Cosmorama 2 (1936) 12, p. 155.

Bedrijfsfotografie 18 (7 febr. 1936) 3, p. 50.

Bedrijfsfotografie 19 (29 okt. 1937) 22, p. 409.

Het Veerwerk 5 (juli 1938) 7, p. 135.

Kleinbeeldfoto 4 (sept. 1940) 6, p. 175.

Kleinbeeldfoto 4 (okt. 1940) 7, p. 203.

Kleinbeeldfoto 4 (dec. 1940) 9, p. 26.

Focus 27 (1940) 19, p. 538.

Focus 27 (1940) 21, p. 585.

Bedrijfsfotografie 22 (6 sept. 1940) 18, p. 314.

A. Boer, Foto’s met inhoud, Bloemendaal (N.V. Focus) 1940, p. 41, 93.

Bedrijfsfotografie 23 (21 febr. 1941) 4, p. 56.

Bedrijfsfotografie 23 (7 maart 1941) 5, p. 74.

Bedrijfsfotografie 23 (21 maart 1941) 6, p. 88.

Focus 28 (1941) 6, p. 138.

Kleinbeeldfoto 4 (maart 1941) 12, p. 359 en omslag.

Kleinbeeldfoto 5 (april 1941) 1, p. 12, 19.

Focus 28 (1941) 10, p. 246.

Kleinbeeldfoto 5 (aug. 1941) 5, p. 134.

Het Fotografengilde 3 (september 1941) 9, p. 138.

Dr.Ir. J.A.M, van Liempt, Kunstlicht in de fotografie, Amsterdam (Meulenhoff & Co N.V.) 1942.

Focus 29 (1942) 2, p. 56.

Het Uurwerk 1 (febr. 1942) 4, omslag.

Kleinbeeldfoto 5 (maart 1942) 12, p. 330, 331.

Kleinbeeldfoto 6 (april 1942) 1, p. 16.

Het Uurwerk 1 (juni 1942) n , omslag.

Focus 29 (1942) 12, p. 227.

Kleinbeeldfoto 6 (sept. 1942) 6, p. 156.

Kleinbeeldfoto 6 (okt. 1942) 7, p. 182.

Nederlands Jaarboek voor Fotokunst 1942-’43, plaat XLV.

Kleinbeeldfoto 6 (maart 1943) 12, p. 313.

Vakfotografie 5 (april 1943) 2, omslag.

Advertentie Glasindustrie Pieterman, 1943.

J.G. Beernink, Compositieleer voor amateur- en vakfotografen, Bloemendaal (N.V.Focus) 1944, p. 136.

Juist nu reclame, spec. uitgave van de club van 40, Kerstmis 1945.

Nederlands Jaarboek voor Fotokunst 1944-’46, plaat XII.

J.G. Beernink, Compositieleer in de fotografie, Den Haag (Amalux N.V.), 1946, afb. 32, 114.

Focus 31 (1946) 6, p. 88.

Focus 31 (1946) 11, p. 157.

Focus 31 (1946) 13/14, p. 198.

John N. Gielis, Table Top Fotografie, Hengelo (H.L. Smit) 1947.

Minicam Photography 10 (febr. 1947) 5, p. 26, 28, 29, 33.

Foto 2 (1947) 3, p. 44.

Focus 32 (1947) 14, p. 217.

Focus 32 (1947) 16/17, p. 253, 260.

Nederlands Jaarboek voor Fotokunst 1947, plaat VI.

Nederlands Jaarboek voor Fotokunst 1948, p. 108.

Aug. Grégoire, Honderd Jaar Fotografie, Bloemendaal (N.V. Focus) 1948.

Foto 3 (1948) 8, p. 237.

Foto 3 (1948) 9, p. 270.

Foto 3 (1948) 10, p. 297.

Focus 33 (1948) 26, p. 508.

Bedrijfsfotografie 24 (dec. 1948) 3, p. 51-54.

Algemeen Handelsblad, 31 december 1948, oudejaarsbijvoegsel.

Bedrijfsfotografie 24 (jan. 1949) 4, p. 75-78.

Kalender Lemm & Co Suikerwerken Rotterdam 1949.

Focus 34 (1949) 4, p. 81-83.

Fotodienst 5 (juli/aug. 1949) 13, p. 9.

De Linie, 28 oktober 1949.

Focus 34 (1949) 11, p. 240.

Foto 4 (1949) 12, p. 421.

De Schiedamse Gemeenschap 2 (maart 1950) 1, omslag.

De Schiedamse Gemeenschap 2 (april 1950) 2, omslag.

Foto 5 (1950) 4, p. 126.

Foto 5 (1950) 11, p. 377, 379, 382.

Affiche Internationale Tentoonstelling Vakfotografie 1950, Eindhoven, Van Abbemuseum, 1950.

Focus 35 (1950) 26, p. 555.

Kalender Esso 1951.

Focus 37 (1952) 7, p. 139.

Focus 37 (1952) 16, p. 335, 337, 338.

Reclamewerk Dalco, Nederlandsche Fotografische Industrie, 1952.

De Schiedamse Gemeenschap 4 (maart 1952), Van Riebeecknummer, omslag.

Kalender Slavenburg en Huijser 1953.

Foto 8 (1953) 1, p. 50.

Edelmetaal, vakblad gewijd aan de belangen van de Edelmetaal en Handel, (december 1953) 12, omslag.

Focus 39 (1954) 9, omslag.

Hyfoama, verkoopboek banketbakkersprodukt Lenderink & Co 1955 (fotomontages).

De Maasbode, 13 oktober 1956, advertentie Veilig Verkeer.

Gedenkboek bij het honderdjarig bestaan van het r.k. parochiaal armenbestuur van Rotterdam, 1857-9, mei 1957.

Foto 14 (1959) 1, p. 12.

Kalenders Kemper Beton Rotterdam 1959, 1961, 1962.

De Mobil Koerier 7 (mei 1960) 3.

Anne H. Mulder, Gouda, stad van kaas, stroop en cultuur, Gouda (N.V. Drukkerij v.h. Koch & Knuttel) 1960.

Folder Strijk en Zet, uitgave Pieter Schoen Verf chemie, Zaandam, 2 (februari 1961) 3.

Individuele Reclame 2 (dec. 1962) 7, omslag.

Nieuwjaarskaart Drukkerij de Unie 1963.

Museumjournaal 9 (aug. 1963) 2, p. 58.

Individuele Reclame 2 (jan. 1963) 8, omslag.

Kalender Mobil 1963.

Kalender Schmid Shipstores 1964.

Folder Bekaert Draadprodukten 1965.

Folder Van Rijmenam Relatiegeschenken, 1965/66.

Vakfotografie (1966) 4, p. 3-18.

Folder Kan & Co 1966/67.

Zilverstad, Schoonhoven 1973.

Catalogus Schipperswerk, Maritiem Museum Prins Hendrik Rotterdam 1975, omslag.

Bouw 30 (1975) nrs. 11, 20, 21, 24, 25, 51, 52 (omslagen).

Bouw 31 (1976) nrs. 6, 10, 12, 24, 37, 42, 47 (omslagen).

Maatschappijbelangen, uitgave Ned. Mij voor Nijverheid en Handel, december 1976, 12, omslag.

Gedenkboek St. Lambertus, 100 jaar kerk, 1977 (foto’s en lay-out).

Bouw 32 (1977) nrs. 1, 21 (omslagen).

Folders Sarah Kay-artikelen, 1977, 1978.

Folder gebroeders Spanjersberg b.v. Rotterdam, 1977.

Bouw 33 (1978) nrs. 1, 3, 7 (omslagen).

Bouw 34 (1979) nrs. 3, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14 (omslagen).

Bouw 35 (1980) nrs. 3, 24 (omslagen).

Diverse reclamefolders, o.a.: Kampeerkaart, z.j.; Algemeen Dagblad, z.j.; Van Nelle Koffie, z.j.; Kemper Beton Rotterdam, z.j.; Maasland meubelen, z.j.; Niehuis & v.d. Berg’s Scheepsreparatiebedrijf N.V., z.j.; Personeelsadvertenties Van Nelle Rotterdam, z.j.; A. Jungerhans Serviesgoed, z.j.; Aanmeldingsformulier Centrale Discotheek Rotterdam, z.j.; American West Coast Import and Export Company Rotterdam-California, z.j.; Mobil Smeeroliën en Vetten, z.j.; Personeelsinformatie P.T.T., z.j.; Rijam kantoorartikelen, z.j.; Niehuis & v.d. Berg’s Scheepsreparatiebedrijf N.V. Rotterdam, z.j.; Tuborg Bitter Lemon, z.j.; Debating Club Rotterdam, z.j. Diverse platenhoezen Philips, z.j.

Secondary bibliography

C. de Jong, Fotografie als zelfstandige uitingsvorm (verslag voordracht Steef Zoetmulder), in Cosmorama 3 (april 1937) 4, p.64.

Dick Boer, De Bondstentoonstelling „Nieuwe Richtingen in de Fotografie”, in Focus 20 (1933) 22, p. 654.

Auteur onbekend, Bij de platen, in Focus 21 (1934) 8, p. 212.

A.B., De Jubileumtentoonstelling der Zwolsche A.F.V., in Focus 21 (1934) 19, p. 522.

Auteur onbekend, Uit de B.F. Donkere Kamer, Bij de platen, in Bedrijfsfotografie 16 (9 febr. I934) 3, p. 39.

Auteur onbekend, Uit de B.F. Donkere Kamer, De stillevens in dit nummer, in Bedrijsfotografie 16 (28 dec. 1934) 26, p. 467.

Auteur onbekend, Steef Zoetmulder, in La Revue Moderne Illustrée des Arts et de la Vie, oktober 1934; december 1935.

Auteur onbekend, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, in Focus 22 (1935) 6, p. 164.

Auteur onbekend, Salon International de la Photographie, Paris, in Les Artistes d’Aujourd’hui, nr. 11 (nov. 1935).

Auteur onbekend, Uit de B.F. Donkere Kamer, Bij de platen in dit nummer, in Bedrijfsfotografie 18 (7 febr. 1936) 3, p. 53.

Auteur onbekend, Uit de B.F. Donkere Kamer, Bij de platen in dit nummer, in Bedrijfsfotografie 19 (2g okt. 1937) 22, p. 401.

Auteur onbekend, Uitstekende Reclame, in Bedrijfsfotografie 20 (8 febr. 1938) 4, p. 64.

Auteur onbekend, In de Delftsche Poort, Fotokunst van Steef Zoetmulder, in Rotterdamsch Nieuwsblad 21 februari 1938.

Auteur onbekend, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, in Focus 27 (1940) 19, p. 530.

Auteur onbekend, Beknopte analyse der platen in dit nummer, in Focus 27 (1940) 21, p. 582.

Auteur onbekend, Uit de B.F. Donkere Kamer, Bij de platen in dit nummer, in Bedrijfsfotografie 22 (6 sept. 1940) 18, p. 307.

Auteur Onbekend, Uit de B.F. Donkere Kamer, Bij de platen in dit nummer, in

Bedrijfsfotografie 23 (21 febr. 1941) 4, p. 50.

Auteur onbekend, Uit de B.F. Donkere Kamer, Bij de platen in dit nummer, in Bedrijfsfotografie 23 (7 maart 1941) 5, p. 66.

Auteur onbekend, Uit de B.F. Donkere Kamer, Bij de platen in dit nummer, in Bedrijfsfotografie 23 (21 maart 1941) 6, p. 81.

Auteur onbekend, Bij de Foto’s, in Kleinbeeldfoto 5 (april 1941) I, p. 21.

Auteur onbekend, De foto als wandversiering, een tentoonstelling van Steef Zoetmulder, in de Schiedamsche Courant 12 april 1941.

Auteur onbekend, Bij de Foto’s, in Kleinbeeldfoto 5 (maart 1942) 12, p. 333.

Auteur onbekend, Bij de Foto’s, in Kleinbeeldfoto 6 (april 1942) 1, p. 17.

Auteur onbekend. Bij de Foto’s, in Kleinbeeldfoto 6 (sept. 1942) 6, p. 157.

Auteur onbekend, Bij de Foto’s, in Kleinbeeldfoto 6 (okt. 1942) 7, p. 185.

Auteur onbekend, Opening tentoonstelling ‘Schiedam voor de lens’, in Schiedamsche Courant 15 maart 1943.

Auteur onbekend, 37th London Salon of Photography, in Amateur Photographer 2 oktober 1946.

Daan Helfferich, Het werk en de opvatting van Steef Zoetmulder N.F.K., in Foto 5 (1950) 11, p. 376-383 (met foto’s).

Auteur onbekend, Steef Zoetmulder, Fotomontage (verslag voordracht Steef Zoetmulder), in Focus 36 (1951) 3, p. 68.

Auteur onbekend, Zomerse foto’s in hartje winter, in Rotterdamsch Parool 21 januari 1961.

Martien Coppens, Steef Zoetmulder, in Vakfotografie nr. 4 (1966) p. 1.

Els Barents (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1940-1975, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1978 (supplement).

Flip Bool en Kees Broos (red.), Fotografie in Nederland 1920-1940, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1979.

Auteur onbekend, Van fotografie naar schilderen, in Rotterdams Nieuwsblad 5 januari 1983.

Auteur onbekend, Steef Zoetmulder, ‘Een kar vol nonnen toeval?’, in De Ster van Kralingen 2 (jan. 1986) 4, p. 4-5.

Hripsimé Visser, Steef Zoetmulder, in Catalogus Foto ’86 Amsterdam, Den Haag (Staatsuitgeverij) 1986, p. 74 (met foto’s).

Arnoud van Soest, Foto ’86 overspoelt Amsterdam met foto’s, in Amsterdams Stadsblad 21/22 mei 1986.


AFVR, 1930 tot 1970.

BFN, 1938 tot heden.

NFK, 1950 tot 1970.


1934 Eerste prijs Wedstrijd Vrij Ontwerp, AFVR.

1934 Tweede prijs Wedstrijd Winter, AFVR.

1940 Erediploma Meesterklasse, Prijsvraag Vrije Onderwerpen Fotoblad Focus, Bloemendaal.

1941 Zilveren plaquette (Tweede prijs) Prijsvraag Fotoblad Focus, Bloemendaal.

1945 Zilveren medaille (Eerste prijs) vakklasse, Wedstrijd Vrije Onderwerpen AFVR.

1945 Zilveren plaquette (Eerste prijs) vakklasse, Wedstrijd Portretwerk AFVR.

1946 Vergulde Daguerre-plaquette (Eerste prijs) Fotoblad Foto.

1947 Diploma klasse vakfotografen, 7e Nationale Bondssalon t.g.v. het Zilveren Bondsjubilé, 1922-’47 van de AAFV.

1947 Diploma, ge Amsterdamse Kerstsalon van de AAFV.

1947 Vergulde plaquette, Zilveren plaquette (Eerste prijs) vakklasse, Prijsvraag Vrije Onderwerpen Fotoblad Focus, Bloemendaal (jan. en juni).

1947 Zilveren plaquette, 7de Nationale Bondssalon, AAFV.

1947 Vergulde medaille, 7de Nationale Bondssalon, BNAFV.

1948 Diploma Jubileumwedstrijd ‘Amsterdam’, AAFV.

1948 Zilveren Daguerre-plaquette (Eerste prijs) klasse vakfotografen, wedstrijd ‘Oranjefeest’ Fotoblad Foto.

1948 Vergulde medaille (Eerste prijs) klasse vakfotografen, Kerstwedstrijd der AFVR.

1948 Zilveren plaquette (Eerste prijs) vakklasse, prijsvraag Stillevens bij Kunstlicht Fotoblad Focus, Bloemendaal.

1948 Vergulde Kon. Wilhelmina medaille (Tweede prijs) vakklasse, Jubileumwedstrijd Fotoblad Focus, Bloemendaal.

1948 Derde prijs wedstrijd Vrije Onderwerpen Fotoblad Foto.

1948 Kristallen Bokaal (Eerste prijs) vakklasse, fotowestrijd ‘Licht en Kristal Leerdam.

1949 Vergulde plaquette (Eerste prijs) klasse vakfotografen, Kersttentoonstelling der AFVR.

1949 Tweede prijs klasse vakfotografen, westrijd Vrije Onderwerpen Fotoblad Foto.

1949 Diploma 11e Internationale Kerstsalon AAFV.

1950 Derde prijs vakklasse Kerstwedstrijd AFVR.

1951 Diploma Photowettbewerb der Camera

1950, Luzern.

1953 Diploma 15e Internationale Kerstsalon der AAFV.

1956 Zilveren Daguerre-plaquette (Tweede prijs) Tentoonstelling ‘Franse Week’, Groningen.

1960 Certificaat t.g.v. foto-expositie ‘Zie Gods Schepping’, Floriade Rotterdam.

1961 Vergulde plaquette, 20ste Focussalon, Amsterdam.

1962 Vergulde plaquette, Master Competition, Stockholm.

1967 Tweede prijs Advertentiewedstrijd Revue der Reclame.

1978 Oorkonde Nationale Fototentoonstelling BNAFV.


1932 (g) Amsterdam, RAI, Klank en Beeld.

1932 (g) Rotterdam, Kersttentoonstelling AFVR.

1932 (s) Londen, London Salon of Photography.

1933 (g) Amsterdam, Gebouw I.O.O.F., Aan den Arbeid (AAFV).

1933 (g) Amsterdam, Gebouw I.O.O.F., Nieuwe Wegen in de Fotografie (BNAFV).

1933 (g) Leicester, Tenth Midland Salon of Photography.

1933 (g) Londen, London Salon of Photography.

1934 (g) Rotterdam, Kersttentoonstelling van de AFVR.

1934 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 1e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1934 (g) Brussel, Salon International d’Art Photographique.

1934 (g) Zwolle, Jubileumtentoonstelling der AFVZ.

1934 (g) Londen, London Salon of Photography.

1935 (g) Antwerpen, Brussel, Gent, Luik, Verviers, reizende tentoonstelling.

1935 (g) Parijs, joéme Salon International d’Art Photographique.

1935 (g) Pretoria, Johannesburg, The Fourth South African Salon of International Photography.

1935 (g) Londen, London salon of Photography.

1936 (g) New York, The Photographers Association of America.

1936 (g) Londen, London Salon of Photography.

1936 (g) Rotterdam, Kerstsalon der AFVR.

1936 (g) Durban, City Art Gallery.

1936 (g) Rotterdam, Studio 32.

1936 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 3e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1936 (g) Düsseldorf, Film und Foto.

1937 (g) Amsterdam, Gouden Fotoschouw (NAFV).

1938 (e) Rotterdam, Delftsche Poort.

1939 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae/Den Haag, Gemeentemuseum, Kleinbeeld ’39.

1939 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 5e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1940 (g) Rotterdam, Kerstsalon der AFVR.

1940 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 6e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1941 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, Kleinbeeld ’41.

1941 (g) Rotterdam, Tentoonstelling AFVR.

1942 (g) Rotterdam, Tentoonstelling AFVR.

1943 (e) Schiedam, Stedelijk Museum, Schiedam voor de lens.

1945 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 8e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1945 (g) Rotterdam, Tentoonstelling AFVR.

1946 (g) Londen, London Salon of Photography.

1947 (s) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 9e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1948 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 10e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1949 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 11e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1949 (g) Hilversum, Hof van Holland, 25 jaar H.A.T.C.

1950 (g) Eindhoven, Van Abbe Museum, Het nieuwe gezicht in de fotografie.

1951 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 13e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1951 (g) Saarbrücken, Schule für Kunst und Handwerk, Subjektive Fotografie 1.

1951 (g) Den Haag, Pulchristudio, NFK.

1952 (g) Den Haag, Gemeentemuseum, Fotoschouw ’52.

1952 (g) Amsterdam, Film en Foto (voor Dalco).

1952 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 14e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1953 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 15e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1954 (g) Goslar, Bildausstellung Europaischer Berufsphotographen.

1954 (g) Utrecht, Jaarbeurs.

1955 (g) Rotterdam, E 55.

1956 (g) Leiden, Prentenkabinet, NFK.

1956 (g) Den Haag, Pulchri-Studio, NFK.

1956 (g) Groningen, Kunsthistorisch Instituut, Nederland ziet Frankrijk.

1956 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 18e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1957 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 19e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1958 (g) Haarlem, Vishal, Benelux Fotosalon.

1959 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 21e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1960 (g) Glasgow, Royal Photographk Society.

1960 (g) Londen, Royal Photographk Society.

1960 (g) Amsterdam, Arti et Amicitiae, 22e Nationale Kerstsalon.

1961 (g) Haarlem, 20e Internationale Focussalon.

1962 (g) Stockholm, Mastercompetition.

1964 (g) Hilversum, Tentoonstelling HAFV.

1969 (g) Eindhoven, Fotomundi.

1972 (g) Eindhoven, Fotomundi.

1975 (g) Eindhoven, Fotomundi.

1978 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Fotografie in Nederland 1940-’75.

1979 (g) Den Haag, Gemeentemuseum, Foto 20-40.

1982 (e) Rotterdam, Galerie 108.

1984 (e) Rotterdam, filialen Gemeentebibliotheek.

1985 (g) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery, Photographic A bstractions.

1985 (e) Rotterdam, Galerie 108, Recente Foto-abstracties.

1986 (g) Amsterdam, Nieuwe Kerk, Foto ’86.


Steef Zoetmulder, documentatie en mondelinge informatie.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.


Leiden, Prentenkabinet van de Rijksuniversiteit.

Rotterdam, Nederlands Fotomuseum.