PhotoLexicon, Volume 3, nr. 4 (March 1986) (en)

Paul de Nooijer

Elisabeth Schreuder

Hripsimé Visser


Paul de Nooijer is a photographer and a filmmaker. His photo and film oeuvre possesses a highly personal, easily recognisable style. Having started out as an advertising photographer, De Nooijer has now completely found himself in the ‘visual arts sector’ of photography. His work possesses traces of Surrealism, but is primarily based on the investigation of the boundaries and conventions of observation. In recent years, De Nooijer’s photography has literally taken on a monumental form: he produces extremely large photo walls for public buildings, such as schools and hospitals. On these photo walls, he acts as an illusionist, playing with time, space and the experience of reality.



Paul de Nooijer is born on 15 July in Eindhoven.


After secondary school, De Nooijer studies to be an industrial designer at the Academie voor Industriële Vormgeving (‘Academy of Industrial Design’) in Eindhoven.


Encouraged by Frans Zwartjes, his teacher in Experimental Design, De Nooijer becomes interested in photography.


De Nooijer marries Françoise Neeteson, his most preferable and most involved colleague from this time onward. In this year, he complete his study at the academy. He works as a warehouseman and a window designer up to the time he is called to serve in the military.


De Nooijer’s son, Menno, is born. Following military service, De Nooijer finds employment as a photographer in the advertising department of De Gruyter, a company specialised in foodstuffs. Here he gains technical and practical experience in photographing ‘pack shots’, as well as in producing corporate and photo reportages during interviews and company anniversaries.


In December, De Nooijer quits his job at De Gruyter. He decides to continue further as a freelancer. In collaboration with his brother and a Japanese designer (among others), De Nooijer does commissioned advertising work for clients such as Ploeg-Weverijen (‘Ploeg Weavers’), Avenue, Mensen van Nu, etc. Shortly after his decision to go independent, he receives an incentive award from the city of Eindhoven for his autonomous work.


Together with Frans Zwartjes, De Nooijer makes his first 16mm film, entitled ‘Moving Stills’.


At his home on the Tramstraat in Eindhoven, De Nooijer organises his first exhibition. The critic Willem Coumans devotes attention to De Nooijer’s work in the magazine Foto, but this does not lead to any significant degree of notoriety.


De Nooijer wins the ‘Grand Prix internationale de la recherche photographique’ (‘International Grand Prize in Photographic Research’) in Royan, France. Outside the Netherlands, there is great interest in De Nooijer’s photomontages. Lorenzo Merlo eventually tracks De Nooijer down, resulting in an exhibition in the Canon Photo Gallery in Amsterdam. De Nooijer’s work now also becomes known in the Netherlands. During this period, he decides to limit himself solely to ‘creative’ advertising commissions, with the aim of devoting more time to his autonomous work.


To tide him over financially, De Nooijer receives a stipend from the Ministry of CRM (Cultuur, Recreatie en Maatschappelijk Werk, ‘Culture, Recreation, and Social Work’): a subsidy for a maximum of three years.


De Nooijer becomes an instructor of ‘Audiovisuele vorming’ (‘Audiovisual Formation’) at the Academie voor Beeldende Vorming (‘Academy of Visual Formation’) in Tilburg. He publishes a photobook on his own, entitled Losing One’s Head.


For the De Mere Roman Catholic MAVO (Middelbaar Algemeen Voortgezet Onderwijs, Intermediate Level General Secondary School’) in Boxmeer, De Nooijer produces a large photo wall entitled TRAP (‘Stairwell’). For the hall of the TH Delft (Technische Hoogeschool, ‘University of Technology’), he realises a monumental ‘arcadian’ landscape project, entitled Temple d’Amour.


De Nooijer releases a second publication on his own, Losing One’s Photos. Its content communicates De Nooijer’s now highly critical attitude towards magazine editors, gallery owners, and museum directors.


Home sweet home, De Nooijer’s third photobook, is self-published.


For a Reformed Protestant comprehensive school in Rotterdam Alexanderpolder, De Nooijer makes a large photo wall with the theme of travelling through art history: When on a journey. De Nooijer also realises the project Eglise St. Stavin at the AMC (Academic Medical Center) in Amsterdam, featuring a non-photographic design with temple columns.


The De Nooijer family moves to Middelburg. In addition to photographic work, De Nooijer makes two videos for the Dutch pop group Golden Earring.


Having worked almost exclusively with film for one year, De Nooijer undertakes several large photo projects: one for the Prins Bernhard MAVO in Nieuwegein and one for a new hospital in Almelo.


A confrontation with Paul de Nooijer’s photographs and films leaves few observers indifferent. One is either drawn or repelled. Depending on the effect his work has on critics, it is usually described in terms of a full range of adjectives: humoristic, moralistic, disorienting, threatening, etc. Attempts to relate his work to other (photographic) art forms has led to its categorisation under Surrealism, Magic Realism or Fantasy Photography (successively). De Nooijer’s manipulation of scale and perspective, his inversion of interior and exterior spaces, and the inclusion of associations and double entendres in his photos, are all connected to some degree with the Surrealistic dream world. Notwithstanding, the situating of his work in this context alone would do injustice to his work. De Nooijer’s photos and films are not just representations of a spiritual dream world, but also serve as a highly substantive investigation of the conventional boundaries of ‘direct’ and ‘photographic’ observation. As such, De Nooijer is comparable to those artists and photographers who had begun to apply the manipulative potential of photography in the 1960s and ’70s. By distorting the ‘logic’ of observation, they gave rise to various forms of alienation.

Despite clearly identifiable similarities, De Nooijer is at the same time an individualist who takes paths that others do not. As a perfect illusionist, he intertwines optical ‘reality’ with optical ‘deception’: he plucks real roses from the wallpaper; lets the surf flow into the living room as if it was normal; and floats through the kitchen on his back. In addition, he regularly links the situations he creates to connotations of middle-class morality and generally accepted norms, consequently sparking a complex discussion with ‘reality’. The photos Electriclawnmowingiron, Tarzan and Jane at Home, and Here You Are Five serve as striking examples.

The direction in which De Nooijer has evolved has in part been influenced by Frans Zwartjes, an instructor at the art academy in Eindhoven and a highly stimulating and creative personality. Zwartjes encouraged De Nooijer to experiment with photography and was also the person with whom he later made his first film. De Nooijer’s training as an industrial designer and his interest in photography logically led him in the direction of advertising photography. He shot photos for the advertising industry up until the 1970s—initially as a salaried employee, but shortly thereafter as a freelance photographer.

Working on a freelance basis, a number of De Nooijer’s clients afforded him the liberty to develop his own personal style and to experiment in his work. Especially with the weaving company Ploeg-weverijen, the magazine Avenue, and the youth magazine Jippo, De Nooijer enjoyed substantial freedom to do as he pleased. As a result, the character of his applied photography scarcely differs from that of his other work: both categories are clearly recognisable as ‘De Nooijer photography’. Publishers make avid use of the suggestive, eye-catching photos he produces for book and album covers.

Most characteristic in De Nooijer’s photography is the exceptional style found throughout his oeuvre. An important element in this style is his graphic approach to printing, using a coarse grain and a wide variation in grey tints. In De Nooijer’s colourised black-and-white photos, this graphic effect is heightened by the transparent, disorienting use of colour. But even when this graphic trait is absent when applying a certain technique, as in his colour polaroids, De Nooijer’s ‘signature’ is always perceivable. This is because—in addition to this characteristic printing technique—the recognisability of his work is also partially determined by the design as well as the presence of extraordinary objects. One typical design aspect in De Nooijer’s work is the framing of a photo in such a manner that absurd crops arise. This absurdity is frequently accentuated even more by the use of a wide-angle lens. Objects frequently appearing in these photos, e.g. classical columns, flowered wallpaper, or the whited-out faces of the same recurring figures, are also an important part of his personal, surrealistic style.

Up until about 1976, De Nooijer was making primarily photomontages. While these montages sometimes deceptively appear as single shots, a closer examination only creates more confusion: the separate shots, combined into one image, have been taken with diverse lenses, causing curious distortions in the perspective. Starting in 1976, De Nooijer changed his working process. His photomontages were substituted with direct shots of staged interactions, occurring in decors specifically built for that purpose. The location of these interactions is usually inside the photographer’s home. To build up a scene, the house is altered substantially: spaces are hung with new wallpaper, with furniture disappearing or appearing. De Nooijer himself, his wife and son, and other family members and friends pose as the ‘actors’. Through the theatrical, illusory character of the depiction, the pattern of expectations that one typically has when it comes to such ‘living room’ scenes are ridiculed in a humoristic way. One frequently published example is the photo Tarzan and Jane at Home. The scene depicted is a ‘middle class’ living room, with a man and a woman dressed in animal hides. In De Nooijer’s ‘living room’ photography, the female nude also has a shining role. Because what could be more contradictory to middle-class values than the eroticism of a nude. The (half-) naked woman is photographed in such a manner that a clear relationship arises with the observer, in whom a feeling of embarrassment is potentially induced. De Nooijer himself can sometimes be seen in an unexpected corner, looking out with an expression of rebuke, as if catching the observer in the act of voyeurism. Throughout his oeuvre, eroticism and middle-class values are important topics.

In 1975, De Nooijer used polaroid photography in his work for the first time. Although he initially troubled by the material’s unpredictable quality, in the end the technique’s unusual properties eventually won him over. He took particular advantage of its most characteristic aspect—’ready-made photography’—by using a photo just taken and placing it in the shot that followed. The series Transformation by Holding a Polaroid in Front of the Mouth, made in 1976, is a well-known example. The magic of the repetitive image, the so-called ‘Droste Effect’, plays a role in this and various other series. In the diptych Losing One’s Head, an illusion is created of there being only one image, which itself is divided in the middle by the frame. When one mentally extends the lines of the image across the frame, then it becomes clear just how much of an illusion the illusion really is. Toying with the suggestion of the passing of time is indeed the most important aspect of De Nooijer’s polaroid series: acts that appear to be occurring continually, depicted in images that follow each other in successive order.

At times when he requires more space than just a single image or a series of images for the realisation of an idea, De Nooijer turns to filmmaking. Since 1972, he has made twenty-four short 16mm films, most of them in colour. These films fall under the category of ‘experimental film’, a genre in which various Dutch artists have become involved, including Frans Zwartjes and Johan van der Keuken. The VPRO broadcasting company has televised several of De Nooijer’s films. In terns of theme, technique, and design, his films are direct extensions of his photographic oeuvre. With ‘time’ as an added dimension, however, he creates an even greater effect of disorientation: ‘time’ is perceived not just as a continuing process, but on occasion seems more like a compilation of photographic stills. In these films, there is no narrative structure. Vice versa, the representation of time, suggested through the depiction of movement (jumping into the air), is frequently encountered in De Nooijer’s photos: the visual elements found in both media inspire a fruitful and experimental exchange! His style of filming is exceptionally suited to making video clips: short, associative films without a running narrative, intended as a decor for the presentation of pop music on television. At this point, De Nooijer has made two music video clips for the pop band Golden Earring.

In recent years, De Nooijer has discovered a unique hybrid of film and photography in the realisation of photographic visual narratives. He fills spaces with monumental ‘photo walls’, having the impressive dimensions of three meters high by twenty meters long. In this manner, De Nooijer gives form—both spatially and content-wise—to his illusionistic toying with reality. These photo walls are usually commissioned within the framework of the Dutch ‘eenprocentsregeling’ (‘one-percent ordinance’) for the arts. In each case, the walls form a unified visual narrative, such as for example with his assignment for the Reformed Protestant comprehensive school in Rotterdam: an art historical journey through the history of mankind. The journey begins with a black photo and ends with a white photo. The periods depicted (the Stone Age, the Egyptians, Gothic, Renaissance, etc., ending with the modern age) are bridged by several ‘leaps’ in time. Travel photos are combined with staged photos in order to relativize the idea of experiencing reality. Movement is suggested by cropping successive photos: an effect reminiscent of film, but one that remains within the visual idiom of photography. The passing of time is merely inferred, and this creates a tension with the moment actually photographed.

For his most recent commission on behalf of a hospital in Almelo, De Nooijer enters a new area: the manipulation of space. Just as an artist during the Baroque era, he distorts the way in which the actual space is experienced by introducing a visual deception using perspective. The photographic images are found not only on the walls, but are also placed in the space itself, e.g. on columns. By creating new perspectives with photographic shots in different formats located in the space, he allows an optical illusion—an anamorphosis—to occur.

Paul de Nooijer has undeniably produced pioneering work with his photography. He started out taking photos in the 1960s, the generation of Pop Art, Op-Art, Fluxus, and performance art. But it is also the generation that grew up with comic books, the Beatles, Dutch underground magazines such as Aloha, Hitweek, etc., as well as an acute awareness of the power of advertising and mass media. Together with a small group of people working in art and photography, De Nooijer has given an important boost to the appreciation for the photographic medium as an independent art form in the Netherlands. The personal and stimulating direction that De Nooijer has chosen with his work is a colourful component of the history of Dutch photography.


Primary bibliography

Losing one’s head, Eindhoven 1978 (eigen uitgave).

Losing one’s photos, Eindhoven 1981 (eigen uitgave).

Home sweet home, Eindhoven 1982 (eigen uitgave).


images in:

Hitweek 1966, diverse bijdragen.

Bijdragen aan De Andere Krant (Eindhoven), Vrij Nederland e.a.

Plug (infoblad CJP, Noord-Holland) mei 1976, omslag.

Avenue juli 1974, p. 63; oktober 1974, p. 132; mei 1975, p. 84; september 1975, p. 134; oktober 1975; september 1976, p. 180; november 1976, p. 14; februari 1977, p. 26-33; mei 1977, p. 110; november 1977, p. 72-79; maart 1979, p. 74-77; juli 1979, p. 94-99; augustus 1979, p. 6; oktober 1979, p. 52-57, 61; januari 1982, p. 22-27; februari 1982, p. 80; november 1982, p. 86.

Mensen van nu 1974, nr. 7 (oktober), p. 25; nr. 8 (november), p. 50; 1975, nr. 1 (april) p. 20-21; nr. 3 (juni), p. 25; nr. 4 (juli), p. 52-53; nr. 5 (augustus), p. 44-45; nr. 6 (september), p. 11, 13, 15-16; nr. 7 (oktober), p. 46-47; nr. 8 (november), p. 24; nr.9 (december) p. 14-15; nr. 10 (januari), p. 40- 41, 43; nr. 11 (februari), omslag, p. 10-11; 1976, nr. 1 (januari), p. 12-13; nr. 3 (maart), p. 48-49; nr. 4 (april), p. 45.

Platenhoes lp groep Danger, ca. 1973.

Platenhoes Heimwee naar Holland, lp van cabaretgroep Neerlands Hoop (tevens programma en vouwblad voorstelling), 1977/78.

Platenhoes War pilot, lp van de Bintangs, ca. 1977/78.

Jippo, weekblad voor de jeugd, jrg. 1977, diverse omslagen.

Verslag Jeugd en Gezin, Eindhoven 1974.

Folder Giko 75-76 (Gemeentelijk Instituut voor Kreativiteitsontwikkeling), Helmond 1975 (omslag).

Jaarverslagen van het Prins Bernhardfonds 1979, omslag, p. 12-13, 30-31; NVPI (Ned.Ver.van Producenten en Importeurs van beeld- en geluidsdragers, Hilversum) 1982, 1983, 1984.

Catalogus tent. 5-Jaarlijkse, Eindhoven (Van Abbemuseum) 1973, p. 16.

Catalogus tent. Raamwerk (50 jaar weverijde ploeg nv), Amsterdam (Stedelijk Museum) 1973.

Fotografia Italiana februari 1974.

Auteur onbekend, Sogno-realta andata e ritorno Paul de Nooijer, in Il Diaframma nr. 192, mei 1974, p. 39-41.

Foto 29 (1974), nr. 2, p. 46-48.

Catalogus tent. VI Biênnale internationale de l’affiche, Warschau 1974.

Catalogue du première Triënnale Internationale de la photographie, Fribourg (Suisse), juin-octobre 1975.

Flash, Foto-Cine-Imagen 1975, nr. 7, p. 39-45.

Catalogus tent. Deuxième Salon International dArt Photographique, Marignane 1976.

Zoom nr. 38, juni 1976, p. 72-77.

Catalogus tent. Fantastic Photography in Europe, Arles 1976/ Haarlem 1977.

Eikonos, Revista de la Imageny el sonido 1976, nr. 13 (november), p. 15, 22.

Nikon News 1977, nr. 1, p. 28.

Auteur onbekend, Fotografia fantastica en el mundo,in Nueva Lente 1978, nr. 75, p. 12.

Catalogus tent. Tusen och en bild, Stockholm (Moderna Fotografiska Museet) 1978, p. 43.

Catalogus tent. Art 1978, Basel (Internationale Kunstmesse) 1978.

Hugo Schöttle, Fotokunst und Fotodesign International, Keulen (Dumont) 1978, p. 102.

Catalogus Foto ’78, Amsterdam (Nederlandse Kunststichting) 1978.

Nikon News 1979, nr. 2, p. 37-39.

Catalogus tent. Vijf jaar Canon Gallery Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1979.

Ingeborg Th. Leijerzapf, 5 jaar Canon Photo Gallery, in Foto 1979, nr. 4 (april), p. 34, 54, 55.

Museumjournaal 1979, nr. 4, p. 154.

Zero 1979, nr. 5 (november), omslag.

Catalogus tent. Beelden van de eigen werkelijkheid, Apeldoorn (Van Reekummuseum) 1979.

Auteur onbekend, SX-70 Art Lustrum press, 1979, p. 33.

A. Colombo e.a., La Photographie Fantastique, Parijs (Contrejour) 1979.

Kunstschrift 23 (1979), nr, 1, p. 30-31.

Photo-Journal 1980, nr. 4 (februari), p. 82.

Catalogus tent. Instantanés, Parijs (Centre Georges Pompidou) 1980.

Lorenzo Merlo, New Dutch Photography, Amsterdam/Antwerpen (Kosmos) 1980, p. 78-83.

Fritz Gruber, catalogus tent. Glanzlichter der Photographie, 70 Jahre Photokina Bildschauen, Keulen 1980, p. 148.

Steve Austen (samenstelling), Marge-theater in Nederland, Utrecht/Antwerpen (Het Spectrum) 1980 (omslag).

Denis Roche, catalogus tent. Autoportraits Photographiques 1898-198i, Parijs (Centre Georges Pompidou) 1981, p. 71.

Catalogus tent. Het Portret, Amsterdam (Canon Photo Gallery) 1980.

Foto 36 (1981) nr. 4, omslag.

Cement 1981, nr. 12, p. 791-794.

Lorenzo Merlo en Claude Nori, catalogus tent. Contemporary European Photography, Japan 1981.

Catalogus tent. IV Quinzaine de la photographie, Cholet, 1981 (maart).

Fritz Gruber, Das Imaginaire Photomuseum, Keulen (Dumont) 1981, p. 172.

Roland Kiefer, Nikon Fotoschule, Schaffhausen (Verlag Photographie) 1981.

Photovision 1981 (juli/augustus), p. 55.

Photoreporter 1981, nr. 27 (januari), p. 63-65.

Catalogus tent. Marion Herbst, Apeldoorn (Van Reekummuseum) 1982.

Selections, Cambridge Massachussets (Verlag Photographie, Schaffhausen and Polaroid Corporation) 1982.

Catalogus tent. Grupa Junij 82, Ljubljana (Art Pavillion Rihard Jakopic) 1982.

De Tijd 1982 (oktober), p. 49-54.

Camera Austria, Zeitschrift für Fotografie 1982, nr. 7, p. 34-44.

Theo Arts e.a., Zienderogen Kunst, deel 3, Den Bosch (Malmberg) 1983, p. 146, 147.

Diverse auteurs, New Nude, From Naked to Nude 1922-1983, 1983, p. 84-86.

Fotografia Creativa 1983, nr. 31, p. 68-71.

Aktiviteiten Stichting Kunst en Bedrijf, Amsterdam 1983, p. 16.

Avantgarde 1983, nr. 8, p. 61.

4os Encontras de Fotografia de Coimbra, 1983 (z.p.).

Perspeküef 1984, nr. 16, p. 5.

Catalogus tent. Zien en Gezien worden, Fotografische zelfbespiegeling in Nederland, Nijmegen (Commanderie van Sint Jan) 1983-’84, p. 72-73.

Stern 1984, nr. 43 (oktober), p. 236.

Cekoslovenska Fotografie 1984, nr. 10, p. 460.

Catalogus tent. Images Fabriquées, Parijs (Centre Georges Pompidou) 1984, p. 19.

Foto in Vorm, jaarboek Grafisch Nederland 1984, p. 86.

Catalogus tent. 33thd Melbourne Internatiol Film Festival, 1984, p. 50.

Vrij Nederland 1985, bijvoegsel 23 (15 juni), p. 4.

B.K.-informatie 1985, nr. 2, p. 12, 13 (uitgave NKS).

Amersfoortse Courant 23 maart 1985.

Farm 1985 (herfstnummer), p. 082, 083, 087, 091.

Catalogus tent. Dutch Textile Design, past present and future, Royal College of Art Galleries, z.j., z.p.

Secondary bibliography

W.K. Coumans, Zo standvastig als een tafel, in Foto 28 (1973) 9, p. 26-29.

Catalogus tent. 4 Dutch photographers, Wenen (Galerie Die Brücke) 1974.

Jean-Claude Gautrand, Royan: le festival 1974, in Photo-Revue juni 1974, p. 296-299.

Jean Mathiaut, Royan, grand prix de la recherche Paul de Nooijer, in France Photographie december 1974, p. 17-24.

Catalogus tent. Onzième festival international d’art contemporain de Royan, Royan maart 1974, p. 38-41.

Jean Gohelle, Paul de Nooijer, in Le nouveau photocinéma nr. 29, november 1974, p. 41-45, 81.

Walter de Bruijn, Paul de Nooijer: foto’s als „beeldverhalen”, in Dagblad van Noord Limburg 23 november 1974.

Jean Gohelle, titel onbekend, in Le Nouveau Photocinéma nr. 32, februari 1975, p. 32-38.

Auteur onbekend, Paul de Nooijer, Alchemist der Traume, Nikon News 1975, nr. 3, p. 24-25.

Osward Ruppen, Zwischen Traum und Wirklichkeit, in Schweizerische Photorundschau 40 (1975) nr. 19, p. 5-13.

M. Calixte, Paul de Nooijer il mondo come irrealta’ e rappresentazione, in Nuova Fotografia januari 1975, p. 18-23.

Jean Gohelle, Paul de Nooijer alchimiste du rêve, Le nouveau photocinéma nr. 32, febr. 1976, p. 32-38, 68.

Jean-Claude Gautrand, Las imagenes-imaginadas de Paul de Nooijer, in Nueva Lente nr. 38, april 1975, p. 24-40.

Claude Nori, Realismo fantastico in Olanda, in Progresso Fotografico 1975 (november), p. 2.

E. Barents, catalogus tent. Foto-sequenties, Amsterdam (Stedelijk Museum) 1976, p. 22.

Jean-Claude Gautrand, Arles 76, le Festival des Rencontres, in Le Nouveau Photocinéma nr. 49, september 1976, p. 21-24.

A. Guspi, Primera muestra internacional de Fotografia, in Foto-Arte ’75 1976.

Catalogus tent. 7e Rencontres internationales de la photographie, Arles (Palais des Congres) 1976 p. 54-56.

Reg ten Zijthoff, We maken alleen wat we echt belangrijk vinden, in Eindhovens Dagblad 16 december 1977.

Rom Boonstra, Het familieleven als opwindend avontuur, in Elseviers Magazine 17 december 1977, p. 102-103.

Helmut Wechsel, Films van Paul de Nooijer, in Krabbedanskrant 1977, nr. 11 (december).

Bas Roodnat, Paul de Nooijers eigen waarheid, in NRC-Handelsblad 29 december 1977.

Lambert Tegenbosch, Paul de Nooijer fotograaf, in Brabantia 26 (1977) nr. 1 (jan.), p. 26-30.

Petr Tausk, Die Geschichte der Fotografie im 20 Jahrhundert, Keulen (Du Mont) 1977, p. 123-124 (+ vertalingen in Engels, Frans en Zweeds).

Bertus Schmidt, Kostelijke foto’s in ‘Je hoofd verliezen’, in Het Vrije Volk 12 januari 1978.

Filip Tas, Fotograaf de Nooijer tussen retro en veto, in De Standaard 13 oktober 1978.

Jean-Pierre Vorlet, Paul de Nooijer, in Schweizerische Photorundschau 1978 (9 mei), p. 12-19.

Marco Misani, Paul de Nooijer between concept and intuition, in Print Letter 1978 (september-oktober), p. 8-9.

Aloys Ginjaar, Paul de Nooijer portfolio en interview, in Foto 33 (1978) nr. 9, p. 53-64.

Auteur onbekend, Die Sache mit den heimlichen Akt-aufnahmen,in Photo nr. 70, augustus 1978, p. 36-41.

Carola Raymann, Ein traumender Hollander, in Professional Camera 1978, nr. 8/9 (augustus/september), p. 20-24.

W.K. Coumans, Paul de Nooijer verliest zijn hoofd nooit, in Foto 1978, nr. 4 (april), p. 51.

Frits Oppenoorth, Paul de Nooijer, Over de rand van de trap kijken en plotseling omvallen van verbazing, in Avenue 1979, nr. 3 (maart), p. 74-77.

Bas Roodnat, Expositie Schiedam: Fotografie als middel en als doel, in NRC-Handelsblad 21 juni 1979.

Rommert Boonstra, Fotografie en erotiek in Nederland, in Zero 1979, nr. 4 (oktober), p. 95.

Catalogus tent. Aspecten hedendaagse fotografie, Schiedam (Stedelijk Museum) 1979.

Reg ten Zijthoff, De pioniersrol van de foto in de beeldende kunst, in Eindhovens Dagblad 3 februari 1979.

Auteur onbekend, Perdiendo la cabeza con Paul de Nooijer, in FOCO Argentina 1979.

Robert Haas, Paul de Nooijer, in You and your camera 1981, nr. 76 (oktober), p. 2098-2101.

Bas Roodnat, De Nooijer fotografeert architectuur absurdistisch, in NRC Handelsblad 12 februari 1981.

Frommé, Losing one’s photos, in Het Parool 18 december 1981.

Auteur onbekend, 21 Photographes contemporains en Europe, ed. Contrejour, 1982.

Harald Strobl, Grazer Symposium: Praktiker haben das Wort, in Print Letter januari februari 1982, p. 12-14.

Wijnand van Waardenburg, De werkelijkheid maar dan anders, in M-Magazine 1982, nr. 1, p. 22-23.

Auteur onbekend, ‘t Zijn maar foto’s, in Adformatie januari 1982.

Filip Tas, Prints, in De Standaard 30 maart 1982.

Uwe Möntmann, Bilderklau, in Zoom 1982 (mei).

Bert Wunderink, „Home Sweet Home”: nieuw fotoboek Paul de Nooijer, in Eindhovens Dagblad 23 oktober 1982.

Matt Dings, De vervreemding van Paul de Nooijer, in De Tijd 8 oktober 1982, p. 49- 54.

Martien Kerkhof, Losing one’s photos, in Perspektief 1982 nr. 10, p. 46.

Paul Keet, De kunst stapt van zijn eilandje voor een estafette, in Het Parool 2 oktober 1982.

Andreas Müller-Pohle (red.), Fotografie in Europa heute, Keulen (Dumont) 1982, p. 70-71.

Bas Roodnat, Surrealistische foto’s van Paul de Nooijer, in NRC Handelsblad 23 oktober 1982.

Pauline Terreehorst, Bezweringsrituelen van een fotograaf, de mateloze nieuwsgierigheid van Paul de Nooijer, in De Volkskrant 29 oktober 1982.

Bert Wunderink, Fascinerend fotoboek van Paul de Nooijer, in Brabants Dagblad 1 november 1982.

Frans Kotterer, Een bedachte wereld van zweven en springen, exposities en nieuw boek van fotograaf De Nooijer, in Het Parool 3 november 1982.

Eric van der Schalie, Paul de Nooijer, in Perspektief 1982, nr. 12, p. 20-29.

Jan Zitman, Misleidend realisme van Paul de Nooijer, in Twents Daglad Tubantia 5 november 1982.

Kees Kuil, Home Sweet Home, in Perspektief 1983, nr. 13, p. 47.

Henk Egbers, Fotografie is leugen, Paul de Nooijer in De Beyerd, in De Stem 9 maart 1983.

Ruurd van der Noord, Percentageregelingen en Fotografie, in Perspektief 1983, nr. 16, p. 3-7.

Filip Tas, Paul de Nooijers bizar foto-teater, in De Stem 30 maart 1983.

Auteur onbekend, ‘t Vernieuwde, andere Pepertje, in Het Volk 15 februari 1983.

Johan de Vos, Fotografie Patisserie, in De Morgen 16 februari 1983.

Sacha, Portret van een top-fotograaf, in JET 22 maart 1983.

Johan Swinnen e.a., Paul de Nooijer, in ‘t Pepertje 3 (februari/maart 1983), p. 2-12.

Frans Kotterer, Kuise hand moest fotokunstwerk redden, in Parool 3 augustus 1983.

Peter IJsseldijk, Paul de Nooijer, fotograaf en kunstenaar, in Arts en Auto nr. 11, 26 mei 1984.

Rob Huibers, Inkomens van vrije fotografen, in Foto 1984, nr. 10 (oktober), p. 38-41.

Pauline Terreehorst, Fotografie tussen leraarsbaantje en reklameschnabbels, in Nieuws Federatie van Kunstenaarsverenigingen Amsterdam 1983, nr. 10, p. 6-8.

Pauline Terreehorst, Buigende Fotograaf, in de Volkskrant 20 januari 1984.

Johan Swinnen, Paul de Nooijer, krisis der zekerheden, in De Nieuwe 9 februari 1984.

Ann Bouwma, Paul de Nooijer, in Oor 14 (1984) 24 (1 december), p. 52-55.

Phil van Tongeren, Het interieur is het theater, in VPRO-gids 1984, nr. 41 (13-19 oktober), p. 11-13.

W.K. Coumans, 31 x Fotografisch in Maastricht, in Foto 1984, nr. 6 (juni), p. 68, 69.

Gerard Chel, Dingen ontstaan gaandeweg, in Amersfoortse Courant/Veluws Dagblad 23 maart 1985.

Ella Reitsma, Collectie, een museum in een ziekenhuis, in Vrij Nederland 15 juni 1985, p. 14.

Hendrik Driessen e.a. (samenst.), Het experiment in de Nederlandse film, Amsterdam (Stedelijk Museum) 1985 ( 705).

Cees de Boer, Kijk, het is niet wat het lijkt, in de Architect 17 (januari 1986), p. 22-25.


1968 (g) Eindhoven, De Krabbedans.

1973 (g) Eindhoven, Van Abbemuseum.

1973 (e) Eindhoven, Tramstraat.

1973 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Raamwerk.

1974 (g) Royan, 11e Festival International d’art contemporain.

1974 (g) Wenen, Die Brücke, 4 Dutch Photographers.

1974 (g) Milaan, II Diaframma.

1974 (g) Antwerpen, Internationaal Cultureel Centrum, 4 Nederlandse fotografen.

1974 (g) Warschau, Biennale International del’affiche.

1974 (g) Eindhoven, TH, Op-th-iek.

1974 (e) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery.

1974 (e) Milaan, II Diaframma.

1974 (e) Venlo, Galerie Art Center 1890.

1975 (g) Chalon-sur-Saóne, Maison de la culture, Photography as art, art as photography.

1975 (g) Chalon-sur-Saêne, Europhot.

1975 (g) Londen, The Photographers Gallery, Six Dutch surrealist photographers.

1975 (g) Parijs, FNAC Etoile, Le groupe surréaliste Hollandais.

1975 (g) Fribourg, Museum of art and history.

1975 (e) Varese, Galerie Broletto.

1975 (e) Gent, Galerie 5,6.

1975 (e) Barcelona, Galerie Spectrum.

1975 (e) Melbourne, The Photographers Gallery.

1975 (e) Helmond, ‘t Meyhuis.

1976 (g) Arles, Festival Rencontre Internationale de la photographie d’Arles, Fantastic photography in Europe.

1976 (g) Milaan, Museo Municipale ‘la Rotonda’, Fantastic photography in Europe.

1976 (g) Chalon-sur-Saóne, Maison de la culture, L’Aspect de la recherche photographique.

1976 (g) Marignane, 2e Salon international d’art photographique.

1976 (g) Kassel, Photography as art – Art as photography.

1976 (g) Eindhoven, Van Abbemuseum, Brabant Biennale.

1976 (g) Kortrijk, Kultureel Centrum, Brabant Biennale.

1976 (g) Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, Sequences.

1976 (e) Mechelen, Galerie 2,8.

1976 (e) Tilburg, Cultureel centrum.

1977-’79 (g) Rondreizend, Op de foto.

1977 (g) Chalon-sur-Saóne, Maison Européen de la photographie, Fantastic photography in Europe.

1977 (g) Haarlem, Frans Hals Museum, Fantastic photography in Europe.

1977 (g) Madrid, Museo Espanol de Arte Contemporaneo, Fantastic photography in Europe.

1977 (g) Stockholm, Fotografiska Museet, Fantastisk fotografi 1 Europa.

1977 (g) Wintelre, Galerie Lambert Tegenbosch.

1977 (g) Amsterdam, ABN Galerie.

1977 (g) Barcelona, Museo Fundacio Miro, Fantastic Photography in Europe.

1977 (e) Amsterdam, Galerie Fiolet, Home Sweet Home.

1977 (e) Eindhoven, Van Abbemuseum.

1977-’78 (g) Rondreizend, Foto Morgana.

1978 (g) Brussel, Paleis voor schone kunsten, Fantastic Photography in Europe.

1978 (g) Vilnis (Rusland), Lithuanian Photographic Art Society, Fantastic photography in Europe.

1978 (g) Kassel, Gesamthochschule, Fantastic photography in Europe.

1978 (g) Chalon-sur-Saone, Maison de la Culture.

1978 (g) Stockholm, Moderna Fotografiska Museet.

1978 (e) Saskatoon, The Photographers Gallery.

1978 (e) Seattle, Photographie Gallery.

1978 (e) Zürich, Nikon Photo Gallery.

1978 (e) Genève, Galerie Jesus Moreno.

1978 (e) Antwerpen, Galerij Paule Pia.

1978 (e) Berlin, Trockenpresse.

1978 (e) Basel, Photo Art.

1979 (g) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery, jubileumtentoonstelling.

1979 (g) Apeldoorn, Gemeentelijke van Reekumgalerij, Beelden van de eigen werkelijkheid.

1979 (g) Rotterdam, Kunstzaal Zuid, CRM-fotoaankopen.

1979 (g) Schiedam, Stedelijk Museum, Aspecten hedendaagse fotografie 1979 (g) Den Bosch, Het Kruithuis, Fotofacetten.

1980 (g) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery, Het Portret.

1980 (g) Lisse, Qbus, Het Portret.

1980 (g) Parijs, Centre Georges Pompidou, Instantanés.

1980 (g) Grenoble, Grenoble Musée, Instantanés.

1981 (g) Bordeaux CAPC, Instantanés.

1981 (e) Eindhoven, Galerie Pennings.

1981 (g) Saint-Ëtienne, Saint-Étienne Musée, Instantanés.

1981 (g) Rennes, Instantanés.

1981 (g) La Charite-sur-Loire, La Charitesur- Loire Musée, Instantanés.

1981 (g) Nevers, Maison de la culture, Instantanés.

1981 (g) Milaan, Galeria il diaframma, La nuova fotografia Olandesa.

1981 (g) Parijs, Centre Georges Pompidou, Autoportraits photographiques i8g8-ig8i.

1981 (g) Cholet, IV Quinzaine de la photographie Cholet.

1981 (g) Zürich, Nikon Photo Gallery.

1981 (e) Melbourne, The Photographers Gallery.

1982 (g) Arles, Salie des fêtes, Vingt et un photographes européens en 1982.

1982 (g) New York, KLM Plaza, In my view, 30 dutch photographers.

1982 (g) Genève, Canon Photo Gallery, La nouvelle photographie Hollandaise.

1982 (g) Antwerpen, Galerij Paule Pia, Polaroid.

1982 (g) Yokohama, Museum of Modern Art, New European photography.

1982 (g) Ljubljana, Art Pavilion Rihard Jakopic, Junij 82.

1982 (g) Skopje, Museum of Contemporary Art, Junij 82.

1982 (e) Amsterdam, Canon Photo Gallery.

1982 (g) Apeldoorn, Van Reekummuseum, Zomeropstelling.

1982 (e) Hoensbroek, Galerie 68.

1982 (e) Enschede, Galerie Beeld en aambeeld.

1983 (g) Belgrado, Art Pavilion Cvijeta Zuzoric, Junij 82.

1983 (e) Diepenbeek (B), Galerie ‘t Pepertje.

1983 (e) Apeldoorn, Van Reekummuseum.

1983 (e) Breda, De Beyerd.

1983 (e) Den Haag, Kijkhuis.

1983 (e) Keulen, Galerie Imago.

1983 (g) Evora, (Portugal) Portugal.

1983 (g) Lissabon, (Portugal) Portugal.

1983 (g) Oporto, (Portugal) Portugal.

1983 (g) Nijmegen, Commanderie van Sint Jan, Zien en gezien worden, Fotografische zelfbespiegeling in Nederland van ca. 1840 tot heden.

1983 (g) Tilburg, Nederlands Textielmuseum, In-gewikkeld, textielvormgeving rond het thema verpakken..

1983 (g) Eindhoven, Hemelrijken.

1984 (g) Maastricht, Kunstcentrum Limburg.

1984 (g) Hasselt, Provinciaal Museum, Images Fabriquées.

1984 (g) Enschede, Galerie Beeld en Aambeeld, Fotobiënnale Enschede.

1984 (e) Eindhoven, kunstenaarscentrum De Fabriek, Verbindingen/ Verbindungen (met H.J. Hölzer).

1984 (g) Parijs, Centre Georges Pompidou, Images Fabriquéés.

1985 (e) Keulen, Galerie Imago, Paul de Nooijer Fotoarbeiten.

1985 (e) Gent, XYZ Fotografie.

1985 (e) Neerpelt, Dommelhof, Foto’s en films van Paul de Nooijer.


1972 Moving stills (i.s.m. Frans Zwartjes).

1973 Alone eight.

1974 Mirror.

1975 The Pie.

1975 Say Goodbye.

1976 Transformation.

1976 Extra Ball.

1976 Review.

1977 Tarzan & Jane.

1978 How to make.

1981 Touring Holland by bicycle (i.s.m. Jerry Musser).

1981 Tarting over.

1981 The third t(h)est (i.s.m. Jerry Musser).

1981 Tilburg teachers trilogy (i.s.m. Jerry Musser).

1982 Black and white bathroom (i.s.m. Jerry Musser).

1982 Window painting (i.s.m. Jerry Musser).

1982 The shadow and the substance.

1982 Three months later.

1982 Marion Herbst.

1982 Face Race (i.s.m. Jerry Musser).

1983 The human brewery Victor Notermans.

1984 N.E.W.S. (videoclip).

1984 Something heavy (videoclip).

1985 Works-La casa Ie statua et Ie manie.

1982-’85 The shadow and the substance II.


1968 Eindhoven, Gemeentelijke aanmoedigingsprijs.

1974 Royan, Grand prix International de la Recherche Photographique.

1975 Fribourg, Ie Triënnale Internationale de la Photographie, Prix Special du Jury (‘Diaphragma Bronze’).

1975-1977 Stipendia van CRM.

1978 Hyeres, Mention speciale du jury cinema different, Festival international du jeune cinéma.

1979 Oberhausen, Hauptpreis Westdeutsche Kurzfilmtage.

1982 Ljubljana, diploma „For a succesfilm experiment”, festival of sports and tourist films.


Paul en Françoise de Nooijer, documentatie en mondelinge informatie.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet, bibliotheek en documentatiebestand.


Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum.

Apeldoorn, Gemeentelijk Van Reekummuseum.

Den Haag, Rijksdienst Beeldende Kunst.

Eindhoven, Stedelijk van Abbemuseum.

Fribourg, Musée d’Art et d’Histoire.

Leiden, Prentenkabinet van de Rijksuniversiteit.

Parijs, Bibliothèque Nationale.

Parijs, Centre Georges Pompidou.

Polaroid, Europa.

Stockholm, Fotografiska Museet.

Yokohama, Museum of Modern Art.